¿Quién creía que la tierra era plana?

¿Quién creía que la tierra era plana?

A veces se burlan de los cristianos por haber creído alguna vez que la tierra era plana. Sin embargo, las únicas referencias que puedo encontrar son Lactancio a principios del siglo IV y Copérnico, quien dice que Lactancio era infantil.

Como Lactancio fue considerado en gran parte un hereje a lo largo de gran parte de la historia de la iglesia, ¿hay alguna otra referencia cristiana de buena reputación para creer en una tierra plana basada en puntos de vista religiosos?


De hecho, la idea de que las personas educadas de la Edad Media pensaban que la tierra era plana es un mito. Era bien sabido que había existido desde mucho antes de Cristo.

Muchos mapas antiguos representan una tierra redonda con bordes cubiertos por un mar. Es muy posible que los primeros de estos en realidad estén destinados a representar una tierra plana, pero eso es el siglo VI a. C.

Por supuesto, un par de cientos de años después era bien sabido, al menos entre los filósofos griegos, que la tierra era redonda, y Eratóstenes calculó la circunferencia de la tierra.

Sin embargo, esto no detuvo el uso de mapas que hacían que la tierra pareciera un disco. Los llamados "mapas T y O" se dibujaron a menudo como representaciones filosóficas de la tierra, a lo largo de la Edad Media. Estos pueden haber ayudado a alimentar la idea de que las personas de la Edad Media pensaban que la tierra era plana, pero ese no fue el caso. Estos mapas son solo representaciones en principio de la Tierra y no deben verse como mapas reales. Eso también significa que incluso el mapa del siglo VI a.C. anterior puede representar una tierra redonda.

Hubo intentos de hacer que los mapas reales se ajustaran a la perspectiva T y O, pero aun así esto no debe tomarse como una creencia de que la Tierra era plana.

Pueden interpretarse como una creencia de que Jerusalén estaba ubicada en la "cima" de la tierra, y que todos vivíamos en la "mitad superior", algo que tenía sentido teológico.

Ahora sobre la pregunta de quién creía que la tierra era plana, la respuesta por lo tanto es "no muchos", pero por supuesto que existieron. Sin embargo, el mencionado Lactancio es uno de los pocos que es explícito y dice claramente que una tierra redonda no tiene sentido. Los otros dos que conocemos son Severian de Gabala y Cosmas Indicopleustes. Ambos usan argumentos religiosos y básicamente dicen que la tierra es plana porque tiene sentido teológico.

Juan Crisóstomo y Atanasio de Alejandría expresaron la idea de que la tierra flota sobre el agua, y esto a veces se ve como evidencia de que creían en un mundo plano. Sin embargo, estas citas son más bien argumentos a favor de Dios como creador, más que argumentos a favor de una tierra plana, por lo que la interpretación es algo más provisional.

Pero aunque algunos eruditos parecen haber abogado por una tierra plana desde un punto de vista teológico, la mayoría de los eruditos cristianos claramente pensaban que el mundo era redondo.


Homilías sobre los Estatutos [75] San Juan Crisóstomo (344-408)

Por tanto, cuando no mires ni un guijarro, pero toda la tierra fue llevada sobre las aguas, y no sumergida¡admire el poder de Aquel que hizo estas cosas maravillosas de una manera sobrenatural! ¿Y de dónde aparece esto, que la tierra nace sobre las aguas? El profeta declara esto cuando dice: "Sobre los mares la fundó, y sobre los ríos la preparó". 1416 Y otra vez: "Al que fundó la tierra sobre las aguas". 1417 ¿Qué dices? El agua no puede sostener un guijarro pequeño en su superficie y, sin embargo, sostiene la tierra, por grande que sea; y montes, collados, ciudades, plantas, hombres y bestias; ¡y no está sumergido!

De manera similar escribe San Atanasio (c. 293 - 373): NPNF2-04. Atanasio: seleccionar obras y letras

O quien ve la tierra, la más pesada de todas las cosas por naturaleza, fija en las aguas y permaneciendo inmóvil sobre lo que es por naturaleza móvil, ¿No entenderá que hay Uno que lo ha hecho y ordenado, incluso Dios?

Wikipedia en Tierra plana - La iglesia cristiana primitiva afirma que estos pasajes prueban que San Atanasio y San Juan Crisóstomo creían en una tierra plana, aparentemente basado en su lectura de Génesis 1, 9-10:

Dios dijo: "Que las aguas debajo de los cielos se reúnan en un solo lugar, y que aparezca la tierra seca. Y así fue. Dios llamó a la tierra seca" Tierra ", ya la acumulación de aguas la llamó" Los mares ".

Si es así, la pregunta está respondida: Hemos estimado a los escritores cristianos (santos, nada menos) que creía en una tierra plana basada en puntos de vista religiosos. Aunque no estoy convencido de que Wikipedia esté en lo cierto: se puede afirmar que creían que la tierra era de hecho una esfera y estaba equilibrada sobre las aguas, quizás encaramado en el Polo Sur, todavía la lectura de Wikipedia (aparentemente sin fuentes, aunque no examiné todo el material fuente en detalle), es ciertamente compatible con el significado simple de esos textos. Consulte en Wikipedia para obtener más referencias sobre este tema.


Si bien la observación de un barco que se acerca desde el otro lado del horizonte es una base bien conocida para una cultura que sabe que la Tierra es esférica (más o menos), otra observación obvia está disponible para las culturas que no están en la costa.

