Resultados de la Primaria de Massachusetts 4 de febrero de 2008 - Historia

Resultados de la Primaria de Massachusetts 4 de febrero de 2008 - Historia


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DemócratasVotosPctDelegadosRepublicanosVotosPctDelegados
Clinton704,59256%54McCain

204,027

41%18
Obama511,88741%37Huckabee

19,168

4%`0
Edwards198892%Romney

255,248

51%22
10%Pablo

13,210

3%0
Giuliani2,6423

Cámara de Representantes de Massachusetts

los Cámara de Representantes de Massachusetts es la cámara baja del Tribunal General de Massachusetts. Junto con el Senado del estado de Massachusetts, forma la rama legislativa del gobierno del estado de Massachusetts y trabaja junto con el gobernador de Massachusetts para crear leyes y establecer un presupuesto estatal. La autoridad legislativa y las responsabilidades de la Cámara de Representantes de Massachusetts incluyen aprobar proyectos de ley sobre asuntos de política pública, establecer niveles para el gasto estatal, aumentar y reducir los impuestos y votar para mantener o anular los vetos de los gobernadores.

La Cámara de Representantes de Massachusetts se reúne en la Cámara del Estado en Boston, Massachusetts.

Esta página contiene la siguiente información sobre la Cámara de Representantes de Massachusetts.

  • ¿Qué parte controla la cámara?
  • La membresía actual de la cámara
  • Control partidista de la cámara a lo largo del tiempo en la cámara y cómo se llenan las vacantes.
  • Un mapa del distrito
  • Cómo funciona la redistribución de distritos en el estado que se está considerando actualmente, como las anulaciones de veto y el proceso presupuestario estatal
  • Una lista de comités

Resultados de la Primaria de Massachusetts 4 de febrero de 2008 - Historia

El siguiente en nuestra serie Clase de 2016 es el graduado de Park Hill (MO), Chris Nilsen

El siguiente en nuestra serie Clase de 2016 es el graduado de Park Hill (MO), Chris Nilsen

El siguiente en nuestra serie Clase de 2016 es Grant Holloway, graduado de Grassfield (VA)

Pasamos junto a la graduada de Providence Day School (NC) Anna Cockrell en nuestra serie Clase de 2016

El primer episodio de nuestra serie Clase de 2016 presenta al especialista en 800 metros Bryce Hoppel.

La Clase de 2016 tiene el potencial de pasar a ser una de las mejores clases de su generación.

Joe Battaglia escribió una carta a la inspiradora Gabe Grunewald después de su fallecimiento hace un año.

El equipo de FloTrack viajó a Boston para ver a Elle Purrier y al equipo New Balance Boston.

FloSports presenta: Elle Purrier y el equipo New Balance Boston.

Descubra cómo puede inscribirse en SPIRE Institute & Academy

Más sobre cómo dos atletas olímpicos están ayudando a dar forma al programa SPIRE Track and Field en Geneva, Ohio

Los medallistas de oro Tianna Bartoletta y Dwight Phillips discuten sus roles como embajadores de pista y campo de SPIRE

MileSplit ha actualizado su clasificación subjetiva de las 50 mejores chicas reclutadas en la Clase de 2022.

MileSplit ha actualizado su clasificación subjetiva de los 50 mejores reclutas de niños en la Clase de 2022.

Entrevista a Jason Byrne, creador de MileSplit.com y flrunners.com, quien deja la empresa luego de 24 años ligado al deporte.

Marcus Reilly es uno de los jóvenes de 15 años más rápidos de Estados Unidos. de hecho, es uno de los jóvenes de 15 años más rápidos del mundo.

Gordon Mack de FloTrack habla con los entrenadores del grupo de Dark Sky Distance Shayla Houlihan y Stephen Haas.

Obtenga más información sobre las instalaciones de SPIRE y los entrenadores detrás del SPIRE Institute & Academy

Una mirada a cómo el atletismo ha dado forma a las clasificaciones de prospectos antes del Draft de la NFL de 2021.

Sanya Richards-Ross es la mujer estadounidense más rápida de la historia a 400 metros. Vea su programa de entrenamiento aquí.


Lotería de Massachusetts (MA): busque números y resultados ganadores anteriores

La Lotería del Estado de Massachusetts fue establecida por la legislatura en 1971, en respuesta a la necesidad de ingresos para las 351 ciudades y pueblos del Commonwealth.

La Lotería comenzó con la venta de boletos para su sorteo semanal original llamado The Game en marzo de 1972. Luego, en mayo de 1974, Massachusetts introdujo un juego que revolucionaría la industria de la lotería en los Estados Unidos. El Juego Instantáneo fue el primer boleto raspadito, con un premio instantáneo máximo de $ 10,000. También hubo tres sorteos mensuales en Instant Game, por $ 100,000 y $ 1,000 al año de por vida.

Hoy, la Lotería presenta entre 24 y 28 nuevos juegos instantáneos cada año y es líder nacional en ventas.

La Lotería también ofrece una variedad de juegos en línea o computarizados que incluyen: The Numbers Game, Megabucks, Mass Cash, CASH WinFall, KENO y el juego de varios estados Mega Millions.

Para proporcionar una estructura operativa para la Lotería, la Legislatura estableció una comisión de cinco miembros que incluye al Tesorero del Estado como Presidente, el Secretario de Seguridad Pública, el Contralor del Estado y dos personas designadas por el gobernador.

Los Comisionados supervisan y brindan la aprobación final de los tipos de juegos, los precios al consumidor de los juegos, la estructura de premios de los juegos, los métodos de pago de premios y las licencias de los agentes.

La Comisión de Lotería se reúne periódicamente para discutir todas las operaciones de la Lotería.


Los juicios:

Los juicios se llevaron a cabo en el juzgado de Salem, que estaba ubicado en el centro de Washington Street, a unos 100 pies al sur de Lynde Street, frente a donde se encuentra ahora el Templo Masónico. El palacio de justicia fue demolido en 1760, pero todavía se puede ver una placa dedicada al palacio de justicia en la pared del Templo Masónico en Washington Street.

& # 8220Sitio de Court House donde tuvieron lugar los juicios de brujas, & # 8221 ilustración publicada en New England Magazine, Volumen 5, alrededor de 1892

Bridget Bishop fue la primera persona enjuiciada. Bishop había sido acusado de brujería años antes, pero fue absuelto del crimen.

Bridget fue acusada por cinco de las niñas afectadas, Abigail Williams, Ann Putnam Jr., Mercy Lewis, Mary Walcott y Elizabeth Hubbard, quienes declararon que las había lastimado físicamente y trató de hacerlas firmar un pacto con el diablo.

Durante su juicio, Bishop se defendió repetidamente, afirmando “Soy inocente, no sé nada de eso, no he hecho brujería & # 8230. Soy tan inocente como el niño por nacer & # 8230 & # 8221


Porcentaje de estudiantes en escuelas públicas y privadas en o por encima de varios niveles de logro
Grado 8
Privado Público
Básico 77 64
Competente 43 31
Avanzado 3 2
Enlaces relacionados:

¿Qué significan los niveles de logro?

Nivel básico. denota dominio parcial del conocimiento y las habilidades fundamentales para un trabajo competente en un grado dado.
Nivel competente. representa un rendimiento académico sólido y competencia sobre materias desafiantes. El nivel de competencia se identifica como el estándar que todos los estudiantes deben alcanzar.
Nivel avanzado. significa un desempeño superior en un grado determinado.

