El hacha de batalla

El hacha de batalla

El hacha de guerra fue el arma principal utilizada por los empleados domésticos del rey Harold en la Batalla de Hastings. Un hacha de guerra se usaba en la lucha cuerpo a cuerpo o se podía lanzar como un misil. El mango de madera puede medir hasta 150 cm (5 pies). La hoja en forma de media luna medía unos 25 cm (10 pulgadas) entre los puntos superior e inferior de su ancho filo. Hecho de acero, el hacha de batalla era capaz de cortar una extremidad o una cabeza de un solo golpe. Durante el combate, el hacha generalmente se manejaba con ambas manos, por lo que el guerrero no podía llevar un escudo para protegerse contra el enemigo.


El hacha de batalla - Historia

The Augustan, vol. XI, No 2, marzo-abril de 1968.

CONTINUIDAD DE CARGOS EN LOS BRAZOS DE UN CLAN ANTIGUO

Por el Capitán R. Mingo Sweeney
Illus. por el Rev. Dom William W. Bayne, OSB, FAS

Suibhne se ha traducido en muchas variaciones, es decir, Sween, MacSween, MacQueen, MacEwen en Scotlapd y Swiney, MacSwiney, Mac Sweeney, MacSwyny, MacSweyne y otros en Irlanda. Además, los escudos de armas de los Septs y Chieftain de este Clan se alteraron considerablemente a lo largo de los siglos, manteniendo, sin embargo, las cargas básicas de jabalí y hacha de batalla.

Las armas originales e indiferenciadas no están verificadas históricamente, aunque Burke las ha blasonado en su Armería General como Or (o argent) tres jabalíes passant sable. Los Señores de Knapdale utilizaron un sello en el siglo XIII, pero no existe una copia de este.

Las primeras armas registradas oficialmente fueron llevadas por un tal Murragh Mac Sweeney, cuya entrada en los Anales de los Cuatro Maestros dice:
Murragh Mac Sweeney fue hecho prisionero en Umailia por Donnell, hijo de Manus O'Conor, quien lo entregó al conde (de Burgh, conde de Ulster) en cuya prisión murió.
Esto está fechado en La Edad de Cristo en 1267. Sus brazos están registrados de la siguiente manera: Mac Sweeney (Co. Donegal). Moragh Mac Sweeney, Cacique 1267, Oficina Reg. De Ulster. Argenta un león en jefe y un jabalí en la base ambos pasan. gules.

Esta carga de león es inusual y se repite como veremos en los brazos que lleva el Rt. Hon. Peter Paul MacSwiney, alcalde de Dublín, quien utilizó este escudo como base para el diseño de su beca. Este Morrogh tenía una historia colorida, y los anales de la familia lo mencionan como "campeón del Rey de Escocia", lo que podría explicar al león "rubicundo".

De otra rama de este Clan, un tal John de Sweyne era Capitán de la Flota de Cinque Ports de Eduardo I, y su padre tenía estrechas conexiones con Durham, de donde los Balliols y Comyn tenían tierras. John también figura como poseedor de tierras allí, y muchos años después, durante una Visitación de William Flowery, Norroy King of Arms (1575), se registró un monumento con las siguientes armas:
SWYNE: Argenta un jabalí sable erizado o. (Tenga en cuenta que esto es prácticamente idéntico a Morrogh, sin el león en jefe).

Después de la batalla de Bannockburn (1314), el jefe y la línea superior de la familia se establecieron en el castillo de Rathmullan en Tyreconnell (actual Donegal). Los brazos de este Jefe están registrados en el Castillo de Dublín como: O, un fess vert cargado con un reptil argent entre tres jabalíes passant sable. Se puede notar la similitud entre estos brazos y los mencionados anteriormente por Burke como los brazos "indiferenciados". Es interesante la adición del pez verde y el reptil blanco. Mi único pensamiento sobre esto es que estos Señores de Fanad introdujeron a los Carmelitas en Donegal y construyeron un Priorato para ellos en Rathmullan. Según recuerdo, uno de los símbolos de la Virgen María es un camaleón blanco. ¿Podría esto ser relevante?

La cresta de la línea superior comprendía la del Clan Neil, un brazo con armadura embebido sosteniendo un hacha de batalla propiamente dicha. Esto también parece extraño, excepto por la tradición de que el Clan Sween desciende del Clan Neil. Sin embargo, en Irlanda apoyaron a los O'Donnell, durante mucho tiempo los enemigos acérrimos de los O'Neil.

Dos septos cadetes de la casa principal se extendieron rápidamente a otras partes del principado de O'Donnell: el de na d'Tuath (o na Doe, como lo tradujeron los ingleses) en el castillo de Doe cerca de Creeslough y la sucursal de Banagh en el castillo de Rathain en la costa occidental. . Estos dos septos adoptaron escudos de diseño similar, aunque con diferentes tinturas:

Na d'Tuatha: Azure, dos jabalíes combatientes desenfrenados o, en jefe, dos hachas de batalla en saltire del segundo.

Banagh: O, dos jabalíes rampantes combattant sable, en un jefe de la segunda dos hachas de batalla en saltire de la primera.

La cresta del primero es un semi-grifo o, sosteniendo en su garra dexter un reptil vert. La cresta de este último es un jabalí passant sable.

Es difícil saber por qué estas dos Casas cambiaron el diseño, excepto que Mac Sweeney se hizo conocido como "el Clan del Hacha de Batalla", y es posible que quisieran que esta carga figurara de manera más prominente en sus escudos. La designación se debió a dos causas: El hacha de batalla era la "herramienta de su oficio" del clan como guerreros galloglass (ver "The Galloglass" del autor, The Augustan, X, vi, 261) y la designación na d'Tuatha era la distritos) se confundía fácilmente con na d'Tuatha (del distrito) se confundía fácilmente con na d'Tua (del hacha de guerra) Otro pensamiento es que un cacique de na Tuatha fue nombrado caballero durante el reinado de la reina Isabel I, y este diseño alterado puede haber sido instituido en ese momento.

Una rama de la Casa de Tuatha se dirigió al sur, donde se convirtieron en altos agentes del McCarthy Mr de Desmond, la rama más prominente centrada en el castillo de Mashanaglass. Esta rama ha continuado una versión diferenciada de las armas de Tuatha: Per Pale gules y azul, cada uno cargado con un contraarmiño combatiente de jabalí desenfrenado en un jefe o dos hachas de batalla en saltire argent. La cresta es un demi-grifo o cargada con una flor de lis sable sosteniendo en su garra dexter un reptil vert.

Es obvio que la tintura del jefe viola las leyes de la heráldica. Como representante de esta línea se creó un marqués romano hereditario, y los colores del Vaticano también violan la misma regla (como lo hizo el Reino de Jerusalén), se podría buscar alguna razón para ello.

Se ha hecho mención previa a Peter Paul MacSwiney, el alcalde de Dublín. Sus brazos estaban obviamente basados ​​en los del antiguo Morrough, y son Argent, un azul fess cargado con dos hachas de batalla en saltire O entre en jefe un león de gules pasante, y en la base un jabalí pasante sable. Aquí ha traído todos los cargos conocidos por la familia, excepto el reptil, que incluye en la cresta: un demi-grifo o, sosteniendo en su garra dexter, un reptil vert. Luego, para asegurarse de que cargó contra el grifo con hachas de batalla cruzadas de marta.

Una rama de la Casa de Banagh se convirtió en altos agentes del O'Conor Don y de los mayordomos, condes de Ormonde. De esta última desciende la rama armígera que se asentó en la Isla del Príncipe Eduardo, hoy Provincia de Canadá. Sus brazos siguen la tintura de la casa mayor de Fanad, aunque el doble vert ha sido reemplazado por dos flaunches vert cargados con coronas antiguas que representan los antiguos reinos gaélicos de Irlanda y Escocia. Para una cresta usan un grifo vert, sosteniendo un hacha de batalla (de los brazos de Fanad nuevamente) y el reptil ha desaparecido. Estos brazos pueden ser blasonados O, tres jabalíes en pálido y pasajero sable langued supongo, entre dos

Por lo tanto, las armas cambian a lo largo de los siglos incluso en la misma familia, pero siguen siendo lo suficientemente similares como para rastrear su desarrollo. Algunas de las razones dadas aquí se basan en las leyes de la probabilidad y otras hipótesis serían bienvenidas.

