Ward, Artemas - Historia

Ward, Artemas - Historia


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Ward, Artemas (1727-1800) General: Ward se graduó de la Universidad de Harvard en 1748 y comenzó una carrera política en el gobierno provincial y local. Como coronel de la milicia durante la guerra francesa e india, mostró su habilidad administrativa. Un antilealista activo, fue nombrado general y comandante en jefe de las fuerzas de Massachusetts. Durante los primeros meses del conflicto, Ward fue el líder de facto del ejército que asediaba Boston. Aunque el Congreso eligió a George Washington en lugar de él para servir como comandante general del Ejército Continental, Ward se convirtió en el mayor general de mayor rango. Después de que los británicos evacuaran Boston, Ward ofreció su renuncia, pero mantuvo su puesto como jefe del Departamento del Este hasta 1777. Después de retirarse de la vida militar, Ward continuó activo en la política estatal y federal.

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Sobre

Incluido en el Registro Nacional de Lugares Históricos, el Museo del Barrio General Artemas fue el hogar familiar del Primer Comandante en Jefe de la Revolución Americana. Se encuentra en Old Post Road en Shrewsbury, Massachusetts, treinta y cinco millas al oeste de Boston.

La casa fue construida como una pequeña caja de sal entre 1720 y 1730 en el nuevo asentamiento de Shrewsbury. Aunque fue construido para Nahum Ward en la granja que permanecería en la familia Ward durante generaciones, no era el hogar familiar. Sirvió como casa de inquilinos hasta que Artemas Ward se mudó con su familia en 1763. Se amplió en 1785 y 1830 para acomodar a dos familias a la vez, así como a peones agrícolas y ayuda doméstica.

La granja también incluye varias dependencias, incluido el enorme granero, la cabaña del cuidador y la lechería. Las dependencias sufrieron tantos cambios como la casa, con edificios más pequeños que se combinaron o se convirtieron en diferentes usos.

Lo más interesante es que el granero fue una vez dos graneros separados. En 1848, Thomas Walter Ward II hizo que estos establos se trasladaran juntos y se ampliaran para reunir gran parte de las actividades de la granja bajo un mismo techo. El proceso continuó en 1850 con la adición de un antiguo matadero y una tienda reutilizada como casa de maíz y sala de vinagre.

El uso flexible y la reutilización de estos edificios ayudó a la familia a adaptarse a las diferentes condiciones del mercado a lo largo de los años. Sin embargo, la finca dejó de ser rentable y, de hecho, casi se vendió fuera de la familia a finales del siglo XIX. Afortunadamente para nosotros, la casa fue comprada por Henry Galbraith Ward y posteriormente mantenida por una serie de mujeres de la familia Ward.

Primero Elizabeth Ward y Harriet Ward, luego sus sobrinas, Ella, Clara y Florence, sirvieron como cuidadoras de la casa. Al hacerlo, estas mujeres registraron activamente las historias familiares que rodean la casa y su contenido, transformándola de un hogar en un museo familiar.

Lo invitamos a visitar la Casa del Barrio Artemas utilizando nuestro recorrido virtual. Utilice el plano de planta para elegir entre varias habitaciones para ver. Haga clic en una habitación y verá una vista de esa habitación, así como una selección de objetos que se pueden encontrar allí. Obtenga más información sobre objetos específicos haciendo clic en la miniatura de la imagen.

Los intereses históricos de estas mujeres se extendieron más allá de la casa misma, y ​​en 1892 Elizabeth Ward publicó una historia completa de la ciudad de Shrewsbury, Old Times en Shrewsbury, Massachusetts: Gleanings from History and Tradition. Harriet fue la última Ward que vivió en la casa, y Florence fue la última en vivir en la propiedad, que fue donada a la Universidad de Harvard en 1925.

Artemas Ward, bisnieto del general Artemas Ward y magnate de la publicidad, había comprado la casa a Henry Galbraith Ward y había construido la cabaña del cuidador para que Florence viviera. Reveló su profundo interés en la historia de su familia mediante la publicación de libros relacionados con la familia y al mantener la casa después de su muerte. Donó la casa junto con una dotación sustancial con las condiciones de que Harvard mantenga la casa como un “museo público patriótico” y arroje más luz sobre el servicio del Mayor General Artemas Ward. El interés duradero de la familia Ward en su propia herencia aseguró la preservación de esta pieza única de la historia estadounidense incluso cuando se les escapó de las manos.


Barrio Nahum

Nahum Ward (1684-1754) fue uno de los fundadores de Shrewsbury, Mass., En 1717. El coronel Ward, como lo llamaban, se convirtió en un granjero moderadamente próspero y un personaje central en el gobierno local de Shrewsbury durante muchos años. Fue el primer seleccionador de la ciudad, su moderador y su representante ante el Tribunal General. Más tarde se desempeñó como juez de paz para el condado de Worcester y, durante los últimos nueve años de su vida, como juez del Tribunal de Apelaciones Comunes.

Barrio Artemas

Artemas Ward nació el 26 de noviembre de 1727, el quinto hijo y el cuarto hijo de Nahum y Martha Ward de Shrewsbury, Mass. Después de graduarse de Harvard en 1748, enseñó en la escuela brevemente, se casó con Sarah Trowbridge en 1750 y abrió una pequeña tienda general. en Shrewsbury. También en 1750, Ward fue nombrado ayudante mayor en la milicia local. Se convirtió en juez de paz al año siguiente y pronto fue elegido para varios cargos municipales. En 1757, fue elegido representante de Shrewsbury ante el Tribunal General, cargo que ocuparía 15 veces más. En 1762, comenzó su mandato de 30 años como juez del Tribunal de Pleas Comunes del Condado de Worcester desde 1775, fue presidente del Tribunal Supremo.

Ward tuvo su primera experiencia militar en 1755 durante la Guerra de Francia e India. En el verano de 1758 participó en la expedición de Fort Edward, que culminó con la derrota en Ticonderoga del general británico James Abercrombie (1706-1781). Fue ascendido durante la expedición a teniente coronel, pero tuvo pocas posibilidades de ejercer las responsabilidades de mando.

Cuando regresó del servicio militar al Tribunal General, Ward se unió a la oposición whig al gobernador real Francis Bernard (1712-1779). Esta oposición, encabezada por James Otis, Jr. (1725-1783) y Samuel Adams (1722-1803), marcó el comienzo de una alianza entre Ward y Adams que duraría 20 años. Ward formó parte de un comité para preparar una respuesta al mensaje antidisturbios de la Ley del Timbre de Bernard. Debido a su apoyo a la causa patriota, Bernard revocó su comisión militar en 1766. Sin embargo, la fuerte posición de Ward lo hizo popular entre los Whigs y dos años más tarde, con la ayuda de su amigo Adams, fue elegido para el Consejo del Gobernador de el leal Thomas Hutchinson (1711-1780). Bernard vetó su elección. Unos meses más tarde, Ward fue uno de los "Gloriosos 92" que se negó a rescindir la carta circular de 1768 de Adams oponiéndose a los impuestos sin representación y pidiendo a los colonos que se unieran contra el gobierno británico. En 1769, Ward fue elegido miembro del Consejo por segunda vez, pero el gobernador anuló nuevamente los resultados electorales. Cuando Ward fue elegido por tercera vez al año siguiente con solo diez votos en contra de 125, el gobernador en funciones Hutchinson cedió a la presión y permitió que se mantuviera su elección.

Debido a su popularidad entre los colonos, Ward fue elegido para servir en los tres primeros congresos provinciales y reinstalado en su antiguo rango de milicia, segundo en el mando después de Jedediah Preble (1707-1784) y antes de Seth Pomeroy (1706-1777). En ese momento, tenía 47 años, 20 años más joven que cualquiera de sus compañeros oficiales al mando. El 19 de abril de 1775, el día del "disparo que se escuchó en todo el mundo", Ward estaba enfermo en la cama, padeciendo "la piedra", una condición que lo molestaría durante la mayor parte de su vida adulta. Sin embargo, viajó a Cambridge al día siguiente para tomar el mando de las tropas estadounidenses que asediaban Boston, y allí celebró el primer consejo de guerra de la Revolución. Sin embargo, los aspirantes a soldados aún no estaban alistados ni clasificados oficialmente, y la disciplina, los salarios, los suministros, la comida, los uniformes y la higiene eran preocupaciones fundamentales. Además, Ward se enfrentó a una división de mando. El general John Thomas (1724-1776) tenía autonomía en Roxbury, y las fuerzas de Connecticut y Rhode Island eran independientes del mando de Ward. A principios de mayo, las líneas de asedio estaban tan distendidas que el Congreso Provincial debatió una retirada, pero Ward se mantuvo firme y logró mantener a sus hombres juntos en Boston. Cuando la inteligencia estadounidense se enteró de que los británicos estaban planeando atacar Bunker Hill, Ward dio la orden de fortificar esa posición, preparando el escenario para la batalla de Bunker Hill el 17 de junio de 1775. Sin embargo, James Warren (1726-1808) y otros más tarde criticó a Ward por su lentitud en reforzar a las tropas estadounidenses en esa batalla.