Contenido

El estado recibió el nombre del condado de Hampshire, en el sur de Inglaterra, por el capitán John Mason. [13]

New Hampshire es parte de la región de Nueva Inglaterra de seis estados del noreste de los Estados Unidos. Limita con Quebec, Canadá, al norte y noroeste de Maine y el Océano Atlántico al este de Massachusetts al sur y Vermont al oeste. Las principales regiones de New Hampshire son Great North Woods, White Mountains, Lakes Region, Seacoast, Merrimack Valley, Monadnock Region y el área de Dartmouth-Lake Sunapee. New Hampshire tiene la costa oceánica más corta de todos los estados costeros de EE. UU., Con una longitud de 18 millas (29 km), [14] a veces medida como sólo 13 millas (21 km). [15]

La cordillera White Mountains en New Hampshire se extiende por la parte norte-central del estado. El rango incluye Mount Washington, el más alto en el noreste de los EE. UU., Sitio de la segunda velocidad del viento más alta jamás registrada, [16] así como Mount Adams y Mount Jefferson. Con vientos con fuerza de huracán cada tres días en promedio, más de un centenar de muertes registradas entre los visitantes y krumholtz (árboles enanos y enmarañados como una alfombra de árboles bonsai), el clima en los tramos superiores del monte Washington ha inspirado el clima. observatorio en la cima para afirmar que el área tiene el "peor clima del mundo". [17] Las Montañas Blancas fueron el hogar de la formación rocosa llamada el Viejo de la Montaña, un perfil en forma de cara en Franconia Notch, hasta que la formación se desintegró en mayo de 2003. Incluso después de su pérdida, el Viejo sigue siendo un símbolo perdurable para el estado, que se ve en los letreros de las carreteras estatales, en las placas de automóviles y en muchas entidades gubernamentales y privadas alrededor de New Hampshire.

En la esquina suroeste más plana de New Hampshire, el emblemático Monte Monadnock ha dado su nombre a una clase de formas terrestres: una monadnock—Significando, en geomorfología, cualquier pico aislado resistente que surja de una llanura erosionada menos resistente.

Los ríos principales incluyen el río Merrimack de 110 millas (177 km), que divide la mitad inferior del estado de norte a sur antes de pasar a Massachusetts y llegar al mar en Newburyport. Sus afluentes incluyen el río Contoocook, el río Pemigewasset y el río Winnipesaukee. El río Connecticut de 410 millas (660 km), que comienza en los lagos Connecticut de New Hampshire y fluye hacia el sur hasta Connecticut, define la frontera occidental con Vermont. La frontera estatal no está en el centro de ese río, como suele ser el caso, sino en la marca de nivel de agua baja en el lado de Vermont, es decir, todo el río a lo largo de la frontera de Vermont (salvo en las áreas donde el nivel del agua ha sido elevado por un presa) se encuentra dentro de New Hampshire. [18] Sólo una ciudad, Pittsburg, comparte una frontera terrestre con el estado de Vermont. Las "cabeceras más al noroeste" de Connecticut también definen la parte de Canadá-EE. UU. frontera.

El río Piscataqua y sus varios afluentes forman el único puerto oceánico significativo del estado donde desembocan en el Atlántico en Portsmouth. El río Salmon Falls y el Piscataqua definen la parte sur de la frontera con Maine. El límite del río Piscataqua fue objeto de una disputa fronteriza entre New Hampshire y Maine en 2001, con New Hampshire reclamando el dominio sobre varias islas (principalmente la isla de Seavey) que incluyen el Astillero Naval de Portsmouth. La Corte Suprema de Estados Unidos desestimó el caso en 2002, dejando la propiedad de la isla a Maine. Sin embargo, New Hampshire todavía reclama la soberanía de la base. [19]

El más grande de los lagos de New Hampshire es el lago Winnipesaukee, que cubre 71 millas cuadradas (184 km 2) en la parte centro-este de New Hampshire. El lago Umbagog a lo largo de la frontera de Maine, de aproximadamente 12,3 millas cuadradas (31,9 km 2), es un segundo distante. Squam Lake es el segundo lago más grande de New Hampshire.

New Hampshire tiene la costa oceánica más corta de todos los estados de los Estados Unidos, aproximadamente 18 millas (29 km) de largo. [20] Hampton Beach es un popular destino de verano en la zona. A unas 7 millas (11 km) de la costa se encuentran las Islas de Shoals, nueve islas pequeñas (cuatro de las cuales están en New Hampshire) conocidas como el sitio de una colonia de arte del siglo XIX fundada por la poeta Celia Thaxter, y la supuesta ubicación de una de las los tesoros enterrados del pirata Barbanegra.

Es el estado con el mayor porcentaje de superficie forestal en el país. [21] New Hampshire se encuentra en el bioma de bosques templados latifoliados y mixtos. Gran parte del estado, en particular las Montañas Blancas, está cubierto por coníferas y frondosas del norte de los bosques de Nueva Inglaterra y Acadia. La esquina sureste del estado y partes del río Connecticut a lo largo de la frontera de Vermont están cubiertas por robles mixtos de los bosques costeros del noreste. [22] Los numerosos bosques del estado son populares entre los observadores de hojas otoñales que buscan el follaje brillante de los numerosos árboles de hoja caduca.

El tercio norte del estado se conoce localmente como el "país del norte" o "el norte de las muescas", en referencia a los pasos de White Mountain que canalizan el tráfico. Contiene menos del 5% de la población del estado, sufre una pobreza relativamente alta y está perdiendo población constantemente a medida que disminuyen las industrias de tala y papel. Sin embargo, la industria del turismo, en particular los visitantes que van al norte de New Hampshire para esquiar, hacer snowboard, caminar y andar en bicicleta de montaña, ha ayudado a compensar las pérdidas económicas causadas por el cierre de fábricas.

Se prevé que la duración de la temporada de invierno disminuya en las áreas de esquí de New Hampshire debido a los efectos del calentamiento global, que probablemente continuará la contracción histórica y la consolidación de la industria del esquí y amenazará a las empresas y comunidades de esquí individuales que dependen del turismo de esquí. [23]

Clima Editar

New Hampshire experimenta un clima continental húmedo (clasificación climática de Köppen Dfa en algunas zonas del sur, Dfb en la mayor parte del estado, y Dfc subártico en algunas zonas montañosas del norte), con veranos cálidos y húmedos e inviernos largos, fríos y nevados. Las precipitaciones se distribuyen de manera bastante uniforme durante todo el año. El clima de la parte sureste está moderado por el Océano Atlántico y promedia inviernos relativamente más suaves (para New Hampshire), mientras que las partes norte e interior experimentan temperaturas más frías y menor humedad. Los inviernos son fríos y nevados en todo el estado, y especialmente severos en las áreas del norte y montañosas. La nevada anual promedio varía de 60 pulgadas (150 cm) a más de 100 pulgadas (250 cm) en todo el estado. [24]

Los máximos promedio durante el día oscilan entre los 70 ° F y los 80 ° F (24-28 ° C) en todo el estado en julio, con mínimos durante la noche entre los 50 ° F y los 60 ° F (13-15 ° C). Las temperaturas de enero oscilan entre un máximo promedio de 34 ° F (1 ° C) en la costa hasta mínimos nocturnos por debajo de 0 ° F (−18 ° C) en el extremo norte y en elevaciones altas. La precipitación anual promedio en todo el estado es de aproximadamente 40 pulgadas (100 cm) con algunas variaciones en las Montañas Blancas debido a las diferencias en la elevación y las nevadas anuales. La temperatura más alta registrada en New Hampshire fue de 41 ° C (106 ° F) en Nashua el 4 de julio de 1911, mientras que la temperatura más baja registrada fue de -44 ° C (-47 ° F) en la cima del monte Washington el 29 de enero de 1934. Mount Washington también vio una lectura no oficial de -50 ° F (-46 ° C) el 22 de enero de 1885, que, si se hiciera oficial, igualaría el récord mínimo de todos los tiempos para Nueva Inglaterra (también -50 ° F (-46 ° C) en Big Black River, Maine, el 16 de enero de 2009 y Bloomfield, Vermont el 30 de diciembre de 1933).

La nieve extrema a menudo se asocia con una tormenta del nordeste, como la ventisca del 78 y la ventisca de 1993, cuando se acumularon varios pies en partes del estado durante 24 a 48 horas. Las nevadas más ligeras de varias pulgadas ocurren con frecuencia durante el invierno, a menudo asociadas con un Alberta Clipper.