La descripción de los brazos ilustrados en este documento es la siguiente:


Sween de Knapdale: O, tres jabalíes passant sable.


Mac Sweeney Fanad: O, en un fess vert entre tres jabalíes passant sable, un lagarto argent.


Mac Sweeney Banagh: (Tuath) O, dos jabalíes rampantes combattant sable, en un jefe de la segunda dos hachas de batalla en saltire de la primera.


Moragh M r Mac Sweeney (1267): Argent, un león en jefe y un jabalí en la base ambos passantgules.


Mac Sweeney na d'Tuatha (también Capitán Daniel Gorm Mac Sweeney de Donegal, 1638): Azure, dos jabalíes combatientes desenfrenados o, en jefe, dos hachas de batalla en saltire del último (o).
Cresta: un demi-grifo desenfrenado o sosteniendo en la garra un lagarto propiamente dicho.

MacSwiney de Mashanaglass: Por azul pálido y gules cargados con dos jabalíes contra-armiño, combatiente desenfrenado en un jefe o dos hachas de batalla en plata saltire.


Cresta (derecha): un demi-grifo desenfrenado o sosteniendo en su garra dexter un lagarto propiamente dicho, y cargado con una flor de lis sable. Rematado por una corona de un marqués.


Peter Paul MacSwiney: Argenta sobre un fess azul entre en jefe un león pasante de gules y en base un jabalí pasante sable, dos hachas en saltire o.
Cresta: Un segreante demi-grifo o, sosteniendo un lagarto propiamente dicho, y cargado en el pecho con dos hachas de batalla en sable sable. Lema:. Tuagha tulaig abu.


Sweeney of Bolger's Park Canada: O, tres jabalíes sable, de gules langostinos, en pasante pálido entre dos flaunches vert cada uno cargado con una corona antigua del primero.
Cresta: Un vert demi-grifo que sostiene en su garra dexter un hacha de batalla propiamente dicha. Lema: Clann na d'Tua Abu.


Los brazos ilustrados para el obispo de Kilmore (arriba) y el arzobispo de Toronto (abajo) son los de sus respectivas diócesis.


El obispo Sweeney de St. John eligió como escudo un retrato de la Virgen, con un halo de varias estrellas. (debajo)


Brazos del Capitán Richard Patrick Fortier Mingo Sweeney, C.E.M., K.L.j., F.R.S.A., F.R.C.S., etc .:

Trimestral, 1 y 4: O, tres verracos passant en paté sable langued gules entre dos flaunches vert, cada uno cargado con una corona antigua del lst, dentro de un borduregules 2 y 3, trimestral 1 y 4, Argent, seis estoilles gules 2 y 3, de gules, un león rampante o (para Mingo).

Cresta: Un vert demi-grifo que sostiene en su garra dexter un hacha de batalla propiamente dicha.


Contenido

Orígenes Editar

La cultura del hacha de batalla surgió en el sur de la península escandinava alrededor del 2800 a. C. Era una rama de la cultura de la cerámica cordada, que en sí misma era en gran parte una rama de la cultura Yamnaya de la estepa póntica-caspia. Los estudios genéticos modernos muestran que su aparición estuvo acompañada de migraciones y desplazamientos genéticos a gran escala. La cultura Battle Axe absorbió inicialmente la cultura agrícola Funnelbeaker. [1]

Distribución Editar

La concentración de la cultura Battle Axe estaba en Scania. Se han encontrado sitios de la cultura Battle Ax en las áreas costeras del sur de Escandinavia y el suroeste de Finlandia. [2] Sin embargo, la costa inmediata estaba ocupada por la cultura Pitted Ware. [2] Hacia el 2300 a. C., la cultura del hacha de guerra había absorbido la cultura Pitted Ware.

A lo largo de su existencia, la cultura Battle Axe parece haberse expandido a la costa de Noruega, acompañada de cambios culturales dramáticos. [2] Einar Østmo informa sobre sitios de la cultura del Hacha de Batalla dentro del Círculo Polar Ártico noruego en Lofoten, y tan al norte como la actual ciudad de Tromsø. [3]

Sucesores Editar

La cultura del hacha de batalla terminó alrededor del 2300 a. C. Finalmente fue sucedido por la Edad del Bronce Nórdica, que parece ser una fusión de elementos de la cultura Battle Axe y la cultura Pitted Ware. [4]

Entierros Editar

La cultura Battle Axe es principalmente conocida por sus entierros. Se han encontrado alrededor de 250 entierros de Battle Axe en Suecia. Son bastante diferentes de los que se encuentran en la cultura Single Grave de Dinamarca. [2]

En la cultura Battle Axe, los difuntos solían ser colocados en una sola tumba plana sin túmulos. Las tumbas estaban típicamente orientadas de norte a sur, con el cuerpo en una posición flexionada mirando hacia el este. Los hombres se colocaron en el lado izquierdo, mientras que las mujeres se colocaron en el derecho. Tanto en el objeto como en la ubicación, el ajuar funerario está bastante estandarizado. Las hachas de pedernal se encuentran tanto en entierros masculinos como femeninos. Las hachas de batalla se colocan con los machos cerca de la cabeza. [2] Estos ejes de batalla parecen haber sido símbolos de estatus, y es de ellos que se nombra la cultura. Se han encontrado alrededor de 3000 hachas de batalla, en sitios distribuidos por toda Escandinavia, pero son escasas en Norrland y el norte de Noruega. [ cita necesaria ] Las hachas de pedernal pulidas de la cultura Battle Axe y la cultura Pitted Ware tienen un origen común en el suroeste de Scania y Dinamarca. Las cerámicas Corded Ware también eran ajuares comunes en los entierros de Battle Axe. Por lo general, se colocaban cerca de la cabeza o los pies. Otros bienes funerarios incluyen puntas de flecha, armas de asta, cuentas de ámbar y hachas y cinceles de pedernal pulido. Los restos de fauna de los entierros incluyen ciervos, ovejas y cabras. [2]

Se dio un nuevo aspecto a la cultura del hacha de batalla en 1993, cuando un casa de la muerte en Turinge, en Södermanland. A lo largo de los muros una vez densamente entramados se encontraron los restos de una veintena de vasijas de barro, seis hachas de trabajo y un hacha de batalla, todos provenientes del último período de la cultura. También estaban los restos incinerados de al menos seis personas. Es el primer hallazgo de cremación en Escandinavia y muestra estrechos contactos con Europa Central. [ cita necesaria ]

Asentamientos Editar

Se han descubierto pocos asentamientos de la cultura Battle Axe. La mayoría de ellos están ubicados tierra adentro, pero algunos están ubicados en áreas costeras. Los asentamientos de la cultura Battle Axe, sin embargo, no están ubicados directamente en la costa, que estaba ocupada por la cultura Pitted Ware. [2] Se conocen menos de 100 asentamientos, y sus restos son insignificantes, ya que están ubicados en tierras agrícolas de uso continuo y, en consecuencia, han sido arados.