En la primavera de 1776, según John Adams, la mayoría de los delegados al Congreso Continental prefirieron a Ward para el puesto de comandante en jefe. Sin embargo, en aras de la unidad nacional, se eligió a George Washington, un sureño. Como resultado, la relación de Ward con Washington nunca fue buena. El 22 de marzo, debido en parte a la mala salud, Ward renunció, aunque se quedó hasta que se pudiera encontrar un reemplazo para dirigir el Departamento del Este. Durante el año siguiente, el teatro de la guerra se alejó de Nueva Inglaterra, y la tarea principal de Ward fue la fortificación de Boston contra un supuesto contraataque británico. El 20 de marzo de 1777, finalmente fue reemplazado por el general William Heath (1737-1814).

A pesar del final de su carrera militar y su mala salud, Ward continuó en el servicio público. En mayo de 1776, fue elegido una vez más para el Consejo del Gobernador, donde sirvió durante los siguientes tres años. Durante la mayor parte de este tiempo, fue presidente del Consejo y, por lo tanto, efectivamente el jefe ejecutivo de Massachusetts. Cuando se adoptó la nueva constitución estatal en septiembre de 1780, Ward apoyó a James Bowdoin (1726-1790) como gobernador contra John Hancock (1737-1793), con quien había luchado a finales de 1778 como supervisor de Harvard por el presunto mal manejo de la universidad por parte del tesorero Hancock. fondos. Sin embargo, Hancock ganó las elecciones fácilmente.

Ward fue elegido como delegado al Congreso Continental para la sesión de 1780. Fue reelegido al año siguiente y nuevamente en 1782, pero declinó debido a su salud. En mayo de 1782, fue elegido miembro de la Cámara de Massachusetts, donde sirvió durante cuatro de los siguientes cinco años (declinó la elección en 1783), y fue presidente de la Cámara en el momento de la rebelión de Shays en 1786. Esta oficina y Su posición como presidente del Tribunal Supremo de Worcester puso a Ward en medio del problema. Su arenga de la turba desde los escalones del palacio de justicia el 5 de septiembre de 1786 es el incidente más conocido de su vida.

Ward se postuló para el Primer Congreso, pero quedó tercero detrás de su antiguo compañero de clase, el leal Timothy Paine, y el ganador, el coronel Jonathan Grout. En su segundo intento en noviembre de 1790, Ward derrotó a Grout en una segunda vuelta. Sirvió tanto en el Segundo como en el Tercer Congreso, a pesar de frecuentes indisposiciones a causa de sus dolencias crónicas. Federalista acérrimo, apoyó infaliblemente las políticas del presidente y rompió con su viejo amigo Samuel Adams por la cuestión de las relaciones franco-estadounidenses. En 1795, dejó la vida pública y regresó a su hogar en Shrewsbury, donde murió el 28 de octubre de 1800, a la edad de 73 años.


¿Qué es un "ataque de la piedra"? Krupo 02:59, 27 de agosto de 2004 (UTC)

Cálculos biliares o renales, quizás. Los sufrió durante la Guerra Revolucionaria.

En realidad, el nombre del edificio de la American University es Ward Circle Building, por lo que en realidad es incorrecto afirmar que el edificio lleva su nombre, sino que lleva el nombre de su ubicación (en el círculo de la sala). —Comentario anterior sin firmar agregado por 72.75.122.195 (conversación) 19:38, 10 de enero de 2008 (UTC)

Mi madre ha estudiado bastante historia familiar. Haré que me envíe por correo electrónico información más específica sobre este tipo y veré cómo puedo contribuir. ¿Alguien más relacionado con este tipo? Es bueno ver que tiene una página wiki. La última vez que lo comprobé, hace algún tiempo, siempre estaba vinculado a una página que decía que su nombre era el seudónimo de un autor. Personalmente, me siento un poco decepcionado de que un hombre tan importante en la historia de Estados Unidos le haya prestado tan poca atención. ¡Decir ah! Quizás debería escribir una biografía. ¿Hay alguno ahí fuera ya? De acuerdo, tal vez debería preguntarle a la buena gente de la American University. —Comentario anterior sin firmar agregado por 110.164.173.245 (conversación) 04:50, 23 de febrero de 2011 (UTC)

No está claro cuál es la conexión entre Ward y la sección "American University" al final de esta subsección. La sección anterior es clara sobre el círculo sobre el que se asienta la estatua y la propiedad de la escuela de la tierra. A menos que se pueda establecer una conexión específica entre Ward y la Universidad, esta subsección debe eliminarse. Ya existe un enlace al artículo principal de la Universidad, por lo que no es necesario repetir la información aquí. IPBiographer (charla) 18:49, 15 de noviembre de 2014 (UTC)

Buscando miembros de esta familia. Artemas Ward es mi bisabuelo 6x. 3 de enero de 2016

El edificio Ward Circle ha sido rebautizado como edificio Kirwin. - Comentario anterior sin firmar agregado por 147.9.25.10 (conversación) 21:04, 21 de septiembre de 2017 (UTC)

¿Qué logró exactamente Ward?

Ward asistió a las escuelas comunes, fue preparado para la universidad por un tutor privado y se graduó de Harvard College (B.A. 1748, M.A. 1751). Al igual que su padre, ocupó un gran número de cargos públicos a nivel de ciudad, condado y estado.

Fue nombrado Juez de Paz en 1752, representante en la Asamblea General Colonial por varios períodos y en el consejo ejecutivo, Teniente Coronel en el Ejército Provincial en la Guerra Francesa e India y designado General de Brigada por el Congreso Provincial de Massachusetts en octubre. 27 de 1774.

Cuando las crisis políticas provocaron una Revolución Americana, Ward fue nombrado Comandante en Jefe de las fuerzas de Massachusetts el 19 de mayo de 1775, designado por el Congreso Continental a Mayor General el 17 de junio de 1775 (segundo en antigüedad solo después de George Washington) y estaba en mando de las fuerzas que sitiaron Boston hasta la llegada de Washington a Cambridge el 2 de julio de 1775.

La batalla de Bunker Hill ocurrió bajo el mando general de Ward. La fortificación de Dorchester Heights con cañones traídos de Fort Ticonderoga por el general Henry Knox tuvo lugar en el sector bajo el mando de Ward en marzo de 1776.

Poco después de que los británicos evacuaran Boston, Ward volvió a la vida civil, donde ocupó cargos importantes y exigentes. Fue Presidente del Tribunal Supremo del Tribunal de Apelaciones Comunes del Condado de Worcester en 1776 y 1777. Se desempeñó en el Senado de Massachusetts como Presidente del Consejo Ejecutivo durante aproximadamente tres años. En esta capacidad, Ward funcionó como director ejecutivo de Massachusetts durante la guerra (1777-1779) en la oficina que reemplazó al gobernador real ya no reconocido. Estatua

Fue miembro del Congreso Continental desde enero de 1780 hasta mayo de 1782 cuando renunció, y más tarde fue elegido como federalista al 2º y 3º Congresos (1791-1795).

Fue elegido presidente de la Cámara de Massachusetts en 1786, lo que hizo que sus acciones como juez de paz de la Corte de Worcester durante la Rebelión de Shays de 1786 fueran aún más significativas. Se enfrentó a los rebeldes en las escaleras del juzgado, demostrando su influencia popular y su respeto por el estado de derecho.

En diciembre de 1797, Ward concluyó su larga carrera como juez y pasó sus últimos años en un tranquilo retiro en casa con su familia. Murió el 28 de octubre de 1800 y está enterrado en el cementerio Mountain View en Shrewsbury Center.


Monumento del Barrio General Artemas

Hijo de Massachusetts Graduado de Harvard College Juez y legislador Delegado 1780 & # 82111781 al Congreso Continental Soldado de tres guerras Primer comandante de las fuerzas patriotas.