New Hampshire, en ocasiones, se ve afectado por huracanes y tormentas tropicales, aunque cuando llegan al estado a menudo son extratropicales, y la mayoría de las tormentas golpean la costa sur de Nueva Inglaterra y se mueven tierra adentro o pasan mar adentro en el Golfo de Maine. La mayor parte de New Hampshire tiene un promedio de menos de 20 días de tormentas eléctricas por año y un promedio de dos tornados ocurren anualmente en todo el estado. [25]

El mapa de zonas de rusticidad de plantas de la National Arbor Day Foundation muestra las zonas 3, 4, 5 y 6 que ocurren en todo el estado [26] e indica la transición de un clima relativamente más frío a uno más cálido a medida que se viaja hacia el sur a través de New Hampshire. Las zonas de rusticidad de las plantas del USDA de 1990 para New Hampshire van desde la zona 3b en el norte hasta la zona 5b en el sur. [27]


Resultados de la Primaria de Massachusetts 4 de febrero de 2008 - Historia

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Contenido

Gore nació en Washington, DC, [12] el segundo de dos hijos de Albert Gore Sr., un representante de los EE. UU. Que luego se desempeñó durante 18 años como senador de los EE. UU. Por Tennessee, y Pauline (LaFon) Gore, una de las primeras mujeres para graduarse de la Facultad de Derecho de la Universidad de Vanderbilt. [13] Gore es descendiente de inmigrantes escoceses irlandeses que se establecieron por primera vez en Virginia a mediados del siglo XVII y se trasladaron a Tennessee después de la Guerra Revolucionaria. [14] Su hermana mayor Nancy LaFon Gore murió de cáncer de pulmón. [15]

Durante el año escolar vivió con su familia en The Fairfax Hotel en la sección Embassy Row en Washington DC [16] Durante los meses de verano, trabajó en la granja familiar en Carthage, Tennessee, donde los Gores cultivaban tabaco y heno [17] [ 18] y cría de ganado. [19]

Gore asistió a St. Albans School, un día de preparación universitaria independiente y un internado para niños en Washington, D.C. de 1956 a 1965, una prestigiosa escuela secundaria para la Ivy League. [20] [21] Era el capitán del equipo de fútbol, ​​lanzaba disco para el equipo de atletismo y participaba en baloncesto, arte y gobierno. [13] [16] [22] Se graduó en el puesto 25 en una clase de 51, postuló a una universidad, Harvard, y fue aceptado. [20] [21]

Gore conoció a Mary Elizabeth "Tipper" Aitcheson en su baile de graduación de St. Albans en 1965. Ella era de la cercana escuela St. Agnes. [16] Tipper siguió a Gore a Boston para asistir a la universidad, [15] y se casaron en la Catedral Nacional de Washington el 19 de mayo de 1970. [15] [23] [24] [25]

Tienen cuatro hijos: Karenna Gore (n. 1973), Kristin Carlson Gore (n. 1977), Sarah LaFon Gore (n. 1979) y Albert Arnold Gore III (n. 1982). [26]

En junio de 2010 (poco después de comprar una nueva casa), [27] los Gores anunciaron en un correo electrónico a sus amigos que después de "una consideración larga y cuidadosa" habían tomado la decisión mutua de separarse. [28] [29] En mayo de 2012, se informó que Gore comenzó a salir con Elizabeth Keadle de Rancho Santa Fe, [30] California. [31]

Harvard

Gore se matriculó en la Universidad de Harvard en 1965. Inicialmente planeó especializarse en inglés y escribir novelas, pero luego decidió especializarse en gobierno. [20] [21] En su segundo día en el campus, comenzó a hacer campaña para el consejo de gobierno estudiantil de primer año y fue elegido presidente. [21]

Gore era un ávido lector que se enamoró de las teorías científicas y matemáticas, [21] pero no le fue bien en las clases de ciencias y evitó tomar matemáticas. [20] Durante sus primeros dos años, sus calificaciones lo colocaron en la quinta parte inferior de su clase. Durante su segundo año, según los informes, pasó gran parte de su tiempo viendo televisión, jugando al billar y ocasionalmente fumando marihuana. [20] [21] En sus años junior y senior, se involucró más con sus estudios, obteniendo A y Bs. [20] En su último año, tomó una clase con el oceanógrafo y teórico del calentamiento global Roger Revelle, quien despertó el interés de Gore en el calentamiento global y otros problemas ambientales. [21] [32] Gore obtuvo una A en su tesis, "El impacto de la televisión en la conducción de la presidencia, 1947-1969", y se graduó con una A.B. cum laude en junio de 1969. [20] [33]

Gore estaba en la universidad durante la era de las protestas contra la guerra de Vietnam. Estaba en contra de esa guerra, pero no estaba de acuerdo con las tácticas del movimiento de protesta estudiantil. Pensó que era tonto y juvenil usar una universidad privada como lugar para desahogar la ira por la guerra. [21] Él y sus amigos no participaron en las manifestaciones de Harvard. John Tyson, un ex compañero de cuarto, recordó que "Desconfiábamos mucho de estos movimientos. Éramos un grupo de muchachos bastante tradicionales, positivos para los derechos civiles y los derechos de las mujeres pero formales, transformados por la revolución social hasta cierto punto pero no comprándonos en algo que considerado perjudicial para nuestro país ". [21] [34] Gore ayudó a su padre a escribir un discurso contra la guerra en la Convención Nacional Demócrata de 1968, pero se quedó con sus padres en su habitación de hotel durante las violentas protestas. [21]

Servicio militar

Cuando Gore se graduó en 1969, inmediatamente se convirtió en elegible para el reclutamiento militar. Su padre, un crítico acérrimo contra la guerra de Vietnam, se enfrentaba a una reelección en 1970. Gore finalmente decidió que alistarse en el ejército sería el mejor camino entre servir a su país, sus valores e intereses personales. Aunque casi todos sus compañeros de Harvard evitaron el reclutamiento y el servicio en Vietnam, [35] Gore creía que si encontraba una forma de eludir el servicio militar, le estaría pasando un problema al oponente republicano de su padre. [36] Según la biografía del Senado de Gore, "Apareció en uniforme en los comerciales de campaña de su padre, uno de los cuales terminaba con su padre aconsejando: 'Hijo, siempre ama a tu país'". [37] A pesar de esto, Gore Sr. perdió la elección ante un oponente que lo superó enormemente en recaudación de fondos. Posteriormente, la comisión Watergate descubrió que este oponente había aceptado dinero ilegal de los operativos de Nixon. [36]

Gore ha dicho que su otra razón para alistarse fue que no quería que alguien con menos opciones que él fuera en su lugar. [38] El actor Tommy Lee Jones, un ex compañero de piso de la universidad, recordó a Gore diciendo que "si encontraba una forma elegante de no ir, alguien más tendría que ir en su lugar". [21] [39] Su asesor de Harvard, Richard Neustadt, también declaró que Gore decidió, "que tendría que ir como alistado porque, dijo, 'En Tennessee, eso es lo que la mayoría de la gente tiene que hacer". "Además, Michael Roche, editor de Gore para El mensajero del castillo, declaró que "cualquiera que haya conocido a Al Gore en Vietnam sabe que podría haberse sentado en su trasero y no lo hizo". [36]

Después de alistarse en agosto de 1969, Gore regresó al campus de Harvard contra la guerra con su uniforme militar para despedirse de su asesor y los estudiantes lo "abuchearon". [15] [21] Más tarde dijo que estaba asombrado por el "campo emocional de negatividad y desaprobación y miradas penetrantes que. Ciertamente se sentían como un odio real". [21]

Gore recibió entrenamiento básico en Fort Dix de agosto a octubre, y luego fue asignado como periodista en Fort Rucker, Alabama. [36] En abril de 1970, fue nombrado "Soldado del mes" de Rucker. [15]

Sus órdenes de ser enviado a Vietnam se "retrasaron" durante algún tiempo y la familia Gore sospechaba que esto se debía al temor de la administración Nixon de que si algo le sucedía, su padre obtendría votos de simpatía. [36] Finalmente fue enviado a Vietnam el 2 de enero de 1971, después de que su padre perdiera su escaño en el Senado durante las elecciones del Senado de 1970, convirtiéndose en uno "de solo una docena de los 1,115 graduados de Harvard en la promoción del 69 que fue a Vietnam ". [36] [40] [41] Gore estaba destinado con la 20ª Brigada de Ingenieros en Bien Hoa y era periodista con El mensajero del castillo. [42] Recibió una baja honorable del Ejército en mayo de 1971. [15]

De su tiempo en el ejército, Gore declaró más tarde: "No hice más, ni corrí el peligro más grave. Pero estaba orgulloso de usar el uniforme de mi país". [39] También declaró más tarde que su experiencia en Vietnam

no cambió mis conclusiones acerca de que la guerra fue un terrible error, pero me sorprendió que los oponentes a la guerra, incluyéndome a mí, realmente no tomamos en cuenta el hecho de que había una gran cantidad de vietnamitas del sur que querían desesperadamente aguantar a lo que llamaron libertad. Enfrentarme cara a cara con esos sentimientos expresados ​​por las personas que lavaban la ropa y dirigían los restaurantes y trabajaban en el campo era algo para lo que ingenuamente no estaba preparado. [43]