Los restos arqueológicos del sur de Suecia revelan estrechas relaciones espaciales entre casas y tumbas, lo que indica que las granjas eran fundamentales para la actividad social y económica en la cultura Battle Axe. [2]

Cerámica Editar

La cerámica de Battle Axe se ha encontrado con frecuencia en los asentamientos Pitted Ware. Algunos asentamientos incluso exhiben fusiones de los estilos de cerámica de la cultura Battle Axe y la cultura Pitted Ware. La relación entre las dos culturas es controvertida y no se comprende bien. [2]

Cultura Editar

El sistema social de la cultura Battle Axe era marcadamente diferente al de la cultura Funnelbeaker, demostrado por el hecho de que la cultura Funnelbeaker tenía tumbas megalíticas colectivas, cada una con numerosos sacrificios, mientras que la cultura Battle Ax tenía tumbas individuales, con un solo sacrificio cada una. . El individualismo parece haber jugado un papel mucho más prominente en la cultura del Hacha de Batalla que entre sus predecesores. [2] [5]

Economía Editar

La cultura Battle Axe se basó en las mismas prácticas agrícolas que la cultura Funnelbeaker anterior. [ cita necesaria ] La cultura Battle Axe parece haber enfatizado el pastoreo de ganado, lo que explica la aparente naturaleza móvil de la cultura. [2] También parecen haberse involucrado en el comercio con las poblaciones del norte, intercambiando productos animales por bienes materiales. [6]

Einar Østmo enfatiza que las regiones costeras del Atlántico y del Mar del Norte de Escandinavia, y las áreas circun-bálticas [7] estaban unidas por una vigorosa economía marítima, lo que permitía una extensión geográfica mucho más amplia y una unidad cultural más cercana que las culturas continentales del interior. Señala el número de grabados rupestres de amplia difusión asignados a la época, que muestran "miles" de barcos. Para estas culturas marineras, el mar es una carretera y no un divisor. [3]

Se cree que la cultura del hacha de batalla trajo las lenguas indoeuropeas y la cultura indoeuropea al sur de Escandinavia. La fusión de la cultura del Hacha de Batalla con las culturas nativas agrícolas y de cazadores-recolectores de la región dio lugar a la Edad del Bronce Nórdica, que se considera la civilización ancestral de los pueblos germánicos. [8]

El tipo físico de la gente de Battle Axe era diferente del tipo físico de la gente de Funnelbeaker precedente del sur de Escandinavia. [9]

Un estudio genético publicado en Naturaleza en junio de 2015 examinó los restos de un macho Battle Axe enterrado en Viby, Suecia ca. 2621-2472 AC. [10] [11] Se descubrió que era portador del haplogrupo paterno R1a1a1 y del haplogrupo materno K1a2a. [11] Se descubrió que las personas de las culturas escandinava del Neolítico tardío y la Edad del Bronce eran personas muy relacionadas de la cultura Corded Ware, la cultura Bell Beaker y la cultura Unetice, todos los cuales compartían afinidad genética con la cultura Yamnaya. La cultura Sintashta y la cultura Andronovo de Asia Central también mostraron estrechas relaciones genéticas con la cultura Corded Ware. [12]

Un estudio genético publicado en Comunicaciones de la naturaleza en enero de 2018 examinó a un macho enterrado en Ölsund en el norte de Suecia ca. 2570–2140. Aunque enterrado sin artefactos, fue encontrado cerca de un sitio arqueológico que contenía artefactos tanto de cazadores-recolectores como de objetos cordados. [13] Se descubrió que era portador del haplogrupo paterno R1a1a1b y del haplogrupo materno U4c2a. [14] Se descubrió que era genéticamente similar a los pueblos de la cultura Battle Axe, con una gran cantidad de ascendencia relacionada con las estepas. [15] [16] También se encontró que el haplogrupo paterno R1a1a1b era el linaje predominante entre los varones Corded Ware y Edad del Bronce del Báltico oriental. [14]

Un estudio genético publicado en Actas de la Royal Society B examinó los restos de 2 individuos de Battle Axe enterrados en Bergsgraven, en el centro de Suecia. El macho portaba el haplogrupo paterno R1a-Z283 y el haplogrupo materno U4c1a, mientras que la hembra portaba el haplogrupo materno N1a1a1a1. [17] El haplogrupo R1a es el haplogrupo paterno más común entre los machos de otras culturas del horizonte de Corded Ware, y se ha encontrado anteriormente entre los Cazadores-Recolectores del Este (EHG). Curiosamente, la cultura Yamnaya, por otro lado, está dominada por el haplogrupo paterno R1b. [18] Se descubrió que los dos individuos de Battle Axe examinados estaban estrechamente relacionados con pueblos de otras partes del horizonte de Corded Ware. En su mayoría eran descendientes de Western Steppe Herder (WSH), aunque con una ligera mezcla de Western Hunter-Gatherer (WHG) y Early European Farmer (EEF). La mezcla parece haber ocurrido a través del apareamiento de machos WSH con hembras EEF y WHG. La ascendencia de los individuos de Battle Axe era marcadamente diferente de la de las poblaciones neolíticas anteriores, lo que sugiere una estratificación entre los grupos culturales. La ascendencia de WSH no se ha detectado entre las poblaciones anteriores del área. Los resultados respaldaron aún más la idea de que la cultura Battle Axe surgió como resultado de las migraciones desde el sureste del Báltico. [19] El estudio también examinó a una hembra enterrada en un megalito Funnelbeaker en Öllsjö, Suecia c. 2860-2500 a. C., durante el cual el área fue parte de la cultura del Hacha de Batalla. Ella portaba el haplogrupo materno H6a1b3, [20] y se encontró que estaba estrechamente relacionada genéticamente con otras personas de la cultura Battle Axe. [21] Dos individuos enterrados en el mismo megalito durante el Neolítico tardío también estaban estrechamente relacionados con los pueblos de la cultura Corded Ware. [21]

Malmström y col. (2020) examinaron individuos de la cultura Pitted Ware de Gotland. Varios de sus entierros contenían artefactos típicos de Battle Axe. Sin embargo, ninguno de estos individuos albergaba ninguna mezcla de la cultura Battle Axe, lo que sugiere que los pueblos de las dos culturas interactuaban sin cruzarse. [22] Se descubrió que los europeos del norte modernos todavía estaban estrechamente relacionados genéticamente con las personas de la cultura Battle Axe. [23]


3. Cota de malla

Crédito: DeAgostini / Getty Images

A veces se sabía que las tribus bárbaras se lanzaban a la batalla completamente desnudas para intimidar a sus enemigos, pero también poseían una amplia gama de escudos y armaduras. Entre las más efectivas se encontraba la cota de malla, que pudo haber sido inventada en Europa por los celtas galos en el siglo III a. C. La mayor parte del correo galo tomó la forma de una camisa de manga corta o un chaleco hecho de una malla entrelazada de pequeños anillos metálicos. Esto proporcionó flexibilidad al mismo tiempo que protegía al usuario de los golpes cortantes con espadas y dagas, que simplemente rebotarían en su dura superficie exterior. La cota de malla requirió mucho trabajo para fabricar & # x2014un solo chaleco podría incluir decenas de miles de anillos & # x2014, por lo que tendía a ser usado por jefes y aristócratas bárbaros en lugar de soldados de base. Sin embargo, su efectividad en el combate lo hizo muy apreciado entre los romanos, quienes finalmente adoptaron una camisa de malla similar conocida como & # x201Clorica hamata & # x201D para sus legiones.


Hacha mala, batalla de

Esta pintura de paisaje de Samuel Marsden Brookes y Thomas H. Stevenson representa una vista amplia de la confluencia de los ríos Bad Axe y Mississippi en el lugar de la batalla final de la Guerra Black Hawk de 1832. Ver el documento fuente original: WHI 2531

La batalla de Bad Axe el 1 y 2 de agosto de 1832 fue la batalla final de la Guerra del Halcón Negro.

Después de detener a los perseguidores en la Batalla de Wisconsin Heights (ubicada aproximadamente a 1.5 millas al sur de la actual ciudad de Sauk, Wisconsin), el Jefe Black Hawk condujo a su gente por un país desconocido y accidentado hacia el río Mississippi. Mientras tanto, el Ejército de Estados Unidos alertó a las autoridades en Fort Crawford en Prairie du Chien.

El jefe Black Hawk y sus seguidores de Sauk, ahora reducidos a unos 400 hombres, mujeres y niños hambrientos, llegaron al Mississippi en la desembocadura del río Bad Axe el 1 de agosto. Inmediatamente se pusieron a trabajar haciendo balsas y canoas. Aproximadamente 1.300 infantes y milicias estadounidenses estaban a solo un día de viaje y tenían que cruzar ahora o quedar atrapados en las orillas del río.

En ese momento llegó el vapor "Guerrero". Black Hawk hizo su tercer intento honesto de rendirse [el primero fue en Stillman's Run y ​​el segundo después de la Batalla de Wisconsin Heights]. La tripulación y los soldados del barco de vapor sospecharon que era un truco, y abrieron fuego, matando a 25 de los guerreros de Black Hawk y costándoles un tiempo valioso.