Erigido en 1938 por un alumno de Harvard.

Temas. Este monumento histórico se enumera en esta lista de temas: Guerra, Revolucionario de EE. UU. Un año histórico significativo para esta entrada es 1781.

Localización. 38 & deg 56.275 & # 8242 N, 77 & deg 5.155 & # 8242 W. Marker se encuentra en American University Park en Washington, Distrito de Columbia. Marker está en la intersección de Ward Circle Northwest y Massachusetts Avenue Northwest, en la mediana de Ward Circle Northwest. Toque para ver el mapa. El marcador está en o cerca de esta dirección postal: 4401 Massachusetts Avenue Northwest, Washington DC 20016, Estados Unidos de América. Toque para obtener instrucciones.

Otros marcadores cercanos. Al menos otros 8 marcadores se encuentran a poca distancia de este marcador. American University (a poca distancia de este marcador) Memorial del 11 de septiembre (a unos 600 pies de distancia, medidos en línea directa) Escuela de eliminación de bombas de la Marina de los EE. UU. (A unos 600 pies de distancia) John Fletcher Hurst (a unos 600 pies de distancia) Battelle Memorial Building (a unos 600 pies de distancia) 700 pies de distancia) Cerezos coreanos (a unos 700 pies de distancia) Jeju Dolhareubang (a unos 700 pies de distancia) Monumento a la Segunda Guerra Mundial (aproximadamente a 0,2 millas de distancia).

Más sobre este monumento. Ward Circle fue construido para albergar este monumento. Del catálogo de inventarios de arte del Smithsonian American Art Museum: & # 8220 El artista, Leonard Crunelle, modeló su retrato a partir de una pintura al óleo de Ward de Charles Willson Peale. Crunelle también usó la capa militar que realmente usó Ward como modelo. & # 8221

Ver también . . . Barrio Artemas. Entrada de Wikipedia. & # 8220En el General

Esta estatua de 1936 de Leonard Crunelle fue revelada por la Sra. Lewis Wesley Feick, descendiente directa de Artemas Ward, el 3 de noviembre de 1938 y pagada con una subvención del bisnieto de Wards & # 8220 Artemis Ward de la séptima generación & # 8221, un Ex alumno de Harvard.

& # 8220 El general Ward es alto, delgado y de aspecto majestuoso, con un aire de mando definido que sin duda se proyecta sobre una rotonda de Washington especialmente diseñada. Esto es curioso, considerando que la mayoría de las fuentes describen al general Ward como redondo y rechoncho. La versión de bronce es, por tanto, un polo opuesto. Sin embargo, un General Ward bajo y gordo no serviría si el objetivo fuera crear un icono, adecuado para los estándares de Artemas Ward de la Séptima Generación, para representar tanto a la familia como a su propia posteridad. & # 8221 & # 8212 Rebecca Anne Goetz, Barrio General Artemas: un revolucionario olvidado, recordado y reinventado


Al Mayor General Artemas Ward

Mi carta de anoche le informaría que los oficiales generales de este lugar consideraban peligroso retrasar la toma de puesto en Dorchester Hills, al menos deberían ser poseídos ante nosotros por el enemigo y, por lo tanto, involucrarnos en dificultades que no deberíamos saber. cómo librarnos de esta opinión que estaban inclinados a adoptar de una creencia, de hecho, casi un conocimiento cierto, de que los Enemys estaban informados de nuestros diseños de esa manera.

Debería elegir algunos buenos regimientos para ir en la mañana después de que se tome el puesto, bajo el mando del general Thomas, se puede ordenar el número de hombres que juzgará necesario para este relevo; creo que de dos a tres mil, según lo requieran las circunstancias, sería suficiente. Te enviaré desde aquí dos Regimientos, para que estés en Roxbury temprano el martes por la mañana para fortalecer tus líneas, y te enviaré mañana por la tarde dos Compañías de Rifflemen, que con los tres ahora pueden ser parte del Relevo para continuar. con Genl Thomas.1 estas Cinco Compañías pueden ser puestas bajo el cuidado del Capitán Hugh Stephenson, sujeto al Comando del Oficial Comandante en el Puesto (Dorchester). Creo que serán capaces de irritar duramente al Enemigo en su Marcha desde sus Barcos y en Landg.

A Blind along the Causey se debería lanzar, si es posible, mientras que el otro trabajo es especialmente en el lado de Dorchester, ya que es el más cercano a Enemy's Guns, y el más expuesto.3 Calculamos, creo, que 800 hombres harían todo Causey con gran facilidad en una noche, si el pantano no se ha vuelto mal para trabajar de nuevo y la marea no da una gran interrupción. ellos, las fascines, candelabros y ampca en su lugar, no lo sé, 750 hombres (el grupo de trabajo portando sus armas) creo que serán suficientes para un grupo de cobertura. estos se publicarán en Nuke-Hill. en la pequeña colina frente a la segunda colina, mirando hacia la bahía de Boston, y cerca del punto opuesto al castillo. Los centinelas se mantendrán entre las Partes, y algunos en la parte trasera, mirando hacia Squantum.

Como tengo una opinión muy alta de la defensa que se puede hacer con Barriles de cualquiera de las Colinas, me gustaría que enviaras un número. Quizás Barriles individuales sería mejor que unirlos, ya que son menos propensos a los accidentes: los aros deben estar bien clavados o de lo contrario volarán pronto y los barriles caerán en pedazos.

Debe tener cuidado de que la Milicia reciba el aviso necesario de acuerdo con el plan acordado con el general Thomas.6 Desearé que el Colo. Gridley y el Colo. Knox pasen mañana para diseñar el Trabajo; no recuerdo nada más por el momento para Le digo que resolverá los asuntos con los Oficiales con usted, ya que lo que he oído decir tiene la intención más bien de transmitir mis Ideas en general, que de desear que se cumplan estrictamente. Estoy con estima & ampca Sir Yr Most Obedt Servt

1. Ver Órdenes Generales, esta fecha. La fuerza de relevo debía defender las nuevas líneas en Dorchester Neck contra cualquier ataque que los británicos pudieran hacer contra ellos desde Boston.

2. GW escribió "gald" en el manuscrito, pero colocó una tilde encima de la palabra para indicar que se debe corregir la ortografía.

3. Rufus Putnam propuso la construcción de esta persiana en su carta a GW del 11 de febrero de 1776.

4. GW escribió inadvertidamente "tade" en lugar de "marea" en el manuscrito. Se estaba cortando césped de las marismas para su uso en la construcción de fortificaciones y otras obras. El 24 de febrero de 1776, Robert Hanson Harrison le escribió a Ward: “Su Excelencia me ha ordenado que le informe que Genl [Israel] Putnam le dijo que había tenido una fiesta cortando césped pantanoso hoy y que lo habían hecho con muy poca dificultad donde la marea había fluido; desea que le avises a Colo. [Rufus] Putnam, y que le digas que si encuentra que se puede hacer, es mejor que use el césped tan rápido como se pueda cortar ”(MHi : Papeles de Ward).

5. “Alrededor de las obras se colocaron filas de barriles llenos de tierra”, dice William Heath en sus Memorias. “Presentaban sólo la apariencia de reforzar las obras pero el verdadero diseño era, en caso de que el enemigo hiciera un ataque, hacerlos rodar colina abajo. Habrían descendido con una velocidad tan creciente, que debieron haber arrojado a los asaltantes a la mayor confusión y haber matado y herido a un gran número. Este proyecto fue sugerido por el Sr. William Davis, comerciante, de Boston, a nuestro General [Heath], quien inmediatamente se lo comunicó al Comandante en Jefe, quien lo aprobó altamente, al igual que todos los demás oficiales ”(Wilson, Heath's Memoirs La descripción comienza Rufus Rockwell Wilson, ed. Heath's Memoirs of the American War. 1798. Reimpresión. Nueva York, 1904. La descripción termina, 49 Véase también Dandridge, Shepherdstown La descripción comienza Danske Dandridge. Histórico Shepherdstown. Charlottesville, Va., 1910. La descripción termina , 129).