Vanderbilt y el periodismo

Gore estaba "desanimado" después de su regreso de Vietnam. [37] NashvillePost.com señaló que, "la derrota de su padre hizo que el servicio en un conflicto al que se oponía profundamente fuera aún más aborrecible a Gore. Sus experiencias en la zona de guerra no parecen haber sido profundamente traumáticas en sí mismas, aunque los ingenieros a veces fueron despedidos. Después, Gore ha dicho que no vio un combate a gran escala. Aún así, sintió que su participación en la guerra estaba mal ". [40]

Aunque sus padres querían que fuera a la facultad de derecho, Gore asistió por primera vez a la Escuela de Divinidad de la Universidad de Vanderbilt (1971–72) con una beca de la Fundación Rockefeller para personas que planificaban carreras seculares. Más tarde dijo que fue allí para explorar "cuestiones espirituales", [26] y que "había esperado dar sentido a las injusticias sociales que parecían desafiar sus creencias religiosas". [44]

En 1971, Gore también comenzó a trabajar el turno de noche para El Tennessean como reportero de investigación. [45] Sus investigaciones de corrupción entre miembros del Consejo Metropolitano de Nashville resultaron en el arresto y procesamiento de dos concejales por delitos separados. [40]

En 1974, se ausentó de El Tennessean para asistir a la Facultad de Derecho de la Universidad de Vanderbilt. Su decisión de convertirse en abogado fue un resultado parcial de su tiempo como periodista, ya que se dio cuenta de que, si bien podía exponer la corrupción, no podía cambiarla. [26] Gore no completó la escuela de derecho, y decidió abruptamente, en 1976, postularse para un escaño en la Cámara de Representantes de los Estados Unidos cuando descubrió que el antiguo escaño de su padre en la Cámara estaba a punto de quedar vacante. [26] [46]

Gore comenzó a servir en el Congreso de los Estados Unidos a la edad de 28 años y permaneció allí durante los siguientes 16 años, sirviendo tanto en la Cámara (1977-1985) como en el Senado (1985-1993). [45] Gore pasó muchos fines de semana en Tennessee, trabajando con sus electores. [13] [37]

Cámara y Senado

A fines de febrero de 1976, el Representante de los Estados Unidos Joe L.Evins anunció inesperadamente su retiro del Congreso, convirtiéndose en el cuarto asiento de distrito del Congreso de Tennessee, al que había sucedido a Albert Gore Sr. en 1953. Horas después El Tennessean el editor John Seigenthaler Sr. lo llamó para decirle que el anuncio estaba próximo, [46] Gore decidió dejar la facultad de derecho y postularse para la Cámara de Representantes:

La abrupta decisión de Gore de postularse para el asiento libre sorprendió incluso a él mismo. Más tarde dijo que "no me di cuenta de que me habían echado tanto para atrás". La noticia fue una "bomba" para su esposa. Tipper Gore tenía un trabajo en El Tennessean en el laboratorio fotográfico y estaba cursando una maestría en psicología, pero se unió a la campaña de su esposo (con la seguridad de que podría conseguir su trabajo en El Tennessean volver si perdía). Por el contrario, Gore le pidió a su padre que se mantuviera al margen de su campaña: "Debo convertirme en mi propio hombre", explicó. "No debo ser su candidato". [37]

Gore ganó las primarias demócratas de 1976 para el distrito con "32 por ciento de los votos, tres puntos porcentuales más que su rival más cercano", y solo se opuso un candidato independiente en las elecciones, registrando el 94 por ciento de los votos totales. [47] Luego ganó las siguientes tres elecciones, en 1978, 1980 y 1982, donde "no tuvo oposición dos veces y ganó el 79 por ciento de los votos la otra vez". [47] En 1984, Gore se postuló con éxito para un escaño en el Senado de los Estados Unidos, que había sido dejado vacante por el líder de la mayoría republicana en el Senado, Howard Baker. No tuvo "oposición en las primarias demócratas del Senado y ganó las elecciones generales yendo lejos", a pesar del hecho de que el presidente republicano Ronald Reagan arrasó con Tennessee en su campaña de reelección el mismo año. [47] Gore derrotó al candidato republicano al senador Victor Ashe, posteriormente alcalde de Knoxville, y al republicano convertido en independiente, Ed McAteer, fundador de la organización de la Mesa Redonda Religiosa de la derecha cristiana que había trabajado para elegir a Reagan como presidente en 1980. [48]

Durante su tiempo en el Congreso, Gore fue considerado un "moderado" una vez que se refirió a sí mismo como un "moderado furioso" [49] que se oponía a la financiación federal del aborto, votaba a favor de un proyecto de ley que apoyaba un momento de silencio en las escuelas y votaba en contra. prohibición de las ventas interestatales de armas. [50] En 1981, se citó a Gore diciendo con respecto a la homosexualidad: "Creo que está mal" y "No pretendo entenderlo, pero no es simplemente otro estilo de vida opcional normal". En su carrera por el Senado de 1984, Gore dijo al hablar de la homosexualidad: "No creo que sea simplemente una alternativa aceptable que la sociedad deba afirmar". También dijo que no tomaría fondos de campaña de grupos de derechos de los homosexuales. [51] Aunque mantuvo una posición contra la homosexualidad y el matrimonio gay en la década de 1980, Gore dijo en 2008 que pensaba que "los hombres y mujeres homosexuales deberían tener los mismos derechos que los hombres y mujeres heterosexuales para unirse en matrimonio". [52] Su posición como moderado (y en las políticas relacionadas con esa etiqueta) cambió más adelante en la vida después de que se convirtió en vicepresidente y se postuló para presidente en 2000. [53]

Durante su mandato en la Cámara, Gore votó a favor del proyecto de ley que establece el Día de Martin Luther King Jr. como feriado federal. [54] Si bien Gore inicialmente no votó sobre la Ley de Restauración de Derechos Civiles de 1987 en enero de 1988, [55] votó para anular el veto del presidente Reagan en marzo siguiente. [56] Gore votó en contra de la nominación de William Rehnquist como presidente del Tribunal Supremo de los Estados Unidos, [57] así como de las nominaciones de Robert Bork y Clarence Thomas a la Corte Suprema de los Estados Unidos.

Durante su tiempo en la Cámara, Gore se sentó en los comités de Energía y Comercio y Ciencia y Tecnología, presidiendo el Subcomité de Supervisión e Investigaciones del Comité de Ciencia durante cuatro años. [47] También formó parte del Comité de Inteligencia de la Cámara y, en 1982, presentó el Plan Gore para el control de armas, para "reducir las posibilidades de un primer ataque nuclear cortando múltiples ojivas y desplegando lanzadores móviles de una sola ojiva". [37] Mientras estuvo en el Senado, participó en los Comités de Seguridad Nacional y Asuntos Gubernamentales, Reglas y Administración y Servicios Armados. [37] En 1991, Gore fue uno de los diez demócratas que apoyaron la Guerra del Golfo. [37]

Gore fue considerado como uno de los Demócratas de Atari, recibió este nombre debido a su "pasión por las cuestiones tecnológicas, desde la investigación biomédica y la ingeniería genética hasta el impacto ambiental del" efecto invernadero ". [37] El 19 de marzo de 1979, se había convertido en el primer miembro del Congreso en aparecer en C-SPAN. [58] Durante este tiempo, Gore copresidió la Cámara de Compensación sobre el Futuro del Congreso con Newt Gingrich. [59] Además, ha sido descrito como un "nerd genuino, con una reputación de geek que se remonta a sus días como futurista Demócrata Atari en la casa. Antes de que las computadoras fueran comprensibles, y mucho menos sexy, Gore, con cara de póquer, luchaba por explicar la inteligencia artificial y las redes de fibra óptica a sus colegas somnolientos ". [37] [60] Los pioneros de Internet Vint Cerf y Bob Kahn señalaron que,