Cuando cayó la noche sobre la banda desesperada, estaban divididos sobre qué hacer a continuación. La mayoría quería cruzar el Mississippi lo antes posible, pero Black Hawk y Waubakeeshik querían avanzar hacia el norte a pie y refugiarse entre Ho-Chunk y Ojibwe.

A pesar de su deseo de estar al lado de su banda en Bad Axe, al final Black Hawk, Wabokieshiek y sus familias escaparon al norte a pie y se escondieron cerca de la moderna Tomah, Wisconsin. Permanecieron allí hasta que los descubrió un cazador de Ho-Chunk que los ayudó a rendirse a los blancos días después de la masacre de Bad Axe.

Temprano el 2 de agosto, los Sauk restantes intentaron cruzar el río Mississippi. Las tropas estadounidenses, que habían llegado a los acantilados durante la noche, los atacaron por detrás. El barco de vapor "Guerrero" regresó a la escena alrededor de las 10:00 a.m., disparando su cañón. Los guerreros y los no combatientes casi muertos de hambre - hombres, mujeres y niños - fueron masacrados indiscriminadamente en la orilla, en los humedales y mientras intentaban nadar o navegar en canoa por el Mississippi. La mayoría de los pocos que lograron cruzar fueron perseguidos y asesinados por guerreros sioux que actuaban a pedido de los oficiales estadounidenses.


Historia / información de la marca Battle Axe

Me gustaría saber más sobre la historia y los productos de la marca Battle Axe. Por lo poco que sé, hay conexiones con los nombres JW Hickey & amp Sons, Hickey & amp Shouse y Souse & amp Hardin que están estampados en algunos de los cuchillos. También hay una antigua "Battle Axe Cutlery Co." en la mezcla. Hasta ahora he encontrado muy poca mención de alguno de estos, pero he adquirido un par de cuchillos y parecen ser de muy buena calidad y diseño. Si puedes agregar a mis conocimientos, te lo agradecería.

Respuestas a esta discusión

Jim: eran dos empresas diferentes, la antigua Battle Axe Cutlery co. fueron hechos para o por A.R. Justice, (Alfred Rudolph Justice), un mayorista de hardware de Filadelfia alrededor de 1877-1937, que se dedicó a la cubertería y el plateado. Puede encontrar ejemplos de navajas de bolsillo y vajillas suyas con el sello Battle Axe.

La marca Battle Axe más reciente, alrededor de 1975-1990, fue utilizada por un grupo de hombres cuya especialidad era la importación y venta de cuchillos conmemorativos de buena calidad y algunos cuchillos de producción. Estos eran cuchillos de edición limitada de lotes pequeños y generalmente serializados. Ellos idearían el diseño y una fábrica en Solingen, Alemania los fabricó. Se cree que fueron fabricados por la fábrica de Frederich Olbertz en Solingen. Los cuchillos usaban acero al carbono 1095 y materiales de mango de buena calidad.

Aparentemente, diferentes miembros del grupo diseñaron y compraron diferentes cuchillos, de ahí las diferentes colaboraciones de nombres en los cuchillos.

J.W. Hickey de Winston-Salem NC, Tommy Shouse de Winston-Salem y George Smith de Hardin Wholesale, quien más tarde se convirtió en socio de Blue Grass Cutlery.

Gracias por la respuesta. Gracias a ti sé más hoy de lo que supe ayer

En este período de tiempo (1975-1990) parece que hubo mucho trabajo creativo en el mundo de la cuchillería. Bulldog y Fight'n Rooster producían artículos de alta calidad, excelente diseño y que se vendían en tiradas cortas.

Battle Axe estaba haciendo lo mismo pero no son tan conocidos. Dado que su historia es reciente y es posible que algunos de los principales jugadores todavía estén presentes, es posible que algún día esperemos tener una historia y / o un catálogo.

Jim: Eran 2 empresas diferentes. La antigua Battle Axe Cutlery co. fueron hechos para o por A.R. Justice, (Alfred Rudolph Justice), un mayorista de hardware de Filadelfia alrededor de 1877-1937, que se dedicó a la cubertería y el plateado. Puede encontrar ejemplos de navajas de bolsillo y vajillas suyas con el sello Battle Axe.

La marca Battle Axe más reciente, alrededor de 1975-1990, fue utilizada por un grupo de hombres cuya especialidad era la importación y venta de cuchillos conmemorativos de buena calidad y algunos cuchillos de producción. Estos eran cuchillos de edición limitada de lotes pequeños y generalmente serializados. Ellos idearían el diseño y una fábrica en Solingen, Alemania, los fabricó. Se cree que fueron fabricados por la fábrica de Frederich Olbertz en Solingen. Los cuchillos usaban acero al carbono 1095 y materiales de mango de buena calidad.

Aparentemente, diferentes miembros del grupo diseñaron y compraron diferentes cuchillos, de ahí las diferentes colaboraciones de nombres en los cuchillos.

J.W. Hickey de Winston-Salem NC, Tommy Shouse de Winston-Salem y George Smith de Hardin Wholesale, quien más tarde se convirtió en socio de Blue Grass Cutlery.

Jim-Funny, deberías mencionar Bulldog y Fight'n Rooster- He leído (no confirmado) que las tres marcas se produjeron en la misma fábrica en Solingen. Bernard Levine pensó que Frederich Olbertz hizo Battle Axe, así que quizás hicieron las 3 marcas. Sterling Buster es miembro de IKC y probablemente pueda confirmar el aspecto de Fight'n Rooster. Buzz Parker probablemente podría confirmar la historia de Bulldog Brand.


El destino siempre cambiante de la vieja Europa

El tiempo es despiadado cuando se cuestiona la historia. Es fácil escribir sobre la desaparición de una cultura y el surgimiento de otra. Pero para los pueblos de esa época lejana, las cosas eran diferentes. Estos fueron procesos que tardaron cientos de años en completarse, y los pueblos primitivos más débiles a menudo se enfrentaban a la desaparición y la asimilación, lo que nunca es algo agradable. Pero esa era la forma de vida en la antigüedad, que se caracterizaba por migraciones masivas de pueblos tecnológicamente avanzados, cuyas innovaciones y habilidades a menudo traían un cambio abrupto y dramático en la vida de culturas que se habían desarrollado pacíficamente durante cientos de años. Y así fue como la rápida expansión de los indoeuropeos trajo un cambio imparable para la vieja Europa. Las culturas neolíticas originales tuvieron que fusionarse con los invasores, intentar resistir o desaparecer por completo. Y así el futuro se forjó y cimentó, un siglo a la vez.

Imagen de Portada: Se sabe poco sobre la cultura del Hacha de Batalla de la Edad Neolítica, pero los arqueólogos y académicos continúan aplicando nuevas tecnologías para reconstruir una imagen más completa. (Imagen, Hachas de piedra en el Museo de Historia Local de Turov). Fuente: Grigory Bruev


El hacha de batalla - Historia

Por William McPeak

El hacha con mango existe desde el 6000 a. C., tanto en usos pacíficos como bélicos. Las denominadas culturas del hacha de guerra (3200 a 1800 a. C.) se extendieron por gran parte del norte de Europa desde finales de la Edad de Piedra hasta principios de la Edad del Bronce. Las primeras cabezas de hacha estaban hechas de piedra y se usaba a mano un mango de madera conocido como mango que facilitaba el manejo del hacha. Las técnicas de sujeción de la manija incluyeron acuñar, rebordear, aletear y encajar. El engarzado requería que se perforara el mango con un agujero para encajar una piedra con forma a través del mango o encima de él. Se usaron muchos minerales pétreos para la cabeza, y el borde fue afilado en ambos lados y doblemente biselado.
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Con el descubrimiento de los metales vino el trabajo de acomodar hachas para la guerra. A partir de caras bastante contundentes en formas rectangulares, la cabeza del hacha tomó el borde frontal familiar, ligeramente convexo y se estrechó hacia el trasero desafilado. En la Edad del Hierro (1000 a. C.), la cabeza del hacha de hierro en forma de cuña era la forma estándar, perforada cerca de la culata para manipularla. Para la guerra, el hacha de batalla era más eficiente en un diseño ligero. Los ejes con doble borde delantero y trasero surgieron en algunas culturas antiguas pero, hablando de manera realista, eran demasiado pesados ​​para una eficiencia real.