6. En la noche del 3 de marzo, Robert Hanson Harrison le escribió a Ward: “Su Excelencia me ha ordenado que le informe que si el viento que viene del este esta tarde hiciera que la marea estuviera bastante alta mañana y allí Debería haber una probabilidad de que continúe así en cualquier momento, que no querrá que llame a la Milicia hasta que tenga más noticias de él, ya que la propiedad de llamarlos depende de las circunstancias de la marea. mañana podrá formarse un juicio adecuado a partir de las apariencias. Su Excelencia desea que esté particularmente atento a los movimientos del enemigo, y que utilice todas las precauciones a su alcance para descubrir dónde tienen intenciones de tomar posesión de Dorchester Heights. , ya que de ninguna manera permitiría que lo lograran ”(MHi: Ward Papers).


Del Mayor General Artemas Ward

El decimotercer instante por la noche ordené a quinientos hombres con oficiales adecuados, un destacamento del tren con un mortero de trece pulgadas, dos cañones de dieciocho libras y un pequeño cañón, bajo el mando del coronel Whetcomb, para que tomaran el puesto en Long Island. para molestar a los barcos enemigos, en la noche se hicieron los trabajos necesarios y, a la mañana siguiente, nuestro cañón y mortero empezaron a jugar con los piratas, lo que pronto los expulsó a todos del puerto. de cincuenta cañones, varios barcos de guerra más pequeños y algunos transportes con montañeses a bordo, por lo que podíamos juzgar, había unas ochocientas tropas a bordo de los transportes. Volaron la Casa de la Luz cuando partieron, y luego se hicieron a la mar con su flota. Creo que es probable que dejen algunas fragatas para cruzar la bahía.

Varias tropas y milicias de la colonia debían haber arrojado una batería la misma noche en la isla Petticks, y la cabeza de Nantasket, 3 pero por algunas obstrucciones imprevistas no prepararon su cañón a tiempo, sin embargo le dieron al enemigo varios disparado cuando los Barcos atravesaban el Canal. Nuestro disparo cortó algunas de sus vergas y aparejos, y varios entraron en los costados de los barcos, pero los proyectiles del mortero los aterrorizaron más: devolvieron algunos disparos del barco del comodoro sin ningún efecto y se pusieron a navegar con toda la expedición.

He propuesto al Tribunal General anclar un barco señuelo donde yacía el hombre de guerra, con un colgante ancho, para atraer los transportes que pudieran venir por aquí.

Aún no ha llegado ningún Pagador ni dinero para las tropas estacionadas aquí, cuya demora ha ocasionado una gran dificultad, ya que ahora hay más de tres meses de pago debido a los Hombres He tratado de pedir prestado el dinero del Tribunal General, pero no lo he logrado. El Tesoro está casi agotado por las grandes demandas. Soy Su Excelencia, obediente y humilde servidor

PD Varios inválidos pertenecientes a los Regimientos en marcha me han solicitado que sea entregado a otros Regimientos, ya que no pudieron marchar, pero no me creí autorizado para cumplir con su solicitud. He dado de alta a tres o cuatro que probablemente no servirían más que una carga para el continente.

PD 17 de junio. Acabo de recibir información de que los corsarios continentales han tomado y traído a Nantasket en este puerto un barco y un bergantín de Glasgow con doscientos diez soldados de las Highlands a bordo, con su equipaje, el barco montó seis cañones de carro y luchó los corsarios algún tiempo antes de que ella atacara, tuvimos cuatro hombres heridos, el enemigo tuvo tres soldados muertos y un mayor, y ocho o diez hombres heridos. Los prisioneros están subiendo a la ciudad entre los que se encuentra un coronel. Cualquier otro dato que pueda ser importante, lo enviaré tan pronto como pueda conocerlo.

1. "Estoy al mando de su Excy", escribió Robert Hanson Harrison a Ward el 10 de junio, "para solicitarle que envíe inmediatamente a este lugar al teniente [Thomas] Machin del Tren, siempre que no pertenezca a ninguna de las Compañías Artilly, en Boston — Si no lo hace, vendrá con todo el despacho posible ”(DLC: GW).

2. La fuerza del coronel Asa Whitcomb ocupó una posición en Long Island con vistas a Nantasket Road, el principal fondeadero en el puerto exterior de Boston.

3. Peddocks Island y Nantasket Head también tienen vistas a Nantasket Road.

4. Los transportes británicos George y Annabella fueron capturados en el puerto de Boston el 16 de junio por seis buques armados estadounidenses asistidos por una tripulación de armas de Massachusetts en Point Alderton en el lado sur del puerto. Para una descripción completa de este compromiso, vea Clark, la descripción de la Marina de George Washington comienza con William Bell Clark. La marina de George Washington es un relato de la flota de su excelencia en aguas de Nueva Inglaterra. Baton Rouge, Luisiana, 1960. La descripción termina, 160–64. Cada transporte llevaba una compañía de tropas del 2.º Batallón del 71º Regimiento de Infantería (Montañeses de Fraser). El mayor Menzies, que murió a bordo del George, fue enterrado con honores militares en Boston el 18 de junio (véase William Gordon a GW, 19-20 de junio, y nota 9).

Archibald Campbell (1739-1791), miembro del Parlamento y teniente coronel del 2.º Batallón del 71º Regimiento, fue capturado a bordo del George. Para su relato del compromiso, vea su carta a William Howe del 19 de junio de 1776 en Clark y Morgan, la descripción de los Documentos Navales comienza con William Bell Clark et al., Eds. Documentos navales de la revolución americana. 12 vols. hasta la fecha. Washington, D.C., 1964–. termina la descripción, 5: 619-21. Campbell, que era un ingeniero militar muy respetado, ingresó en el ejército británico en 1757 como teniente en el 63º Regimiento de Infantería y dos años más tarde se convirtió en subingeniero en los Ingenieros Reales. Promovido a ingeniero extraordinario con el rango de capitán-teniente en 1763, Campbell fue separado del ejército en 1768 para servir como ingeniero jefe de la Compañía de las Indias Orientales en Bengala. Regresó a Inglaterra en 1773 con una gran fortuna, que utilizó al año siguiente para asegurarse un escaño en el Parlamento de los burgos de Stirling. En noviembre de 1775 Campbell fue designado para comandar el 2. ° Batallón del nuevo regimiento Highland de Simon Fraser, y el 29 de abril de 1776 zarpó con el regimiento desde Greenock, Escocia. Aunque Campbell fue puesto en libertad condicional poco después de su captura en Boston, no fue intercambiado hasta mayo de 1778. En octubre de 1778, el general Henry Clinton lo nombró para dirigir una expedición contra Savannah. Después de la caída de la ciudad en enero de 1779, Campbell regresó a Inglaterra, donde fue ascendido a coronel. Fue vicegobernador de Jamaica de 1781 a 1782 y gobernador de la colonia de 1782 a 1784. En 1785 fue nombrado caballero y gobernador de Madrás.


Nace el General Artemas Ward

En este día de la historia, el 26 de noviembre de 1727, nace el Barrio General Artemas. Artemas Ward fue una figura prominente en la política de Massachusetts durante y después de la Revolución Americana. Ward nació en Shrewsbury, Massachusetts y se graduó de Harvard en 1748. Abrió una tienda general en Shrewsbury en 1750, pero en 1751, a la edad de 24 años, comenzó una vida de política. El primer trabajo gubernamental de Ward fue como asesor municipal del condado de Worcester. Se convirtió en juez de paz en 1752 y comenzó el primero de muchos años de servicio como representante en la Asamblea General de la Colonia.

En 1755, durante la guerra francesa e india, Ward se convirtió en un importante de la milicia del condado de Worcester. Sin embargo, no vio el servicio militar activo hasta dos años después, cuando los británicos atacaron, los franceses ocuparon el Fuerte Ticonderoga. Ward se convirtió en juez del Tribunal de Apelaciones Comunes en 1762, cargo que ocuparía durante décadas. En la Asamblea General, se desempeñó junto a figuras como James Otis, John Hancock y Samuel Adams. Ward se hizo tan conocido por hablar en contra de las políticas británicas en la Asamblea que el gobernador Francis Bernard le quitó la comisión militar y anuló los resultados de las elecciones del condado de Worcester en 1768 para mantener a Ward fuera de la Asamblea.

A medida que aumentaban las tensiones con Inglaterra, todo el 3er Regimiento del condado de Worcester renunció a su puesto bajo el mando británico y se dirigió a Shrewsbury, donde informaron al coronel Ward que ahora estaban a su servicio. After Governor Bernard dissolved the Assembly in October, 1774, the cities of Massachusetts set up a new government under the "Committee of Safety," placing Ward as General over the whole colony’s militia.