Ya en la década de 1970, el congresista Gore promovió la idea de las telecomunicaciones de alta velocidad como motor tanto para el crecimiento económico como para la mejora de nuestro sistema educativo. Fue el primer funcionario electo en comprender el potencial de las comunicaciones por computadora para tener un impacto más amplio que simplemente mejorar la conducción de la ciencia y la erudición. Internet, como la conocemos hoy, no se implementó hasta 1983. Cuando Internet aún se encontraba en las primeras etapas de su implementación, el congresista Gore brindó liderazgo intelectual al ayudar a crear la visión de los beneficios potenciales de la informática y las comunicaciones de alta velocidad. [61]

Gore introduced the Supercomputer Network Study Act of 1986. [62] He also sponsored hearings on how advanced technologies might be put to use in areas like coordinating the response of government agencies to natural disasters and other crises. [61]

As a Senator, Gore began to craft the High Performance Computing Act of 1991 (commonly referred to as "The Gore Bill") after hearing the 1988 report Toward a National Research Network submitted to Congress by a group chaired by UCLA professor of computer science, Leonard Kleinrock, one of the central creators of the ARPANET (the ARPANET, first deployed by Kleinrock and others in 1969, is the predecessor of the Internet). [63] [64] [65] The bill was passed on December 9, 1991, and led to the National Information Infrastructure (NII) which Gore referred to as the "information superhighway". [66]

After joining the House of Representatives, Gore held the "first congressional hearings on the climate change, and co-sponsor[ed] hearings on toxic waste and global warming". [67] [68] He continued to speak on the topic throughout the 1980s. [37] [69] [70] In 1990, Senator Gore presided over a three-day conference with legislators from over 42 countries which sought to create a Global Marshall Plan, "under which industrial nations would help less developed countries grow economically while still protecting the environment". [71]

Son's 1989 accident and first book

On April 3, 1989, Al, Tipper and their six-year-old son Albert were leaving a baseball game. Albert ran across the street to see his friend and was hit by a car. He was thrown 30 feet (9 m) and then traveled along the pavement for another 20 feet (6 m). [13] Gore later recalled: "I ran to his side and held him and called his name, but he was motionless, limp and still, without breath or pulse. His eyes were open with the nothingness stare of death, and we prayed, the two of us, there in the gutter, with only my voice." [13] Albert was tended to by two nurses who happened to be present during the accident. The Gores spent the next month in the hospital with Albert. Gore also commented: "Our lives were consumed with the struggle to restore his body and spirit." [13] This event was "a trauma so shattering that [Gore] views it as a moment of personal rebirth", a "key moment in his life" which "changed everything". [13]

In August 1991, Gore announced that his son's accident was a factor in his decision not to run for president during the 1992 presidential election. [72] Gore stated: "I would like to be President. But I am also a father, and I feel deeply about my responsibility to my children. I didn't feel right about tearing myself away from my family to the extent that is necessary in a Presidential campaign." [72] During this time, Gore wrote Earth in the Balance, a text that became the first book written by a sitting U.S. Senator to make Los New York Times Best Seller list since John F. Kennedy's Profiles in Courage. [37]

Gore campaigned for the Democratic Party nomination for President of the United States against Joe Biden, Gary Hart, Dick Gephardt, Paul Simon, Jesse Jackson, and Michael Dukakis (who eventually won the Democratic nomination). Gore carried seven states in the primaries, finishing third overall.

Although Gore initially denied that he intended to run, his candidacy was the subject of speculation: "National analysts make Sen. Gore a long-shot for the Presidential nomination, but many believe he could provide a natural complement for any of the other candidates: a young, attractive, moderate Vice Presidential nominee from the South. He currently denies any interest, but he carefully does not reject the idea out of hand." [16] At the time, he was 39 years old, making him the "youngest serious Presidential candidate since John F. Kennedy". [dieciséis]

CNN noted that, "in 1988, for the first time, 12 Southern states would hold their primaries on the same day, dubbed "Super Tuesday". Gore thought he would be the only serious Southern contender he had not counted on Jesse Jackson." [73] Jackson defeated Gore in the South Carolina Primary, winning, "more than half the total vote, three times that of his closest rival here, Senator Albert Gore Jr. of Tennessee". [74] Gore next placed great hope on Super Tuesday where they split the Southern vote: Jackson winning Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi and Virginia Gore winning Arkansas, North Carolina, Kentucky, Nevada, Tennessee, and Oklahoma. [37] [73] [75] Gore was later endorsed by New York City Mayor Ed Koch who made statements in favor of Israel and against Jackson. These statements cast Gore in a negative light, [73] leading voters away from Gore who received only 10% of the vote in the New York Primary. Gore then dropped out of the race. [37] Los New York Times said that Gore also lost support due to his attacks against Jackson, Dukakis, and others. [76]

Gore was eventually able to mend fences with Jackson, who supported the Clinton-Gore ticket in 1992 and 1996, and campaigned for the Gore-Lieberman ticket during the 2000 presidential election. [77] [78] Gore's policies changed substantially in 2000, reflecting his eight years as vice president. [79]

Gore was initially hesitant to be Bill Clinton's running mate for the 1992 United States presidential election, but after clashing with the George H. W. Bush administration over global warming issues, he decided to accept the offer. [37] Clinton stated that he chose Gore due to his foreign policy experience, work with the environment, and commitment to his family. [80] [81]

Clinton's choice was criticized as unconventional because rather than picking a running mate who would diversify the ticket, Clinton chose a fellow Southerner who shared his political ideologies and who was nearly the same age as Clinton. [37] [80] [82] The Washington Bureau Chief for The Baltimore Sun, Paul West, later suggested that, "Al Gore revolutionized the way Vice Presidents are made. When he joined Bill Clinton's ticket, it violated the old rules. Regional diversity? Not with two Southerners from neighboring states. Ideological balance? A couple of left-of-center moderates. . And yet, Gore has come to be regarded by strategists in both parties as the best vice presidential pick in at least 20 years." [83]

Clinton and Gore accepted the nomination at the Democratic National Convention on July 17, 1992. [84] [85] Known as the Baby Boomer Ticket y el Fortysomething Team, Los New York Times noted that if elected, Clinton and Gore, at ages 45 and 44 respectively, would be the "youngest team to make it to the White House in the country's history". [80] [86] Theirs was the first ticket since 1972 to try to capture the youth vote. Gore called the ticket "a new generation of leadership". [80] [87]

The ticket increased in popularity after the candidates traveled with their wives, Hillary and Tipper, on a "six-day, 1,000-mile bus ride, from New York to St. Louis". [88] Gore also debated the other vice presidential candidates, Dan Quayle, and James Stockdale. The Clinton-Gore ticket beat the Bush-Quayle ticket, 43%–38%. [37]

Al Gore served as vice president during the Clinton Administration. Clinton and Gore were inaugurated on January 20, 1993. At the beginning of the first term, they developed a "two-page agreement outlining their relationship". Clinton committed himself to regular lunch meetings he recognized Gore as a principal adviser on nominations and appointed some of Gore's chief advisers to key White House staff positions. Clinton involved Gore in decision-making to an unprecedented degree for a vice president. Through their weekly lunches and daily conversations, Gore became the president's "indisputable chief adviser". [37]

However, Gore had to compete with First Lady Hillary for President Clinton's influence, starting when she was appointed to the health-care task force without Gore's consultation. Vanity Fair wrote that President Clinton's "failure to confide in his vice president was a telling sign of the real pecking order", and reported "it was an open secret that some of Hillary's advisers. nurtured dreams that Hillary, not Gore, would follow Bill in the presidency". [89] [90]

Gore had a particular interest in reducing "waste, fraud, and abuse in the federal government and advocated trimming the size of the bureaucracy and the number of regulations". [37] During the Clinton Administration, the U.S. economy expanded, according to David Greenberg (professor of history and media studies at Rutgers University) who said that "by the end of the Clinton presidency, the numbers were uniformly impressive. Besides the record-high surpluses and the record-low poverty rates, the economy could boast the longest economic expansion in history the lowest unemployment since the early 1970s and the lowest poverty rates for single mothers, black Americans, and the aged." [91]

According to Leslie Budd, author of E-economy: Rhetoric or Business Reality, this economic success was due, in part, to Gore's continued role as an Atari Democrat, promoting the development of information technology, which led to the dot-com boom (c. 1995–2001). [92] Clinton and Gore entered office planning to finance research that would "flood the economy with innovative goods and services, lifting the general level of prosperity and strengthening American industry". [93] Their overall aim was to fund the development of, "robotics, smart roads, biotechnology, machine tools, magnetic-levitation trains, fiber-optic communications and national computer networks. Also earmarked [were] a raft of basic technologies like digital imaging and data storage." [93] Critics claimed that the initiatives would "backfire, bloating Congressional pork and creating whole new categories of Federal waste". [93]