La Francisca: Hacha de batalla de los francos

Pronto se desarrolló la cabeza de borde biselado simple. A diferencia de su antecesor de implementos agrícolas, el hacha de batalla estaba destinada a cortar carne, no madera. Los legionarios romanos llevaban un pico estándar con un borde corto en una cabeza de 19 pulgadas y un mango de 30 pulgadas. Hacia el siglo V, un hacha de batalla con una cabeza estrecha en forma de cuña, generalmente un arco plano o un lado superior en forma de S con un borde convexo bastante plano y biselado de aproximadamente tres pulgadas girado hacia atrás en el talón en un barrido cóncavo en la parte inferior, apareció en el norte de Europa en manos de los francos. Este hacha se llamaba francisca (de la palabra latina para Frank). Los francos formaron la confederación de Alemania occidental que se convertiría en un reino multipartito bajo los gobernantes merovingios y luego en un imperio bajo los gobernantes carolingios de los siglos VII y VIII, particularmente Carlomagno.

La francisca se utilizó tanto como arma de lanzamiento como de combate cuerpo a cuerpo. El historiador romano Procopio describió su uso como arma arrojadiza por parte de los francos: “Cada hombre llevaba una espada, un escudo y un hacha. Ahora, la cabeza de hierro de esta arma era gruesa y extremadamente afilada en ambos lados, mientras que el mango de madera era muy corto. Y siempre están acostumbrados a arrojar estas hachas a una señal en la primera carga y así romper los escudos del enemigo y matar a los hombres ". Procopio enfatizó que los francos lanzaron sus hachas inmediatamente antes del combate cuerpo a cuerpo, con el propósito de romper escudos e interrumpir la línea enemiga mientras hirían o mataban a guerreros enemigos. El peso de la cabeza y la corta longitud del mango permitieron que el hacha se lanzara con un impulso considerable a un alcance efectivo de unos 40 pies. Incluso si el borde de la hoja no golpeó el objetivo, el peso de la cabeza de hierro podría causar lesiones graves.

Otra característica de la francisca fue su tendencia a rebotar de manera impredecible al golpear el suelo debido a su peso, forma única de la cabeza, falta de equilibrio y ligera curvatura del mango, lo que dificultaba el bloqueo de los defensores. Podría rebotar en las piernas de los oponentes o contra sus escudos y a través de las filas. Los francos sacaron provecho de esto lanzando a la francisca en andanadas para confundir, intimidar y desorganizar las líneas enemigas antes o durante una carga para iniciar un combate cuerpo a cuerpo.

La francisca, después de sufrir cambios en la longitud del borde, se hizo popular entre otros pueblos germánicos como los anglosajones, y se abrió camino más al norte para convertirse en un modelo básico para los vikingos expedicionarios. The Vikings extended the francisca ax edge downward a further inch, with the underside at the heel cutting briefly back horizontally and then turning up into a deep concave arc. Called the bearded ax, the weapon would undergo changes such as sweeping into an arc at the heel of the edge. Scandinavian smiths had been working iron-edged weapons, and they usually made the ax head of iron and forged the edge into steel to make it a superior cutting face.

The Norse Battle-Ax

Another Norse style of the ninth century returned to the full arc of convex edge, tapering both the top and undersides of the head backward in a concave sweep to the haft, sometimes known as the shaved ax. This was probably the earliest broadax form and enabled a more effective sweeping cut rather than a simple chop. Although there were variations, the broadax continued to be developed from a basic one- or two-pound weapon with a haft of about 1½ feet of ash or oak. This was the common form of the European single-hand battle-ax thereafter. The Anglo-Saxon invasions of the fifth century and Viking raids from the late eighth and ninth centuries brought these early forms of the battle-ax to Britain.

By ad 1000, the Danes were popularizing a shaved ax design with as much as 12 inches of curved blade but again with the inside edges deeply concave. This was the Danish ax, with a weight of as much as four pounds and requiring a longer haft of three or four feet for both hands. In 1066, the English met the Norman invaders near Hastings with their primary professional infantry wielding a Danish battle-ax called the English long ax, which was essentially an early poleax for two-hand use.

The Ax vs Armor

The progression of improvements in edged weapons followed the improvement in armor in general. By the late 14th century, plate armor of surface-hardened steel was so resilient that steel sword points and most concussion weapons grazed off its curved surfaces. Although defined as an impact or concussion weapon, the battle-ax had an advantage over others of its class, the war hammer and the various designs of the mace and flail. The battle-ax was also an edged weapon—a powerful one. The various lengths and arcing edges of its head could inflict some massive damage when striking well. The popularity of the Danish long ax came from the force of its sweeping and cutting blows. A horseman had even better striking ability.

A Viking-made bearded ax, circa ad 1000.

Although the sword still reigned as the knightly weapon, by the 12th century a variety of single-handed battle-axes were adopted by the noble class of Europe as a horseman’s weapon. Manuscript miniature paintings of the medieval period show many a battle-ax cleaving into the helmeted head of a mounted knightly opponent. King Stephen of England took up the battle-ax after his sword was broken at the Battle of Lincoln in 1141. Richard the Lionheart was supposedly a famous wielder of the battle-ax. Thirteenth-century chroniclers made the point of noting the use of the battle-ax by the nobility. James, the second earl of Douglas of Scotland, son of the great patriot James the Black Douglas, used the battle-ax, although he perished at the Battle of Otterburn in 1388. Later, French marshal Breton Bertrand du Guesclin and his companion in arms Olivier de Clisson, future constable of France, both used the battle-ax.

By the late 14th century, the noble knight put aside the battle-ax as a backup to the sword, which had undergone improvements with more tempering and narrowing of the pointed blade. Then came surface-hardened steel. With steel armor to contend with, many returned to the usefulness of the battle-ax. By this time, a basic horseman’s ax evolved with the functional need of a longer haft to use while sitting astride a horse, where one could get the most out of it. The full convex edge and swept concave head of the broadax could be used to best advantage by performing the so-called draw cut on horseback. The draw cut was an arcing overhead stroke of the curved saber blade used by the light cavalries of Islam. The result was a deadly efficient follow-through. The forward momentum on horseback made the damage that much more efficient. The horseman’s ax had a haft of up to three feet, usually requiring two hands, and a hole bored at the butt of the haft for inserting a leather thong for carrying at the saddle and winding at the wrist.

Building a More Practical Ax

In the early 14th century, the battle-ax head was further modified—but at the opposite end. The butt of the battle-ax head was flared slightly out in a small hammer-like shape for more utility. Archers carried a short ax with a hammer-like butt to pound in and sharpen stakes for a trench palisade, and it was often preferred to carrying the usual short sword. Beginning in the late 14th century, the battle-ax began to appear adorned with butt-end alternatives similar to the war hammer to help puncture that impenetrable armor. The butt of the head was extended with a spike of up to about six inches, which was used as another puncturing option and counterbalance. A well-placed and powerful hit with the spike could puncture, but the ax’s worked steel edge could put a bigger slice in armor on its own. A further option was a vertical, four-sided spike of six inches extending above the center of the head. This rather awkward stabbing weapon was used mainly for delivering the coup de grace to a fallen opponent. Although the back spike became shorter, the vertical spike fell out of favor in comparison with battle-axes and the horseman’s ax.

A modern-day reproduction of the s-shaped francisca battle-ax.

More practical additions were at hand. By the early 14th century, some battle-ax heads appeared with short, downward extensions from the head and along the haft to further secure it. This idea was furthered by reinforcing the haft by riveting metal bands called langets, extending partially or fully down both sides of the length of the haft. The langets were a means of protecting the battle-ax head from being sheared from the haft. A more effective solution to that outcome was to put the ax head on an all-iron or steel haft. This appeared in cylindrical and polygonal forms around the middle of the 15th century. Although heavier, the all-metal ax was also efficient. For protecting the hand against glancing and sliding blows, a small metal disk guard was added at the top of the ax grip. Something smiliar in larger form regularly appeared on the two-handed poleax.