Ward’s first job as general was to get the British out of Boston. He organized the defenses on Bunker Hill and at the Siege of Boston. When the newly appointed General George Washington arrived, Ward helped integrate the Massachusetts militia into the Continental Army. Ward was made a Major General, second in command of the Continental Army only to George Washington. General Ward remained in command of the Eastern Department after the British left Boston and held this position until March 20, 1777, when he resigned for health reasons.

Ward continued to serve as a judge during and after the war. As President of the Executive Council, he ran the government of Massachusetts for three years during the war. After this, he served as a delegate to the Continental Congress for a year and in the Massachusetts House of Representatives for six years, including one term as Speaker of the House in 1786. While concurrently serving as Speaker of the House and as a Justice of the Peace, Ward faced down rebels on the steps of the Worcester County Courthouse during Shay’s Rebellion, a rebellion over taxes and government policies. Ward served two terms as a Federalist member of the US House of Representatives when the government under the new Constitution was formed.

Artemas Ward finally retired as a judge and from a long life of public service in December, 1797, at the age of 70. He passed away on October 28, 1800 and was buried at Mountain View Cemetery in Shrewsbury. His legacy includes several accomplished authors and the well preserved Artemas Ward House, which is now owned and managed by Harvard University.

National Society Sons of the American Revolution

"I often note with equal pleasure that God gave this one connected country to one united people — a people descended from the same language, professing the same religion, attached to the same principles of government, very similar in manners and customs, who by their joint counsels, arms, and efforts, fighting side by side through a long bloody war, have nobly established general liberty and independence."
John Jay (1787)

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Prelude to revolution [ edit | editar fuente]

By 1762 Ward had completely returned to Shrewsbury and was named to the Court of Common Pleas. In the General Court he was placed on the taxation committee along with Samuel Adams and John Hancock. On the floor, he was second only to James Otis in speaking out against the acts of parliament. His prominence in these debates prompted the Royal Governor Francis Bernard to revoke his military commission in 1767. At the next election in 1768, Bernard voided the election results for Worcester and banned Ward from the assembly, but this didn't silence him.

In the growing sentiment favoring rebellion, the 3rd Regiment resigned en masa from British service on October 3, 1774. They then marched on Shrewsbury to inform Colonel Ward that they had unanimously elected him their leader. Later that month the governor abolished the assembly. The towns of Massachusetts responded by setting up a colony-wide Committee of Safety. One of the first actions of the Committee was to name Ward as general and commander-in-chief of the colony's militia.


Gen. Artemas Ward

Artemas Ward (November 26, 1727 – October 28, 1800) was an American major general in the American Revolutionary War and a Congressman from Massachusetts. President John Adams described him as ". universally esteemed, beloved and confided in by his army and his country." He was considered an effective political leader.

Artemas was born at Shrewsbury, Massachusetts, in 1727 to Nahum (1684�) and Martha (Howe) Ward. He was the sixth of seven children. His father had broad and successful career interests as a sea captain, merchant, land developer, farmer, lawyer and jurist. As a child he attended the common schools and shared a tutor with his brothers and sisters. He graduated from Harvard in 1748 and taught there briefly.

On July 31, 1750, he married Sarah Trowbridge (December 3, 1724 – December 13, 1788), the daughter of Reverend Caleb Trowbridge and Hannah Trowbridge of Groton, Massachusetts. The young couple returned to Shrewsbury where Artemas opened a general store. In the next fifteen years they would have eight children: Ithamar in 1752, Nahum (1754), Sara (1756), Thomas (1758), Artemas Jr. (1762), Henry Dana (1768), Martha (1760) and Maria (1764).

The next year, 1751, he was named a township assessor for Worcester County. This was the first of many public offices he was to fill. Artemas was elected a justice of the peace in 1752 and also served the first of his many terms in the Massachusetts Bay Colony's assembly, or "general court."

In 1755 the militia was restructured for the war, and Artemas Ward was made a major in the 3rd Regiment which mainly came from Worcester County. They served as garrison forces along the frontier in western Massachusetts. This duty called him at intervals between 1755 and 1757, and alternated with his attendance at the General Court. In 1757 he was made the colonel of the 3rd Regiment or the militia of Middlesex and "Worchester" Counties. In 1758 the regiment marched with Abercrombie's force to Fort Ticonderoga. Ward himself was sidelined during the battle by an "attack of the stone."

By 1762 Ward had completely returned to Shrewsbury and was named to the Court of Common Pleas. In the General Court he was placed on the taxation committee along with Samuel Adams and John Hancock. On the floor, he was second only to James Otis in speaking out against the acts of parliament. His prominence in these debates prompted the Royal Governor Francis Bernard to revoke his military commission in 1767. At the next election in 1768, Bernard voided the election results for Worcester and banned Ward from the assembly, but this didn't silence him.

In the growing sentiment favoring rebellion, the 3rd Regiment resigned en masse from British service on October 3, 1774. They then marched on Shrewsbury to inform Colonel Ward that they had unanimously elected him their leader. Later that month the governor abolished the assembly. The towns of Massachusetts responded by setting up a colony-wide Committee of Safety. One of the first actions of the Committee was to name Ward as general and commander-in-chief of the colony's militia.

Following the Battle of Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775, the rebels followed the British back to Boston and started the siege of the city. At first Ward directed his forces from his sickbed, but later moved his headquarters to Cambridge. Soon, the New Hampshire and Connecticut provisional governments both named him head of their forces participating in the siege. Most of his efforts during this time were devoted to organization and supply problems.

Additional British forces arrived in May, and in June Ward learned of their plan to attack Bunker Hill. He gave orders to fortify the point, setting the stage for the Battle of Bunker Hill on June 17, 1775. Command during the battle devolved upon General Israel Putnam and Colonel William Prescott. While General Ward received national recognition for the heroic stand made that day, his principal contribution was a failure to supply enough ammunition to hold the position.

Meanwhile, the Continental Congress was creating a Continental Army. On June 16 they named Artemas Ward a major general, and second in command to George Washington. Over the next nine months he helped convert the assembled militia units into the Continental Army.

After the British evacuation on March 17, 1776, Washington led the main army to New York City. Ward took command of the Eastern Department on April 4, 1776. He held that post until March 20, 1777, when his health forced his resignation from the army.

Even during his military service, Artemas served as a state court justice in 1776 and 1777. He was President of the state's Executive Council from 1777�, which effectively made him the governor before the 1780 ratification of the Massachusetts Constitution. He was continuously elected to the Massachusetts House of Representatives for each year from 1779 through 1785. He also served as a delegate to the Continental Congress in 1780 and 1781. Ward was the Speaker of the Massachusetts House in 1785. He was elected twice to the United States House of Representatives, serving from 1791 to 1795.

Artemas died at his home in Shrewsbury on October 28, 1800, and is buried with Sarah in Mountain View Cemetery. His great-grandson, Artemas Ward wrote The Grocer's Encyclopedia (published in 1911).

Artemas's lifelong home had been built by his father, Nahum, about the time Artemas was born. The home is now known as the Artemas Ward House and is a museum preserved by Harvard University. Located at 786 Main Street in Shrewsbury, Massachusetts it is open to the public for limited hours during the summer months.

Ward Circle is a traffic circle at the intersection of Nebraska Avenue and Massachusetts Avenue in Northwest Washington, D.C.. The land on three sides of Ward Circle is owned by American University. The circle contains a statue of Artemas Ward.

The great-grandson of Artemas Ward gave over four million dollars to Harvard University on the condition that they erect a statue in honor of Ward, and maintain his home in Shrewsbury. Harvard’s initial offer in 1927 of $50,000 toward the statue was enough for a statue, but inadequate to provide the general with a horse.

The statue was completed in 1938. Although there is no pedestrian access to the circle, the base of the statue bears this inscription:

ARTEMAS WARD, 1727-1800, SON OF MASSACHUSETTS, GRADUATE OF HARVARD COLLEGE, JUDGE AND LEGISLATOR, DELEGATE 1780-1781 TO THE CONTINENTAL CONGRESS, SOLDIER OF THREE WARS, FIRST COMMANDER OF THE PATRIOT FORCES

American University named the home of the American University School of Public Affairs, being the closest building at the time to Ward Circle in honor of Artemas Ward.