During the election and his term as vice president, Gore popularized the term Information Superhighway, which became synonymous with the Internet, and he was involved in the creation of the National Information Infrastructure. [93] Gore first discussed his plans to emphasize information technology at UCLA on January 11, 1994, in a speech at The Superhighway Summit. On March 29, 1994, Gore made the inaugural keynote to a Georgetown University symposium on governmental reform [a] with a lecture entitled, "The new job of the federal executive". Gore spoke on how technology was changing the nature of government, public administration, and management in general, noting that while in the past deep hierarchical structures were necessary to manage large organizations, technology was offering more accurate and streamlined access to information, thus facilitating flatter management structures. [94] [95] He was involved in a number of projects including NetDay'96 and 24 Hours in Cyberspace. The Clinton–Gore administration also launched the first official White House website in 1994 and subsequent versions through 2000. [96] During 1993 and early 1994, Gore was tapped by the administration to advocate for the adoption of the Clipper Chip, a technology developed by the National Security Agency designed to provide for law enforcement access to encrypted communications. After political and technical objections, the initiative was essentially dropped. [97] [98] [99]

Gore was also involved in environmental initiatives. He launched the GLOBE program on Earth Day '94, an education and science activity that, according to Forbes magazine, "made extensive use of the Internet to increase student awareness of their environment". [100] In 1998, Gore began promoting a NASA satellite (Deep Space Climate Observatory) that would provide a constant view of the Earth, marking the first time such an image would have been made since The Blue Marble photo from the 1972 Apollo 17 mission. [101] During this time, he also became associated with Digital Earth. [102]

Gore negotiated and strongly supported the Kyoto Protocol to reduce greenhouse gasses, but said upon his return that the administration would not submit the treaty to the Senate for ratification until it was amended to include "meaningful participation by key developing nations", [103] [104] [105] The Senate had previously passed unanimously (95–0) the Byrd–Hagel Resolution (S. Res. 98), which declared opposition to any greenhouse gas treaty which would limit US emissions without similar limits on third-world countries such as China. [106] [107] The Clinton administration left office three years later without having submitted the treaty for ratification.

The U.S. Department of Justice investigation into the fund-raising activities had uncovered evidence that Chinese agents sought to direct contributions from foreign sources to the Democratic National Committee (DNC) before the 1996 presidential campaign. The Chinese embassy in Washington, D.C. was used for coordinating contributions to the DNC. [108] [109] FBI agents were denied the opportunity to ask President Bill Clinton and Vice President Al Gore questions during Justice Department interviews in 1997 and 1998 and were only allowed to take notes. [110]

In 1996, Gore became involved in a "Chinagate" campaign finance controversy over his attendance at an event at the Buddhist Hsi Lai Temple in Hacienda Heights, California. [37] In an interview on NBC's Hoy dia the following year, Gore said, "I did not know that it was a fund-raiser. I knew it was a political event, and I knew there were finance people that were going to be present, and so that alone should have told me, 'This is inappropriate and this is a mistake don't do this.' And I take responsibility for that. It was a mistake." [111] In March 1997, Gore had to explain phone calls which he made to solicit funds for Democratic Party for the 1996 election. [112] In a news conference, Gore stated that, "all calls that I made were charged to the Democratic National Committee. I was advised there was nothing wrong with that. My counsel tells me there is no controlling legal authority that says that is any violation of any law." [113] The phrase "no controlling legal authority" was criticized by columnist Charles Krauthammer, who stated: "Whatever other legacies Al Gore leaves behind between now and retirement, he forever bequeaths this newest weasel word to the lexicon of American political corruption." [114] Robert Conrad Jr. was the head of a Justice Department task force appointed by Attorney General Janet Reno to investigate Gore's fund-raising controversies. In Spring 2000, Conrad asked Reno to appoint an independent counsel to continue the investigation. After looking into the matter, Reno judged that the appointment of an independent counsel was unwarranted. [115]

During the 1990s, Gore spoke out on a number of issues. In a 1992 speech on the Gulf War, Gore stated that he twice attempted to get the U.S. government to pull the plug on support to Saddam Hussein, citing Hussein's use of poison gas, support of terrorism, and his burgeoning nuclear program, but was opposed both times by the Reagan and Bush administrations. [116] In the wake of the Al-Anfal Campaign, during which Hussein staged deadly mustard and nerve gas attacks on Kurdish Iraqis, Gore cosponsored the Prevention of Genocide Act of 1988, which would have cut all assistance to Iraq. [116] The bill was defeated in part due to intense lobbying of Congress by the Reagan-Bush White House and a veto threat from President Reagan. [116] In 1998, at a conference of APEC hosted by Malaysia, Gore objected to the indictment, arrest and jailing of Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad's longtime second-in-command Anwar Ibrahim, a move which received a negative response from leaders there. [117] Ten years later, Gore again protested when Ibrahim was arrested a second time, [118] a decision condemned by Malaysian foreign minister Datuk Seri Dr Rais Yatim. [118]

Soon afterward, Gore also had to contend with the Lewinsky scandal, which involved an affair between President Clinton and a White House intern, Monica Lewinsky. Gore initially defended Clinton, whom he believed to be innocent, stating, "He is the president of the country! He is my friend . I want to ask you now, every single one of you, to join me in supporting him." [37] After Clinton was impeached, Gore continued to defend him stating, "I've defined my job in exactly the same way for six years now . to do everything I can to help him be the best president possible." [37] [89] [90]

There was talk of a potential run in the 2000 presidential race by Gore as early as January 1998. [119] Gore discussed the possibility of running during a March 9, 1999, interview with CNN's Late Edition with Wolf Blitzer. In response to Wolf Blitzer's question: "Why should Democrats, looking at the Democratic nomination process, support you instead of Bill Bradley", Gore responded:

I'll be offering my vision when my campaign begins. And it will be comprehensive and sweeping. And I hope that it will be compelling enough to draw people toward it. I feel that it will be. But it will emerge from my dialogue with the American people. I've traveled to every part of this country during the last six years. During my service in the United States Congress, I took the initiative in creating the Internet. I took the initiative in moving forward a whole range of initiatives that have proven to be important to our country's economic growth and environmental protection, improvements in our educational system. [120]

Former UCLA professor of information studies Philip E. Agre and journalist Eric Boehlert argued that three articles in Wired News led to the creation of the widely spread urban legend that Gore claimed to have "invented the Internet", which followed this interview. [121] [122] [123] [124] In addition, computer professionals and congressional colleagues argued in his defense. Internet pioneers Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn stated that "we don't think, as some people have argued, that Gore intended to claim he 'invented' the Internet. Moreover, there is no question in our minds that while serving as Senator, Gore's initiatives had a significant and beneficial effect on the still-evolving Internet." [61] [122] Cerf would later state: "Al Gore had seen what happened with the National Interstate and Defense Highways Act of 1956, which his father introduced as a military bill. It was very powerful. Housing went up, suburban boom happened, everybody became mobile. Al was attuned to the power of networking much more than any of his elective colleagues. His initiatives led directly to the commercialization of the Internet. So he really does deserve credit." [125] In a speech to the American Political Science Association, former Republican Speaker of the United States House of Representatives Newt Gingrich also stated: "In all fairness, it's something Gore had worked on a long time. Gore is not the Father of the Internet, but in all fairness, Gore is the person who, in the Congress, most systematically worked to make sure that we got to an Internet, and the truth is—and I worked with him starting in 1978 when I got [to Congress], we were both part of a "futures group"—the fact is, in the Clinton administration, the world we had talked about in the '80s began to actually happen." [126] Finally, Wolf Blitzer (who conducted the original 1999 interview) stated in 2008 that: "I didn't ask him about the Internet. I asked him about the differences he had with Bill Bradley . Honestly, at the time, when he said it, it didn't dawn on me that this was going to have the impact that it wound up having, because it was distorted to a certain degree and people said they took what he said, which was a carefully phrased comment about taking the initiative and creating the Internet to—I invented the Internet. And that was the sort of shorthand, the way his enemies projected it and it wound up being a devastating setback to him and it hurt him, as I'm sure he acknowledges to this very day." [127]