“My Kingdom for a Horse!”

At least one king favored the battle-ax to such extent as to gamble his kingdom on it. By the later 15th century, after 100 years of fighting between England and France, a civil war erupted in England between two houses of the Plantagenets and Lancastrians with a red rose symbol and the challenging Yorkists with a white rose. This was the War of the Roses. For more than 20 years, bloody battles pitting relatives against one another continued after the Yorkists effectively took power in 1461. In 1483 Richard III seized power, becoming perhaps the most reviled monarch in English history.

Revisionists, including William Shakespeare, made a concerted effort to discredit Richard. In his play Henry VI, Part 3, Shakespeare has Richard ready to do anything to grab the throne: “Or hew my way out with a bloody axe.” The ax reference is relevant for Richard because evidence showed that from youth he practiced particularly with the battle-ax—so much so that his right arm was supposedly much more muscular than his left, as was his right shoulder and back. This probably gave the impression that he was deformed—thus the hunchback tradition.

In August 1485 it all came to a head at Bosworth Field, where Richard was defeated by Henry Tudor and a large force of Welsh archers and French mercenaries. Richard had already successfully intercepted Henry’s reserve and after the first shock had entered a swirling melee. He cleaved his way with surprising speed toward the frightened Henry, who was surrounded by bodyguards, before his horse became mired in the mud and the king threw down the ax and drew his sword for better reach. He was finally surrounded by a great mass of Welsh spearmen and cut down. Richard died bravely on the battlefield, crying out: “Treason! Treason!”—not, as Shakespeare had it: “A horse! a horse! my kingdom for a horse!”

Replaced by the Sword and the Gun

Both all-metal and wooden haft battle-axes moved into the 16th century but were increasingly upstaged by more a versatile array of swords: infantry and cavalry sabers, curve-bladed short swords, and broad swords. But the all-steel battle-ax, usually without the vertical spike, did enjoy some splendor in the art of chiseled grips and engraved and etched blades for parade and ceremonial uses during the 16th and early 17th centuries. The battle-ax was still a popular secondary weapon in eastern Europe. Ornately chiseled all-steel battle-axes were popular cavalry weapons with the Ottoman Turks in the 16th century and into the 18th century in the Middle East and India. There they were called the tabar and had more curvature on the edge than Western designs. But for Europe as a whole, practicality centered on the battle-ax transformation into two-handed forms—the many pole arms and staff weapons with ax heads: poleax, Scottish lochaber ax, Russian bardiche, and various longer halberds.

Similar weapons were still a choice on 17th and 18th century battlefields, although firearms now ruled the day. In North America, trade axes with the Viking head became the new weapon of choice for Native Americans, replacing their wood and stone tomahawks. Hand-to-hand combat with the tomahawk would by necessity become a skill developed by frontiersmen during the French and Indian and Revolutionary Wars. The U.S. Navy’s boarding ax of the late 18th century looked similar to a short bearded ax, with three or more sharp teeth at the bottom back side of the edge to rake up and clear downed rigging and burned wreckage. By the 19th century, the typical broadax tool was used in camps and on battlefields by sappers and miners and at sea for onboard tasks. In modern times it has chiefly been used for engineering tasks.

Of all the impact and concussion weapons of military history, the ax remains an important tool, whether on the battlefield, in the forest, at throwing competitions, or simply in the backyard for the more peaceable pursuit of gardening.


Battle of Bad Axe

The Battle of Bad Axe was the culmination of the Black Hawk War. The Black Hawk war was a military conflict between the Sauk, Meskwaki (Fox), and the United States Military, led by General Atkinson. The conflict began in 1832 and took place in northwestern Illinois and southwestern Wisconsin. The Native Americans, led by Black Hawk, crossed the Mississippi River into Illinois. The Native Americans moved across the Mississippi in order to settle land that their tribes used to settle.

The Battle of Bad Axe, also known as the Bad Axe Massacre, was the final fight in the Black Hawk War. It was a two day encounter. The reason this battle is also known as a massacre is due to the fact that the United States Army and the steamboat Warrior slaughtered the Sauk and Fox tribes that were trying to retreat across the Mississippi River and surrender.

The Black Hawk War was fought throughout Southern Wisconsin between the Sauk and Fox Native Americans, called the British Band, and the United States Military. The fighting took place between May and August 1832. The Native Americans were led by Chief Black Hawk and the United States Military in the area was under the direction of Brigadier General Henry Atkinson. The war was caused over land dispute between the government and the Native Americans.

After losing the Battle of Wisconsin Heights on July 21, 1832, near present day Sauk City, Wisconsin, the Native Americans retreated to the west. They made it to the east bank of the Mississippi River near present day Victory, WI on August 1, 1832, and this was the first day of the Battle of Bad Axe. The name of the battle comes from the close proximity to the mouth of the Bad Axe River.

On the first day of the battle, the steamboat Warrior was on the Mississippi River just off shore of the fleeing Native Americans. The Native Americans, seeking to surrender, raised the white flag to the steamboat. After some miscommunication, the Warrior opened fire on the Natives on shore. After several hours of fighting, 23 Sauk were killed. That night, Black Hawk made a move to meet up with Chippewa in the north. Instead, realizing the United States Military was much closer than they thought, he took a small band of troops and set up a rear guard to distract the military.

August 2, 1832 was the second day of the Battle of Bad Axe. This day is where the name the Bad Axe Massacre comes from. The first attack of the day was the United States Military spies encountering Chief Black Hawk and his rear guard. Fourteen Sauk were lost while one spy suffered critical wounds. The rear guard moved towards the mouth of the Bad Axe River in a diversion attempt to lead the military away from the rest of the Sauk and Fox people. This diversion was partially successful. It took three fifths of the military with them. The remaining two fifths found the rest of the Sauk and Fox people. These two fifths pushed the Native Americans closer to the river where the steamboat Warrior was waiting. The Native Americans were forced into the water and were caught between the Warrior and the military. Only seventy of the four hundred Native Americans made it across the river. The rest were killed in the water or on the banks of the Mississippi. These seventy were captured or killed by the Sioux, long time enemies of the Sauk and who had sided with the United States.

Black Hawk was not looking for violence or bloodshed when he crossed the river. Several attempts were made at peaceful talks on his part. One was made before any conflict had officially begun. Black Hawk recalled the first attempt in his autobiography. “I received news that three or four hundred white men on horse-back had been seen about eight miles off. I immediately started three young men with a white flag to meet them and conduct them to our camp, that we might hold a council with them and descend Rock river again. I also directed them, in case the whites had encamped, to return, and I would go and see them. After this party had started I sent five young men to see what might take place. The first party went to the camp of the whites, and were taken prisoners. The last party had not proceeded far before they saw about twenty men coming toward them at full gallop. They stopped, and, finding that the whites were coming toward them in such a warlike attitude, they turned and retreated, but were pursued, and two of them overtaken and killed. The others made their escape.”[1] This was the very early beginnings of the Black Hawk war. The conflict occurred at Dixon’s Ferry and is known as the Battle of Stillman’s Run or the Battle of Sycamore Creek. Even though Black Hawks goal wasn’t met, this battle is still considered a win for him and the first of the Black Hawk war. Although Black Hawk lost his messengers, his braves managed to make Major Stillman retreat.