WARD, Artemas, soldier, born in Shrewsbury, Massachusetts, in 1727 died there, 28 October, 1800. He was graduated at Harvard in 1748, entered public life at an early age as a representative to the general assembly, and was afterward chosen to the executive council. In 1752 he was a justice of the peace in his native town. In 1755 he served as major in Colonel Abraham Williams's regiment, and in 1758 he was major in the one that was commanded by William Williams. He accompanied the expedition under Gem James Abercrombie against the French and Indians, attaining the rank of lieutenant-colonel, and succeeded to the command of the 3d regiment. Afterward he represented his native town in the legislature, where he took an active part in the controversies between the colonial governors and the house of representatives and was one of the regularly chosen members that were displaced by the "mandamus councillors" in 1774. On 27 October, 1774, he was appointed a brigadier-general by the Provincial congress of Massachusetts, to which he was a delegate, and on 19 May, 1775, he was made commander-in-chief of the Massachusetts forces. He was in nominal command at the battle of Bunker Hill, though he remained at headquarters in Cambridge and had no share in determining the events of that day. On 17 June he was appointed by the Continental congress first on the list of major-generals, and he was in command of the forces besieging Boston until the arrival of General Washington, after which he was second in command, being stationed with the right wing on Rexbury heights. In consequence of impaired health he resigned his commission in April, 1776, but at the request of General Washington he continued to act until the end of May. He was elected chief justice of the court of common pleas of Worcester county in 1776, was president of the Massachusetts executive council in 1777, and a member of the legislature for sixteen years, serving as speaker in 1785. In 1779 he was appointed a delegate to the Continental congress, but, owing to failing health, did not take his seat. Being afterward elected to congress as a Federalist, he served from 4 October, 1791, till 3 March, 1795. He possessed integrity and unyielding principles, and his judicial conduct, especially during Shays's rebellion in 1786, was highly commended.--His son, Artemas, jurist, born in Shrewsbury, Massachusetts, 9 January, 1762 died in Boston, Massachusetts, 7 October, 1847, was graduated at Harvard in 1783, studied law. was admitted to the bar, and practised in Shrewsbury until 1809, when he removed to Boston. He served in the legislature, was a member of the council, and was elected to the 13th congress as a peace candidate, serving from 24 May, 1813, till 3 March, 1817. From 1.820 till 1839 he was chief justice of the court of common pleas. Harvard gave him the degree of LL.D. in 1842.

Edited Appletons Encyclopedia, Copyright © 2001 VirtualologyTM

SEE THIS ALSO: http://www.masshist.org/findingaids/doc.cfm?fa=fa0255 Adde by Elwin Nickerson II about my ancestor -See Citations Below- ARTEMAS WARD FIRST COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 274. ARTEMUS WARD, born November 26, 1727, in Shrewsbury, Mass., died October 28, 1800, in Shrewsbury. He married July 31, 1750, in Groton, Mass., SARAH TROWBRIDGE, born December 3, 1724, in Groton, died December 13, 1788, in Shrewsbury, daughter of the Reverend Caleb and Hannah (Walter) Trowbridge and of direct maternal descent from Increase Mather and John Cotton. This great-grandson of William Ward of Sudbury became his most famous descendant, taking an active part on the patriot side in the decade preceding the Revolution and serving as the first Commander-in-Chief of the Revolutionary forces. His career is fully in the companion volume to this work, his biography, "The Life of Artemas Ward." His birthplace was the house that later achieved local fame as the Baldwin Tavern (see reference under his father, Nahum Ward). He graduated from Harvard College, B.A., 1748, M.A., 1751, and early became prominent in his community, holding numerous town offices. In 1757 he was elected for the first of many terms as Shrewbury's representative in the General Court. The following year he was commissioned as major in William Williams's regiment, raised for the Ticonderoga campaign against the French, winning promotion to lieutenant-colonel, and upon his return being appointed colonel of his militia regiment. In 1762 he was made a judge of the Court of Common Pleas. During these first years following his marriage he lived the "Yellow House," or "Old Sumner House," its site a few feet to the south of the present Sumner House. In 1763 he bought the now famous old "Artemas Ward House" from his brother Elisha and made it his home thenceforth. His activity on the patriot side of the political controversy with England commenced with the Stamp Act agitation and was speedily followed by Governor Bernard's revocation of his commission as colonel-- for which Ward returned his "compliments to the Governor," saying that he considered himself "twice honored, but more in being superseded, than in having been commissioned," and that he thanked him for the letter of dismissal . "since the motive that dictated it is evidence that I am, what he is not, a friend of my country." Two years later (1768) he was elected to the Council in a contest with Lieutenant-Governor Hutchinson, but was promptly vetoed by Bernard. Hutchinson's letter to ex-Governor Pownall, one of several on the subject, describes Ward as "a very sulky fellow, who I thought I could bring over by giving him a commission in the provincial forces after you left the government, but I was mistaken." Ward was elected again in 1769 and again vetoed. On his third election in 1770 he was accepted. He had been marked for slaughter a third time, but Hutchinson (then acting-governor) decided to accept him for fear that a new refusal would "increase the bad spirit in the House and through the province." He was prominent in the Worcester County conventions of 1774, which declared that Massachusetts owed no obedience to the English Parliament, closed the courts, and planned measures in the event of "an invasion, or danger of an invasion" of the county by English troops. He was a delegate to both provincial congresses called to succeed the General Court and was by both named as Second General Officer to command the militia in the event of its being called out by the newly formed Committee of Safety. His old militia regiment meantime reelected him colonel. With the province aroused to this degree, the first overt act meant civil war. This came with the firing at Lexington and the fight at Concord Bridge.

General Ward was ill in bed when the express rider reached Shrewsbury with news of the clash with the British troops, but the next morning at daybreak he was on his way to join the militiamen who had driven the redcoats back to Boston and encamped around the town. So developed the most important and most critical period of General Ward's life. As Jedediah Preble, First General Officer, did not act upon his election, Ward assumed the chief command of the forces surrounding Boston, both those of Massachusetts and those that came in from other New England states. With no rank except that accorded by an informal provincial congress, with no authority to enlist men, without adequate supplies, he took the dangerous post of head of an armed rebellion against one of the world's greatest powers. There was, quite naturally under the circumstances, a good deal of laxity and disorder in the camps, and much restlessness among the men who had left their farms and families at a moment's notice--ready to fight but totally unprepared for a protracted siege and bedeviled by half-patriots subtly poisoning minds and creating dissensions. The conditions stimulated a flood a criticism. Ward was considered overlenient to offenders, and it was charged that he held the reins too loosely. His peculiarly constituted army nevertheless achieved its purpose--it protected the province from the English troops by keeping the province from the English troops by keeping them besieged within the town. Other men were urged for the command, but "both friend and enemy among the leaders of Massachusetts realized that to put another in his place might overnight destroy the province." (This quotation and those following in this brief sketch of General Ward are from "The Life of Artemas Ward, the first Commander-in-Chief of the American Revolution). Ward indeed "filled his most difficult post with so substantial a degree of dexterity that even his most bitter detractor--James Warren of Plymouth--feared the result of making a change and . testified 'we dare not supersede him here.'" Ward was at that time a man of forty-seven years of medium height clean shaven, of prominent features and somewhat corpulent. One may picture him "dressed in the manner of the times--hair in a powdered wig a long coat with silver buttons a figured neckcloth surmounting a ruffled shirt a long waistcoat with big pockets knee-breeches, and riding-boots. A 'God-fearing' man, strongly believing in and living up to the religion he professed quiet, thoughtful, and rather overstern in demeanor somewhat slow in speech and with a biblical turn to his conversation inflexible in his ideas, and fully convinced that the Massachusetts Bay Colony was the land most approved by Providence, and that those of Massachusetts were the Chosen People." The first weeks of the War of the Revolution were punctuated by many alarms, culminating with the third week of June in well authenticated reports that the reenforced English army had determined to raise the siege. To prevent this movement the Committee of Safety made its session of June 15 historic by passing a resolution recommending the Council of War to seize "Bunker's Hill" and suggesting that "some one hill or hills on Dorchester Neck be likewise secured"--those two positions commanding the peninsulas to the north and south of the peninsula of Boston. All histories prior to "The Life of Artemas Ward" have it "that the result of the action of the council of war on this resolution of the Committee of Safety was Ward's order to fortify Bunker Hill--and the resolution and order have been variously interpreted: as a step of almost blind recklessness, a desperate hazard, occasioned by the urgent necessity to do something to check the British plans to raise the siege as a move to offset the British intention to take Dorchester Neck as an act of defiance calculated to bring on a general engagement as the first step in the contemplated expulsion of the English from Boston. "But the determination at which the council of war of June 15 actually arrived was of a character much bolder--no less than a sudden tightening of the lines around the British forces by the simultaneous fortification of both Bunker Hill and Dorchester Neck."