Gore himself would later poke fun at the controversy. In 2000, while on the Late Show with David Letterman he read Letterman's Top 10 List (which for this show was called, "Top Ten Rejected Gore – Lieberman Campaign Slogans") to the audience. Number nine on the list was: "Remember, America, I gave you the Internet, and I can take it away!" [128] In 2005 when Gore was awarded the Lifetime Achievement Award "for three decades of contributions to the Internet" at the Webby Awards [129] [130] he joked in his acceptance speech (limited to five words according to Webby Awards rules): "Please don't recount this vote." He was introduced by Vint Cerf who used the same format to joke: "We all invented the Internet." Gore, who was then asked to add a few more words to his speech, stated: "It is time to reinvent the Internet for all of us to make it more robust and much more accessible and use it to reinvigorate our democracy." [130]

During a speech that he gave on June 16, 1999, in Carthage, Tennessee, Gore formally announced his candidacy for president. His major theme was the need to strengthen the American family. [131] He was introduced by his eldest daughter, Karenna Gore Schiff. [131] In making the speech, Gore also distanced himself from Bill Clinton, who he stated had lied to him. [131] Gore was "briefly interrupted" by AIDS protesters claiming Gore was working with the pharmaceutical industry to prevent access to generic medicines for poor nations and chanting "Gore's greed kills." [131] Additional speeches were also interrupted by the protesters. Gore responded, "I love this country. I love the First Amendment . Let me say in response to those who may have chosen an inappropriate way to make their point, that actually the crisis of AIDS in Africa is one that should command the attention of people in the United States and around the world." Gore also issued a statement saying that he supported efforts to lower the cost of the AIDS drugs, provided that they "are done in a way consistent with international agreements". [132] [133]

While Bill Clinton's job-approval ratings were around 60%, an April 1999 study by the Pew Research Center for the People found that respondents suffered from "Clinton fatigue" where they were "tired of all the problems associated with the Clinton administration" including the Lewinsky scandal and impeachment. Texas Governor and likely Republican presidential nominee George W. Bush was leading Gore 54% to 41% in polls during that time. Gore's advisers believed that the "Lewinsky scandal and Bill's past womanizing. alienated independent voters—especially the soccer moms, who stood for traditional values". Consequently, Gore's presidential campaign "veered too far in differentiating himself from Bill and his record and had difficulty taking advantage of the Clinton administration's legitimate successes". In addition, Hillary's candidacy for the open Senate seat in New York exacerbated the "three-way tensions evident in the White House since 1993", as "not only was Hillary unavailable as a campaigner, she was poaching top Democratic fund-raisers and donors who would normally concentrate on the vice president". In one instance "Hillary insisted on being invited [to a Los Angeles fundraiser for the vice president]—over the objections of the event's organizers", where the First Lady "shocked the vice president's supporters by soliciting donations for herself in front of Tipper". [89]

Gore faced an early challenge by former New Jersey senator Bill Bradley. [131] Bradley was the only candidate to oppose Gore and was considered a "fresh face" for the White House. [134] [135] Gore challenged Bradley to a series of debates which took the form of "town hall" meetings. [136] Gore went on the offensive during these debates leading to a drop in the polls for Bradley. [137] [138] In the Iowa caucus the unions pledged their support to Gore, despite Bradley spending heavily in that state, and Bradley was much embarrassed by his two to one defeat there. Gore went on to capture the New Hampshire primary 53-47%, which had been a must-win state for Bradley. Gore then swept all of the primaries on Super Tuesday while Bradley finished a distant second in each state. On March 9, 2000, after failing to win any of the first 20 primaries and caucuses in the election process, Bradley withdrew his campaign and endorsed Gore. Gore eventually went on to win every primary and caucus and, in March 2000 even won the first primary election ever held over the Internet, the Arizona Presidential Primary. [139] By then, he secured the Democratic nomination. [140]

On August 13, 2000, Gore announced that he had selected Senator Joe Lieberman of Connecticut as his vice presidential running mate. Lieberman became "the first person of the Jewish faith to run for the nation's second-highest office". Many pundits saw Gore's choice of Lieberman as further distancing him from the scandals of the Clinton White House. [141] Gore's daughter, Karenna, together with her father's former Harvard roommate Tommy Lee Jones, [142] officially nominated Gore as the Democratic presidential candidate during the 2000 Democratic National Convention in Los Angeles, California. [143] Gore accepted his party's nomination and spoke about the major themes of his campaign, stating in particular his plan to extend Medicare to pay for prescription drugs and to work for a sensible universal health-care system. [143] Soon after the convention, Gore hit the campaign trail with running mate Joe Lieberman. Gore and Bush were deadlocked in the polls. [144] They participated in three televised debates. While both sides claimed victory after each, Gore was critiqued as either too stiff, too reticent, or too aggressive in contrast to Bush. [145] [146]

Recount

On election night, news networks first called Florida for Gore, later retracted the projection, and then called Florida for Bush, before finally retracting that projection as well. [147] Florida's Republican Secretary of State, Katherine Harris, eventually certified Florida's vote count. [148] This led to the Florida election recount, a move to further examine the Florida results. [149]

The Florida recount was stopped a few weeks later by the U.S. Supreme Court. In the ruling, Bush v. Gore, the Justices held that the Florida recount was unconstitutional and that no constitutionally valid recount could be completed by the December 12 deadline, effectively ending the recounts. This 7–2 vote ruled that the standards the Florida Supreme Court provided for a recount were unconstitutional due to violations of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, and further ruled 5–4 that no constitutionally valid recount could be completed by the December 12 deadline. This case ordered an end to recounting underway in selected Florida counties, effectively giving George W. Bush a 537 [150] vote victory in Florida and consequently Florida's 25 electoral votes and the presidency. [151] The results of the decision led to Gore winning the popular vote by approximately 500,000 votes nationwide, but receiving 266 electoral votes to Bush's 271 (one District of Columbia elector abstained). [152] On December 13, 2000, Gore conceded the election. [153] Gore strongly disagreed with the Court's decision, but in his concession speech stated that, "for the sake of our unity as a people and the strength of our democracy, I offer my concession." [154]

Bill Clinton and Gore had maintained an informal public distance for eight years, but they reunited for the media in August 2009. Clinton had arranged for the release of two female journalists who were being held hostage in North Korea. The women were employees of Gore's Current TV. [155] In May 2018, he was included as a member of the Indian Government committee to coordinate year long celebrations of Mahatma Gandhi's 150th birth anniversary from October 2, 2019. [156]

Criticism of Bush

Beginning in 2002, Gore began to publicly criticize the Bush administration. In a September 23 speech that he gave before the Commonwealth Club of California, Gore criticized Bush and Congress for the rush to war prior to the outbreak of hostilities in Iraq. He compared this decision to the Persian Gulf War (which Gore had voted for) stating, "Back in 1991, I was one of a handful of Democrats in the United States Senate to vote in favor of the resolution endorsing the Persian Gulf War . But look at the differences between the resolution that was voted on in 1991 and the one this administration is proposing that the Congress vote on in 2002. The circumstances are really completely different [. ] in 1991, Iraq had crossed an international border, invaded a neighboring sovereign nation and annexed its territory. Now by contrast in 2002, there has been no such invasion." [157] [158] In a speech given in 2004, during the presidential election, Gore accused George W. Bush of betraying the country by using the 9/11 attacks as a justification for the invasion of Iraq. [159] The next year, Gore gave a speech which covered many topics, including what he called "religious zealots" who claim special knowledge of God's will in American politics. Gore stated: "They even claim that those of us who disagree with their point of view are waging war against people of faith." [160] After Hurricane Katrina in 2005, Gore chartered two planes to evacuate 270 people from New Orleans and criticized the Bush administration's response to the hurricane. [161] In 2006, Gore criticized Bush's use of domestic wiretaps without a warrant. [162] One month later, in a speech given at the Jeddah Economic Forum, Gore criticized the treatment of Arabs in the U.S. after 9/11 stating, "Unfortunately there have been terrible abuses and it's wrong . I do want you to know that it does not represent the desires or wishes or feelings of the majority of the citizens of my country." [163] Gore's 2007 book, The Assault on Reason, is an analysis of what Gore refers to as the "emptying out of the marketplace of ideas" in civic discourse during the Bush administration. He attributes this phenomenon to the influence of television and argues that it endangers American democracy. By contrast, Gore argues, the Internet can revitalize and ultimately "redeem the integrity of representative democracy". [164] In 2008, Gore argued against the ban of same-sex marriage on his Current TV website, stating, "I think that gay men and women ought to have the same rights as heterosexual men and women to make contracts, have hospital visiting rights, and join together in marriage." [165] In a 2009 interview with CNN, Gore commented on former Vice President Dick Cheney's criticism of the Obama administration. Referring to his own previous criticism of the Bush administrations, Gore stated: "I waited two years after I left office to make statements that were critical, and then of the policy . You know, you talk about somebody that shouldn't be talking about making the country less safe, invading a country that did not attack us and posed no serious threat to us at all." [166]