After several months and other engagements, Black Hawk was pressed by the military into a retreat from Wisconsin Heights. They made their retreat to the Mississippi River at a stream called Bad Axe. This is where the Black Hawk war ultimately ended. Another attempt at peace was made just before the Battle of Bad Axe occurred. Black Hawk went for his white flag with all intention of surrendering. “We had been here but a little while before we saw a steamboat (“Warrior”) coming. I told my braves not to shoot, as I intended going on board, so that we might save our women and children. I knew the captain (Throckmorton) and was determined to give myself up to him. I then sent for my white flag. While the messenger was gone, I took a small piece of white cotton and put it on a pole, and called to the captain of the boat, and told him to send his little canoe ashore and let me come aboard. The people, on board asked whether we were Sacs or Winnebago’s. I told a Winnebago to tell them that we were Sacs, and wanted to give ourselves up! A Winnebago on the boat called out to us “to run a/id hide, that the whites were going to shoot!” About this time one of my braves had jumped into the river, bearing a white flag to the boat, when another sprang in after him and brought him to the shore. The firing then commenced from the boat, which was returned by my braves and continued for some time. Very few of my people were hurt after the first fire, having succeeded in getting behind old logs and trees, which shielded them from the enemy’s fire.”[1]. As seen by these two excerpts, the military was not looking for any form a peaceful ending to this. They wanted the complete destruction of the Sauk that had crossed the Mississippi. Even though the Sauk were trying to flee back across the Mississippi River. “Early in the morning a party of whites being in advance of the army, came upon our people, who were attempting to cross the Mississippi. They tried to give themselves up the whites paid no attention to their entreaties, but commenced slaughtering them. In a little while the whole army arrived. Our braves, but few in number, finding that the enemy paid no regard to age or sex, and seeing that they were murdering helpless women and little children, determined to fight until they were killed. As many women as could, commenced swimming the Mississippi, with their children on their backs. A number of them were drowned, and some shot before they could reach the opposite shore.”[1] In order to try to protect his people, Black Hawk made an attempt to lead General Atkinson away from where his the Sauk were crossing the Mississippi. “Black Hawk, it will be remembered, with about twenty braves had been endeavoring to lead the army of Gen. Atkinson up the river, and had succeeded. Hence, he was several miles up the Mississippi during the real engagement, and heard of it through the Indians who had escaped, as before stated. He very justly termed this so-called battle of the Bad Axe, (because it occurred near the mouth of that small stream), a massacre. Gov. Ford estimated the Indian loss at 150 killed and as many drowned in the river, and fifty prisoners.”[2] This massacre on the east side of the Mississippi as well as a band of Sioux that slaughtered and of Black Hawks people that made it across the Mississippi meant the end of the Black Hawk war.

Colonel Joseph Dickson recounted his experiences of the Black Hawk war in a personal narrative. The bulk of his writing tells about the Battle of Wisconsin Heights and the Battle of Bad Axe. The final two battles in the war. “In the month of May, when on the first intelligence of hostilities by the Indians, I joined a mounted company of volunteers raised at Platteville. At the organization [of the company] I was elected orderly sergeant, John H. Rountree, captain and in that capacity I served one month, when in consequence of the absence of the captain, I was chosen to command the company and then served about one month. Then, by the order of Colonel Dodge, I took command of a spy company, and was in front of the army during the chases to Rock River, Fort Winnebago, and to the Wisconsin Heights and at the Wisconsin Heights I with my spy company commenced the attack on a band of Indians who were kept in the rear of the retreating Indian army and chased them to the main body of Indians, when we were fired at several times, but without injury, and I returned to the advancing army without loss or injury to my command. After the battle of the Wisconsin Heights, and the army was supplied with provisions, we again pursued the Indian trail, and I took the lead with my company and followed to the Bad Ax by command of General Atkinson. At the Battle of Bad Ax, I discovered, the evening before the battle, the trail of Black Hawk with a party of about forty Indians, to have left the main trail and gone up the river, which fact I reported to the Commanding General. On the next morning, I with my command encountered and engaged a company of Indians at a place near to where I had the evening before discovered the trail of Black Hawk and his party. During the battle that ensued, my command killed fourteen Indians and after a short time, say half an hour’s engagement, General Dodge, with his command, and General Atkinson with his regular army, arrived at the place where I had engaged this party consisting of about forty Indians and about the time of their arrival, we had killed and dispersed this band of Indians. The main body of the enemy had gone down the river after they entered the river bottom. I pursued with my command, passing General Henry with his command formed on the Mississippi Bottom I crossed the slough, and engaged a squad of Indians, who were making preparations to cross the river after which we were fired upon and returned the fire of several bands or squads of Indians, before the army arrived. After the battle was over, I was taken with others on board of a steamer which came along soon after, to Prairie du Chien, where I was properly cared for, and my wounds received suitable attention. Since which, I have spent a short period in Illinois, and the balance of the time to the present I have devoted myself to agricultural pursuits on my farm, four miles southwest of Platteville.” [3]. This manuscript gives a military soldiers perspective of the war. It shows the enthusiasm of some of the military personal in the war.


Tomahawks & Hatches: Part 1 of 3 – Early History of Axes and Battle Axes.

Flint stone hand axe 300,000 years old

Axes were among the earliest tools of man found in the Ice and Stone Age. A lump of flint was hacked into chips to make a hatchet the size of a man’s hand. These early impliments were used for chopping, cutting, scraping, and sawing (some had jagged edges) and were found throughout England, Europe, Asia, and North America – over a hundred thousand years ago. As man advanced to making pottery, sewing clothing, and tilling grains, he still used stone, bone, and wood for his tools.

Stone Age Handaxes

Approximately 10,000 years ago, copper was discovered as an easy metal to melt. When mixed with tin, it was found to be hard enough to make tools, including knives and hatchets. This mixture was called bronze and is referred to as the bronze age which lasted until the discovery of iron, approximately five thousand years later. The earliest found smelted iron was 5,000 BC in Mesopotamia and 3,000 BC in India and Egypt.

These early uses of iron were mainly ceremonial and too expensive (eight times the value of gold) for everyday use including military. Therefore, bronze was still common until the manufacturing of iron became cheap enough to be used for tools and weapons. This occurred approximately 1,200 BC which became known as the Iron Age. Later still, steel, which is a hardened iron, was in use in China at around 400 BC and India around 200 BC. Alexander the Great, during his conquest of India, at one point received from his conquest not gold, but thirty pounds of steel. However, steel was not common in Europe until medieval times.

Flake, Greenstone, Hollow-edged axes, Roundstone axes

Hollow edged axe by Gransfors

Round Stone Axe c/o Gransfors

Stone-Age Axes were the first axes made of flint and stone and were held by the hand. These included from earliest on: core axe, flake axe (large flake chipped from a core), Lihult axe (roughly hewn greenstone axe – igneous rock containing feldspar and hornblende – of western Sweden), thin-butted axe (from flint for use as a working axe), round stone axe (greenstone axe with rounded profile), and hollow-edged axe (with a concave blade).

What has been called the Battle Axe Culture (3200 – 1800 BC) were stone shaft holed axes that were mounted on the end of shafts similar to later hatchets and axes. These were not made of flint, but various stones, and though the name indicates they were carried in war, they were more for status or ceremonial usages. It is believed that the shaft hole was made so small that it could not be attached to a sufficiently strong handle necessary for battle. These included from the earliest on:

Polygonal Axe, Double-headed battle Axe, Boat Axe

Polygonal axe c/o Gransfors

Double-headed Battle Axe c/o Gransfors

1. Polygonal axe (3,400-3,000 BC) which included a flared edge, an arched butt, and angled body with grooves and ridges. Usually of greenstone, it was hammered out and polished over the whole surface. This axe was an early example of the later Central European copper axes. 2. Double-headed battle axe (3400-2900 BC) mainly of Germany and Denmark. It had a flared edge that was common in later types of double-headed axes along with a flared butt. They were made from hard and homogeneous stones such as porphyry and so too were finely polished. 3. Boat axe is the old name for the shaft axe of modern use. They were single edged with a flared butt – similar in shape and design of a spear head.

Socket or Celt Axe, Socket Axe Head, Palstave Axe, Copper Axe

Socketed or Celt Axe c/o Gransfors

Socket Axe Head c/o Gransfors

Bronze Age Axes (2,000 – 500 AD for northern Europe) were often copies of stone axes. With the discovery of the copper and tin mixture, stone axes gave way to bronze with a head of either pure copper or bronze. The bronze axe was cast in molds which enabled the design to be copied in mass. These included from earliest on: 1. Socketed or Celt axe which had a wedge shaped head and no shaft hole. Instead the handle was fixed into a socket at the butt end. It was made hollow so the handle of the shaft was inserted into the head. It proved to be a functional working axe as the handle was often quite long. Later types were smaller with a flared edge. 2. Palstave ax (1500 – 1000 BC) had a narrow butt which inserted into a split wooden handle. The blade was flared and the sides were often decorated with spiral or angular patterns. It was mounted in the split end of a wooden handle and tied into place with leather straps.