The Dorchester Neck project was set aside because General Thomas, in command of the right wing, did not feel that his division was strong enough to defend such a possession, but on the following day Ward issued his orders for the seizure and fortification of Bunker Hill. Then followed the famous "Battle of Bunker Hill"--the English troops winning the position but at such heavy cost that their generals forthwith renounced all plans for breaking through the American lines. Thus was the Siege of Boston maintained under Ward until the arrival on July 2 of George Washington of Virginia, elected Commander-in-Chief by the Continental Congress in the well-founded hope of uniting the colonies in a common cause against the English government. On Washington's assumption of the chief post, Ward accepted the command of the right wing, with headquarters at Roxbury. Eight months later his division carried through his long cherished object--the seizure and fortification of Dorchester Peninsula. This compelled the evacuation of Boston by the British--who never again, except as prisoners of war, set foot within the present boundaries of Massachusetts. In the following month Washington marched for New York, and Ward took command of the Eastern Department with headquarters in Boston, remaining in that post until March 20, 1777, on the repeated requests of the Continental Congress and Washington, despite serious ill health. Following his resignation, he was active as a state executive: much of the time as president of the Executive Council on a secret committee on Tory movements as president of the Court of Inquiry on the first Rhode Island expedition as president of the Committee of Investigation of the failure of the Penobscot expedition, etc. In 1779 he was elected to the Continental Congress for the year 1780 and became a member of the Continental Board of War. He was reelected for 1781 and 1782, but was compelled to decline the third term because of ill health. His most important service was with Samuel Adams and Nathaniel Gorham on the committee to check the unrest in Hampshire County fomented by Tory agitators. He was again in the General Court as Speaker of the House during the says of Shays' Rebellion. In his other role as a chief justice of the Court of Common Pleas, his determined stand against the insurgents in front of the Worcester courthouse is one of the most dramatic incidents in the history of the county. He was a representative in the second and third United States Congresses, aligning with the federalists and supporting many Washington policies despite the fact that he and Washington never liked each other. "By the summer of 1797 General Ward had begun to feel that his strength was unequal to his judicial duties. On June 12, writing to his daughter Maria and her husband, Dr. Ebenezer Tracy, he says: 'the lawyers in the general court are endeavoring to demolish the Courts of Common Pleas in this Commonwealth & to establish a circuit court in lieu thereof, and it is probable they will effect it. It don't affect me much for I shall soon leave that Court and confine myself at home. I am old & infirm, it is time for me to quit the theatre of action, and while I remain here live a domestic life.' "He sat in court for the last time during the session of December, 1797, and soon after terminated his long career as a judge." He spent the remaining two years of his life in quiet retirement. "His letters show him, in his old age, as in his younger years, full of kindly love for his children and the members of their families--condoling with them in their afflictions, and rejoicing in their happiness, always keeping in the foreground the God he had served so conscientiously all his life, and inculcating the same reliance in, and acceptance of, divine decrees. For himself, he was expecting the end and praying that he might be 'prepared.'"

He died on October 28, 1800. "A long procession of carriages formed his funeral cortege and an impressive address marked the last rites. "Thus closed the career of Artemas Ward, one of the worthiest of Massachusetts' many noble sons. He had played a prominent part in the generation which founded the great republic of the United States. He had stood in the forefront of revolution when the challenge was thrown down to the might of the British Empire, and had held equally resolute against the wrath of compatriots when it ran counter to the best interests of the state or nation. His had been a character of strength and stability which could be swayed neither by favor nor by fear and a life of continuous industry from youth to old age. A character and a life well deserving a high place in the annals of Massachusetts."

The most important recent memorials to General Ward are cited in the Introduction to this volume. The "Artemas Ward House," Shrewsbury, Mass., his home for thirty-seven years, is open to the public every week-day during the summer months. It is a prominent feature of the state road between Boston and Worcester. Its historical associations and it's store of early colonial and revolutionary relics attract many visitors--students, historical writers, and others, in addition to members of the family. His manuscript letters and orders, etc., are widely held. The largest collection is in the Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston, donated by Artemas Ward, 2722, and containing additions from the collections of Catherine Maria (Ward) Barrell, 1340 Roxa Sprague (Dix) Southard, daughter of 2731 Sarah Elizabeth (Dix) Fisher, 2732 Florence Grosvenor Ward, 4403 Josephine Lewis Danforth and Antoinette (Danforth) Smith, 4368 and 4369 and Gertrude Carruth (Washburn) Weeks, daughter of 4348. Also in the Massachusetts Historical Society are his commission as Massachusetts Commander-in-Chief, presented by Catherine Maria (Ward) Barrell, 1340, and reproduced in "The Life of Artemas Ward" his Order Book, donated by Rebuke Langdon (Prince) Lamson, 2738 his sword, the gift of Charles (Carlos) Thomas Atherton Ward, 4418 his own copy of the diary he kept during the Ticonderoga Expedition of 1758, donated by Florence Grosvenor Ward, 4403 and some additional letters bound on the Heath, Pickering, and Thomas MSS. A second important group of manuscripts is in the Massachusetts Archives, Boston. There are two contemporary portraits of General Ward. The better known, that by Charles Willson Peale, in 1794 or 1795, hangs in Independence Hall, Philadelphia, Copies of it are in the Old and New State Houses, Boston the Artemas Ward Annex to the Howe Memorial Library, Shrewsbury the Courthouse, Worcester, Mass. and the homes of Artemas Ward, 2722, Judge Henry Galbraith Ward, 2723, and Agnes (Ward) White, 4385. Mrs. White's copy is a free rendering by Thomas Sully. The photogravure opposite page 106 is, as noted, from the Independence Hall original. The second portrait, by Raphaelle Peale in 1795, is in the Artemas Ward House. A copy is owned by Mrs. C. A. Page (page 156, footnote). There are also numerous heirlooms of General Ward, other than letters, owned by descendants. The gavel that he used as Speaker of the Massachusetts House is in the Old State House, Boston, and the Shrewsbury Congregational Church cherishes the silver communion cups that he gave it in 1769.

THE PRECEDING NUMBERS AND REFERENCES TO PAGES RELATE TO THE ORIGINAL WILLIAM WARD GENEALOGY PUBLISHED IN 1925.

GEDCOM Note

!Service: was an American Revolutionary War commander under George Washington, the first commander-in-chief of the American Revolution.

Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Massachusetts In office March 4, 1791 – March 3, 1795

Artemas Ward (November 26, 1727 – October 28, 1800) was an American major general in the American Revolutionary War and a Congressman from Massachusetts. He was considered an effective political leader, President John Adams describing him as "universally esteemed, beloved and confided in by his army and his country."

Early life and career Artemas Ward was born at Shrewsbury in the Province of Massachusetts Bay in 1727 to Nahum Ward (1684�) and Martha (Howe) Ward.He was the sixth of seven children. His father had broad and successful career interests as a sea captain, merchant, land developer, farmer, lawyer and jurist. As a child he attended the common schools and shared a tutor with his brothers and sisters. He graduated from Harvard in 1748 and taught there briefly.

On July 31, 1750, he married Sarah Trowbridge (December 3, 1724 – December 13, 1788), the daughter of Reverend Caleb Trowbridge and Hannah Trowbridge of Groton. The young couple returned to Shrewsbury where Artemas opened a general store. In the next fifteen years they would have eight children: Ithamar in 1752, Nahum (1754), Sara (1756), Thomas (1758), Artemas Jr. (1762), Henry Dana (1768), Martha (1760), and Maria (1764).

In 1751, at age 23 or 24, he was named a township assessor for Worcester County, the first of many public offices he was to fill.In 1752 he was elected a justice of the peace and to the first of many terms in the Massachusetts provincial assembly, or "general court."

French and Indian War (1754�) In 1755 the Massachusetts militia was restructured for the war Ward was made a major in the 3rd Regiment which drew its company mainly from Worcester County. The 3rd primarily served as a garrison force along the frontier in western Massachusetts. Between 1755 and 1757 Ward was called to active duty at intervals that alternated with his attendance at the General Court. In 1757 he was promoted to regimental colonel of the 3rd Regiment of the militias of Middlesex and Worcester counties. In 1758 the regiment marched with Abercrombie's force to sortie on Fort Ticonderoga, but Ward was sidelined during the campaign by an "attack of the stone."