While Gore has criticized Bush for his Katrina response, he has not spoken publicly about his part in the evacuation of 270 patients on September 3 & 4, 2005, from Charity Hospital in New Orleans to Tennessee. On September 1, Gore was contacted by Charity Hospital's Neurosurgeon Dr. David Kline, who had operated on his son Albert, through Greg Simon of FasterCures. Kline informed Gore and Simon of the desperate conditions at the hospital and asked Gore and Simon to arrange relief. On Gore's personal financial commitment, two airlines each provided a plane with one flight later underwritten by Larry Flax. The flights were flown by volunteer airline crews and medically staffed by Gore's cousin, retired Col. Dar LaFon, and family physician Dr. Anderson Spickard and were accompanied by Gore and Albert III. Gore used his political influence to expedite landing rights in New Orleans. [161] [167] [168]

Presidential run speculation

People were speculating that Gore would be a candidate for the 2004 presidential election (a bumper sticker, "Re-elect Gore in 2004!" was popular). [169] On December 16, 2002, however, Gore announced that he would not run in 2004. [170] While Gore seriously considered challenging Bush in 2004, the 9/11 attacks and the subsequent stratospheric rise in President Bush's popularity as a result of his response to these attacks were strong factors in Gore's December 2002 decision not to run again in 2004. [171] Despite Gore taking himself out of the race, a handful of his supporters formed a national campaign to draft him into running. The draft movement, however, failed to convince Gore to run. [172]

The prospect of a Gore candidacy arose again between 2006 and early 2008 in light of the upcoming 2008 presidential election. Although Gore frequently stated that he had "no plans to run", he did not reject the possibility of future involvement in politics which led to speculation that he might run. [173] [174] [175] This was due in part to his increased popularity after the release of the 2006 documentary, An Inconvenient Truth. [176] The director of the film, Davis Guggenheim, stated that after the release of the film, "Everywhere I go with him, they treat him like a rock star." [177] After An Inconvenient Truth was nominated for an Academy Award, Donna Brazile (Gore's campaign chairwoman from his 2000 campaign) speculated that Gore might announce a possible presidential candidacy during the Oscars. [178] During the 79th Academy Awards ceremony, Gore and actor Leonardo DiCaprio shared the stage to speak about the "greening" of the ceremony itself. Gore began to give a speech that appeared to be leading up to an announcement that he would run for president. However, background music drowned him out and he was escorted offstage, implying that it was a rehearsed gag, which he later acknowledged. [179] [180] After An Inconvenient Truth won the Academy Award for Best Documentary, speculation increased about a possible presidential run. [181] Gore's popularity was indicated in polls which showed that even without running, he was coming in second or third among possible Democratic candidates Hillary Clinton, Barack Obama, and John Edwards. [182] Grassroots draft campaigns also developed with the hope that they could encourage Gore to run. [183] [184] [185] Gore, however, remained firm in his decision and declined to run for the presidency. [186]

Interest in having Gore run for the 2016 presidential election arose in 2014 and again in 2015, although he did not declare any intention to do so. [187] [188]

Involvement in presidential campaigns

After announcing he would not run in the 2004 U.S. presidential election, Gore endorsed Vermont governor Howard Dean in December 2003, weeks before the first primary of the election cycle. [189] He was criticized for this endorsement by eight Democratic contenders particularly since he did not endorse his former running mate Joe Lieberman (Gore preferred Dean over Lieberman because Lieberman supported the Iraq War and Gore did not). [53] [190] [191] Dean's campaign soon became a target of attacks and eventually failed, with Gore's early endorsement being credited as a factor. En Los New York Times, Dean stated: "I actually do think the endorsement of Al Gore began the decline." los Veces further noted that "Dean instantly amplified his statement to indicate that the endorsement from Mr. Gore, a powerhouse of the establishment, so threatened the other Democratic candidates that they began the attacks on his candidacy that helped derail it." [192] Dean's former campaign manager, Joe Trippi, also stated that after Gore's endorsement of Dean, "alarm bells went off in every newsroom in the country, in every other campaign in the country", indicating that if something did not change, Dean would be the nominee. [193] Later, in March 2004, Gore endorsed John Kerry and gave Kerry $6 million in funds left over from his own unsuccessful 2000 bid. [194] Gore also opened the 2004 Democratic National Convention. [195]

During the 2008 primaries, Gore remained neutral toward all of the candidates [196] which led to speculation that he would come out of a brokered 2008 Democratic National Convention as a "compromise candidate" if the party decided it could not nominate one. [197] [198] Gore responded by stating that these events would not take place because a candidate would be nominated through the primary process. [199] [200] Senator Ted Kennedy had urged Gore to endorse Senator Barack Obama though Gore declined. [90] When Obama became the presumptive Democratic nominee for president on June 3, 2008, speculation began that Gore might be tapped for the vice presidency. [201] [202] On June 16, 2008, one week after Hillary Clinton had suspended her campaign, Gore endorsed Obama in a speech given in Detroit, Michigan [203] [204] [205] which renewed speculation of an Obama-Gore ticket. [206] Gore stated, however, that he was not interested in being Vice President again. [207] [208] [209] [210] On the timing and nature of Gore's endorsement, some argued that Gore waited because he did not want to repeat his calamitous early endorsement of Howard Dean during the 2004 presidential election. [211] [212] On the final night of the 2008 Democratic National Convention, shortly before Obama delivered his acceptance address, Gore gave a speech offering his full support. [213] [214] Such support led to new speculation after Obama was elected president during the 2008 presidential election that Gore would be named a member of the Obama administration. This speculation was enhanced by a meeting held between Obama, Gore, and Joe Biden in Chicago on December 9, 2008. However, Democratic officials and Gore's spokeswoman stated that during the meeting the only subject under discussion was the climate crisis, and Gore would not be joining the Obama administration. [215] [216] On December 19, 2008, Gore described Obama's environmental administrative choices of Carol Browner, Steven Chu, and Lisa Jackson as "an exceptional team to lead the fight against the climate crisis". [217]

Gore repeated his neutrality eight years later during the Democratic presidential primaries of 2016 until endorsing Hillary Clinton on July 25, 2016, the first day of that year's Democratic National Convention. [218] Gore appeared with her at a rally on Miami Dade College's Kendall Campus on October 11, 2016. [219] [220]


Massachusetts (MA) Lottery - Search Past Winning Numbers & Results

The Massachusetts State Lottery was established by the legislature in 1971, in response to the need for revenues for the 351 cities and towns of the Commonwealth.

The Lottery began with sales of tickets for its original weekly drawing called The Game in March 1972. Then in May 1974, Massachusetts introduced a game that would revolutionize the lottery industry in the United States. The Instant Game was the first scratch ticket, with a top instant prize of $10,000. There were also three monthly drawings in the Instant Game, for $100,000 and $1,000 a year for life.

Today, the Lottery introduces 24-28 new instant games each year and is a national leader in sales.

The Lottery also offers a variety of on-line, or computerized, games including: The Numbers Game, Megabucks, Mass Cash, CASH WinFall, KENO, and the multi-state Mega Millions game.

To provide an operating structure for the Lottery, the Legislature established a five-member commission that includes the State Treasurer as Chairperson, the Secretary of Public Safety, the State Comptroller, and two gubernatorial appointees.

The Commissioners oversee and provide final approval of the types of games, the consumer prices of games, the prize structure of games, the methods of prize payment, and the licensing of agents.

The Lottery Commission meets on a regular basis to discuss all Lottery operations.


Ver el vídeo: New Mass. lottery ticket is big success


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