Iron Age Axe Heads

Iron age axes (from around 500 BC in Europe) were basically the same as bronze and stone axes reproduced in iron. However, the new materials and designs including the strength and thickness of metals, led the appearance of the axes to change gradually. Non-shaft-hole axes disappeared and were replaced by axes with a hole for a handle. The heads also became larger with broader or ‘bearded’ blades.

Axes Used in Battle. The first axes used in battle were the same that were used in everyday life. Though fiction in the action ‘barbarian’ genre, such as the popular Conan the Barbarian series, used specific axes for battle welded by muscular warrior types, in reality, those who were called to war were ordinary tribesmen, mainly fathers and sons, who grabbed whatever tool was available when battling opposing tribes or kingdoms. It was only later, around 400 AD, with the advent of iron, that the focus shifted to developing specific axes for fighting.

Franziska axe was an early, smaller axe similar to the modern hatchets, that was specifically designed for battle, however it was also useful in the hunt. It was first used by the Franks and later Teutonic tribes and Goths from around 400 – 500 AD. The axe heads were thick and sharp with a distinct short handle. It was effective mostly as a hand weapon in close combat, yet its design allowed it to be thrown as a projectile. However, most combatants most likely kept a firm grip on their prized weapon so as not to be left standing unarmed. When thrown, it would frequently be at a distance of ten or twelve paces from the enemy, yet could still be deadly at larger distances. Because of its unusual shape, when correctly thrown, a Franziska rotated a number of times in the air before the axe blade hit its target. It rotated once at four to five meters, twice at eight to nine meters, and three times at a distance of twelve to thirteen meters. Though carried into battle, these axes were very useful as a projectile during the hunt. When game was spotted, it could, like the spear, be thrown quickly and quietly from a distance with great precision. And once thrown, even if the target was missed, it could be retrieved without threat of attack from an enemy.

Bayeux Tapestry featuring Viking Battle Axe

Scandinavia Battle Axe became popular during the Viking Age (800-1100 AD). Nordic smiths developed these axes with longer handles and thinner blades, making the axe head extra light so as to be readily carried into battle and not wear out the warrior through use. This type of axe was commonly in use during the Battle of Hastings in 1066 England as both Franks and Anglo Saxon Housecarls carried them into battle (as documented in the Bayeux Tapestry).

Light axes on long shafts, known as Hunganian Fokos axes, were carried by 10 th century Hungarian warriors The Bulgarians also used a similar design. From the 15th century on, shepherd’s axes appeared in Europe from modern day Romania. The axe was used as a versatile tool that served as a small axe, hammer, and walking stick. These axes became inseparable from shepherds throughout Europe which included heavy, personalized decorative straps.

Predecessor to the Hatchet, during the European Middle Ages and Renaissance (11 th to the 16 th centuries), was a small axe with a short handle which was often carried on the belt. They were more refined than its earlier model – Franziska axes. Included among these shorter, hatchet-like axes were throwing axes made entirely of iron in use by the late Middle Ages. The handle was around 25 centimeters long and ended in a point. The butt also had a sharp spike and the cutting edge was around 16 centimeters long.

Large Battle Axes were used by knights of armor who fought on foot. Often these larger axes had the butt end in an iron spike and the hand was protected by an iron plate on the handle. Fifteenth century knights in Germany and France used heavy battle axes which were intended to crush the opponent’s metal armor. They had a shorter handle and more of a blunt edge so to pound the opponent to submission.

Bearded axe, half-moon, bardiche, and halberd all were the common name for large battle axes with a broad long head on a long handle. They had an elongated edge with a sabre-like curve called a beard. The lower part of the blade was fixed to the handle with a rivet. The handle was often about 1.4 meters long. Some models had the front part of the axe blade shaped into a hand guard. Many varieties had one or more points or hooks at the butt or protruding from the top of the blade. These bearded halberds had a deadly function in battle when knights of armor met on the battlefield. Later on, particularly in the seventeenth century and right up until the early eighteenth century, they had a more symbolic role carried by a staff sergeant of a particular platoon or company within a regiment.

Executioner’s Broad Axe gradually replaced the sword as the weapon of choice for beheadings during the latter part of the Middle Ages right up until the 19 th century (Sweden still beheaded with the broad axe right up to 1910). Though England and most European countries implemented the broad axe during executions, the French still preferred a heavy sword to lob off one’s head.

Axe declined to the sword in popularity, especially as steel swords developed and became the choice of weapon for military officers. However, ordinary citizens and peasants continued to use the axe at times of unrest or in self-defense against bandits as it was cheap and easily accessible.

Eighteenth Century Military Use of axes was limited to a small axe or hatchet worn on the belt, carried mainly by huntsmen rifle corps (such as German Jaeger units and American ranger outfits) also some light infantry companies including the American Royal Riflemen and British rifle companies. Halberds were common throughout Europe and used during the American French and Indian War and American Revolution – however mainly for symbolic use.

Tomahawks of North American were small axes introduced to North America by European settlers and explorers. Before the arrival of Europeans, Native Americans lived in a Stone Age in which only flint and stones were used for tools and weapons they had never seen iron objects. War clubs were often carried into battle which were bludgeoning weapons such as heavy bones or wooden clubs with stone heads latched at the end. When Europeans first began to explore the New World of the Americas, ‘trade axes’, similar to small European axes worn at the belt, played a major role in trade with the natives – garnishing mainly furs and pelts for shipment back to Europe. These axes were given the collective name of tomahawks.

The word tomahawk either came from the Lenape tribe’s word tamahak, meaning ‘cutting tool’, or from the Powhatan or Algonquian native tongues. These small steel axes, common among the Europeans, had quickly gained favor with the Native Americans for hunting and domestic work. Though the war club continued to be an effective close quarter weapon among Native Americans, these small axes gained importance in battle. Tomahawks, which could be thrown, were part of a long-established European craft and came to be one of the leading symbols of pioneers and Native Americans in the new continent. Colonists propagated a false image of the tomahawk as being solely unique to an ‘Indian’ culture as these axes were so heavily traded among the native population. Tomahawks were frequently carried by the original settlers and ‘mountain men’. Centuries later, Hollywood films continued to promote these small, hand held throwing axes as an invention of the American frontier.

Steel Head Tomahawk

Tomahawks and hatchets were light in weight and particularly useful to the military, could be effectively used with just one hand. Both Native Americans and white settlers, including militiamen and later American, British, and German Infantrymen (mainly rifle and light infantry companies) attached these light weight tomahawks to their belts. They could be most effective in close up hand to hand combat or thrown at the enemy from a distance. Scalping became common in North America as bounties were paid to Native Americans by both sides of European combatants. These scalps, the removal of a portion of the enemy’s hair (dead or alive) became proof of casualties inflicted on the enemy and money or trade was paid in return. However, unlike romantic novels and the movie industry, mostly scalps were removed with a sharp knife and rarely (only when a knife was unavailable) was a tomahawk used. Native American tomahawks were also used in celebrations and ceremonies.

Atkinson, Alice Minerva. The European Beginnings of American History: An Introduction to the History of the United States. 1912: Ginn & Company, Boston, MA.

Web site: Gransfors Bruks AB Sweden. www.gransforsbruk.com/en/axe-knowledge/the-history-of-the-axe/ Gransfors Bruks built a business based around handcrafted axes and axe expertise. The axe forge is open to the public. In addition to the forge and factory shop, there is an axe museum that has many ancient axes through the centuries on display.

Holmes, Sir Richard. Weapon: A Visual History of Arms and Armour. 2010: Dorling Kindersley, London, UK.

Grant, David. Tomahawks: Traditional to Tactical. 2007: Paladin Press, Boulder, Colorado.

Grose, Francis. Military Antiquities Respecting a History of the English Army. 1801: Oxford University, England.


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