Between the wars By 1762, Ward returned to Shrewsbury permanently and was named to the Court of Common Pleas. In the General Court (the provincial assembly) he, with Samuel Adams and John Hancock, was appointed to the taxation committee. On the floor, he was second only to James Otis in speaking out against the acts of parliament in London. His prominence in these debates prompted the Royal Governor Francis Bernard to revoke his military commission in 1767. At the next election in 1768, Bernard voided the election results for Worcester and banned Ward from the assembly, but this didn't silence him.

In the growing sentiment favoring rebellion, the 3rd Regiment resigned en masse from British service on October 3, 1774. They then marched on Shrewsbury to inform Ward that they had unanimously elected him their leader. Later that month the governor abolished the assembly. The towns of Massachusetts responded by setting up a colony-wide Committee of Safety. One of the first actions of the Committee was to name Ward as general and commander-in-chief of the colony's militia

American Revolution (1775�) Following the Battle of Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775, the rebel (colonial) forces followed the British troops back to Boston and deployed to start the Siege of Boston, cutting all land access to the city. At first Ward directed his forces from his sickbed (in Schrewsbury), later moving his headquarters to Cambridge. Soon, both the New Hampshire and Connecticut provisional governments named him commander of their forces participating in the siege. Most of his efforts during this time were devoted to organization and supply problems.

Additional British forces arrived, overwater, in May and in June, Ward learned of their plan to attack Bunker Hill. He gave orders to fortify the point, setting the stage for the Battle of Bunker Hill on June 17, 1775. Command during the battle devolved upon General Israel Putnam and Colonel William Prescott.

Meanwhile, the Continental Congress was creating the Continental Army. On June 17 they commissioned Ward a major general, and appointed him second in command to General George Washington. (Ward was one of the original four major generals in the Continental Army along with Charles Lee, Philip Schuyler and Israel Putnam.)Over the next nine months he helped convert the assembled militia units into the Continental Army.

After the British evacuation of Boston on March 17, 1776, Washington led the main body of the army to New York City. Ward took command of the Eastern Department and held that post until March 1777, when ill health forced his resignation from the army.

Post-war and death Even during his military service, Ward also served as a state court justice in 1776 and 1777. From 1777 to 1779, as President of the state's Executive Council, he effectively served as governor before the ratification of the Massachusetts Constitution in 1780. He was continuously elected to the Massachusetts House of Representatives from 1779 through 1785, leading it as Speaker in 1785.

He was appointed a delegate to the Continental Congress in 1780 and 1781,[21]and from 1791 to 1795 was elected twice to the United States House of Representatives.

Ward died at his home in Shrewsbury on October 28, 1800 and was buried with Sarah in the town's Mountain View Cemetery(His great-grandson Artemas Ward wrote The Grocer's Encyclopedia, published in 1911.)

Legacy Town of Ward The Town of Ward, Massachusetts was incorporated in 1778 in honor of Artemas Ward. In 1837 the town was renamed to Auburn, Massachusetts after complaints from the U.S. postal service that the name Ward was too similar to the nearby town of Ware

Artemas Ward House Wards's lifelong home had been built by his father, Nahum, about the time Artemas was born. The home is now known as the Artemas Ward House and is a museum preserved by Harvard University. Located at 786 Main Street in Shrewsbury, Massachusetts it is open to the public for limited hours during the summer months.

Statue of Artemas Ward at Ward Circle, Washington, D.C. Main article: Ward Circle Ward Circle is a traffic circle at the intersection of Nebraska and Massachusetts Avenues in Northwest Washington, D.C. The land on three sides of Ward Circle is owned by American University. The circle contains a statue of Ward.

The great-grandson of Ward gave over four million dollars to Harvard University on the condition that they erect a statue in honor of Ward, and maintain his home in Shrewsbury.[28] Harvard's initial offer in 1927 of $50,000 toward the statue was enough for a statue, but inadequate to provide the general with a horse.

The statue was unveiled on November 3, 1938[30] by Maj. Gen. Ward's great-great-great-granddaughter, Mrs. Lewis Wesley Feick.Although there are no crosswalks for pedestrian access to the circle, the base of the statue bears this inscription:

ARTEMAS WARD 1727� SON OF MASSACHUSETTS GRADUATE OF HARVARD COLLEGE JUDGE AND LEGISLATOR DELEGATE 1780� TO THE CONTINENTAL CONGRESS SOLDIER OF THREE WARS FIRST COMMANDER OF THE PATRIOT FORCES

American University American University named the Ward Circle Building, home of the American University School of Public Affairs, in honor of Artemas Ward, as it was the closest building at the time to Ward Circle. However, it was renamed to Kerwin Hall after their former president Cornelius M. Kerwin in June 2017.[33][34]

  • Residence: Massachusetts
  • Servicio militar: Massachusetts, United States
  • Servicio militar: Aug 18 1775 - Massachusetts, USA
  • Residence: USA - Between 1789 and 1853
  • Residence: Shrewsbury, Worcester, Massachusetts, United States - 1790
  • Servicio militar: 1812 - United States
  • Residence: Chester, Windsor, Vermont, USA - 1840
    • Reference: MyHeritage Family Trees - SmartCopy: Jan 28 2021, 23:51:14 UTC

    Revolutionary War Continental Major General, Continental Congressman, US Congressman. When the American Revolutionary War started in April 1775 with the Battle of Lexington and Concord, Artemas Ward was given command of the militia forces that besieged the British forces in Boston, Massachusetts following the engagement. When the Continental Congress formed the Continental Army in June 1775, he was commissioned Major General in the new army and was named second in command to General George Washington. During the Boston Siege he worked on enlisting the militia members in the the Continental Army, and was given command of the Eastern Military District after the British evacuated Boston in March 1776. He resigned in commission in March 1777 due to ill health. He subsequently served as a delegate in the Continental Congress, and later in his life represented Massachusetts in the United States House of Representatives, serving from 1791 to 1795.


    Artemus Ward

    Artemus Ward was the pen name of Charles Farrar Browne, who was born in Waterford, Maine. The son of a surveyor, storekeeper, and farmer, at 13 he was apprenticed to a printer. He set type for several newspapers in New England before a Boston printshop hired him in 1851. His first humorous sketches, signed "Chub," appeared in the Boston Carpet-bag. During the next 2 years he was a printer in several Ohio towns. In 1853 he became an editor on the Toledo Commercial between 1857 and 1861 he was an editor of the Cleveland Plain Dealer.

    In 1858 Browne wrote a humorous letter purportedly from a traveling showman, Artemus Ward, for the Plain Dealer. Similar pieces appeared in this paper and then in Vanity Fair. He soon became a regular contributor to that comic magazine, moved to New York, and became an editor, serving until 1862. His writings were collected in Artemus Ward: His Book (1862), Artemus Ward: His Travels (1865), and Artemus Ward in London (1867). Ward used many of the procedures employed by a large group of very popular American humorists in the post-Civil War period: he assumed the role of a humorless ignoramus whose writings were studded with malapropisms, misspellings, grammatical errors, and strangely constructed sentences. In time, though, Ward dropped the assumed character and illiterate touches without discontinuing his use of the humor of diction. Helped by tricks of language, he wrote many burlesques and parodies, as well as sketches and travel accounts. Among his many readers was Abraham Lincoln, who read one of Ward's pieces to his Cabinet the day he presented his Emancipation Proclamation.

    Ward profited not only from writings but also from his lectures between 1860 and 1867. In a period when lecturers—on science, philosophy, literature, mesmerism, travel, and other topics—were appearing throughout the nation, Ward traveled through the East, the Midwest, and the Far West burlesquing these solemn and instructive lecturers. Wearing a funereal expression, he pleased audiences by solemnly saying the most absurd things. He was giving a very popular series of comic lectures in London in 1867 when illness forced him to discontinue he died there on March 9.

    Ward was important to a number of humorous writers, notably Mark Twain. Besides being responsible for the publication of Twain's first big success, his "Jumping Frog" story, in an eastern magazine in 1865, Ward provided an invaluable model for comic lecturing, as Twain himself acknowledged.


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Comentarios:

  1. Duggan

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  2. Bonifacio

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  3. Selwine

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  4. Marden

    Estas equivocado. Puedo defender mi posición. Escríbeme en PM.



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