Cualquier cultura que comprenda la geometría básica y sea capaz de realizar levantamientos topográficos a gran escala (a lo largo de algunas millas) notará que a medida que un triángulo examinado se hace más grande, también lo hace la suma de los ángulos de un triángulo. Mientras que un pequeño triángulo en una hoja de papel tendrá ángulos que suman 180 grados sin error, si ese triángulo aumenta de tamaño para tener su vértice en un polo y su base en el ecuador, la suma de sus ángulos será de 180 grados. más cualquiera que sea el ángulo medido en el polo, que puede ser tan grande como 180 + 179,5 = 350,5 grados. Los triángulos de tamaño intermedio exhibirán discrepancias más pequeñas de los 180 grados que siempre se exhiben en una superficie plana. Este comportamiento solo existe en una superficie que tiene una curva positiva, como una esfera aproximada o un elipsoide. Más precisamente, en una esfera aproximada, la suma de los ángulos de un triángulo se puede calcular de antemano a partir del área del triángulo como una proporción del área de la superficie de la esfera.


Colón y el mito de la tierra plana

Cada Día de la Raza, Cristóbal Colón es martillado por sus viajes de explotación de los pueblos nativos. Al mismo tiempo, los cristianos son ridiculizados por una vez que se oponen al progresista Colón y su rechazo de la mitología de la tierra plana que se decía que sostenía la iglesia medieval. ¿Es cierto algo de eso? Dejaré que otros respondan a la cuestión de la explotación, pero la cuestión de la tierra plana se responde fácilmente. En los once volúmenes Nuestro Mundo Maravilloso, publicado por primera vez en 1914, los editores ofrecieron las siguientes afirmaciones indocumentadas: "Todos los pueblos antiguos pensaban que la tierra era plana, o, si no perfectamente plana, una gran superficie ligeramente curva", y "Colón estaba tratando de convencer a la gente de que la tierra era redonda ". ((Howard Benjamin Grose, ed., Nuestro Mundo Maravilloso, 11 vols. (Chicago: George L. Shuman & Co., [1914] 1918), 1: 1, 5.))

Incluso tan recientemente como 1961 Enciclopedia Británica perpetuó el mito de que el viaje de Colón consistía en probar que la tierra era redonda: “Antes de que Colón probara que el mundo era redondo, la gente pensaba que el horizonte marcaba su límite. Hoy lo sabemos mejor ". La gente sabía mejor en la época de Colón.

Un libro de texto de 1983 para estudiantes de quinto grado informó que Colón “sintió que eventualmente llegaría a las Indias del Este. Muchos europeos todavía creían que el mundo era plano. Colón, pensaron, se caería de la tierra ". ((América pasada y presente (Scott Foresman, 1983), 98. Citado en Russell, Inventar la tierra plana, 3.)) Un texto de 1982 para estudiantes de octavo grado decía que los europeos “creían & mldr que un barco podía navegar mar adentro tan lejos antes de caer por el borde del mar & mldr. La gente de Europa hace mil años sabía poco sobre el mundo ". ((Nosotros la gente (Heath, 1982), 28-29. Citado en Russell, Inventar la tierra plana, 3.))

Beca deficiente

Destacados eruditos como John D. Bernal (1901-1971), en sus cuatro volúmenes La ciencia en la historia (1954) y Daniel J. Boorstin (1914-2004), autor premiado y Bibliotecario del Congreso de 1975 a 1987, propagaron el mito sin ningún fundamento histórico. Boorstin derrama una gran cantidad de tinta inventando una historia de creencias de la tierra plana que remonta a un oscuro monje del siglo VI, Cosmas Indicopleustes, quien, según el erudito medieval Jeffrey Russell, “no tenía seguidores en absoluto: sus obras fueron ignoradas o descartadas con burla a lo largo de la Edad Media ". ((Jeffrey Burton Russell, Inventando la Tierra plana: Colón e historiadores modernos (Nueva York: Praeger, 1991), 4. Véase Daniel J. Boorstin, Los descubridores: una historia de la búsqueda del hombre para conocer su mundo y a sí mismo (Nueva York: Random House, 1983), caps. 11-14.))

Los primeros intentos de presentar a Colón como un iconoclasta científico se pueden encontrar en dos obras anticristianas estándar del siglo XIX que enfrentan a la ciencia con la religión. John William Draper afirma que a los cristianos no les preocupaban los descubrimientos científicos. En cambio, "se originaron en rivalidades comerciales, y la cuestión de la forma de la tierra fue finalmente resuelta por tres marineros, Colón, De Gama y, sobre todo, por Fernando de Magallanes". ((John William Draper, Historia del conflicto entre religión y ciencia (Nueva York: D. Appleton and Co., 1875), 159.)) Mientras que Colón y otros marineros informados que navegaban regularmente más allá del horizonte creían en "la figura globular de la tierra", tal idea era, "como podría ser esperado . . . recibido con desdén por los teólogos ”. ((Pañero, Historia del conflicto entre religión y ciencia, 160.)) Un argumento similar aparece en Andrew D. White's Una historia de la guerra de la ciencia con la teología en la cristiandad. ((Andrew D. White, Una historia de la guerra de la ciencia con la teología en la cristiandad (Nueva York: George Braziller, [1895] 1955), 108.))

La "forma de la tierra" no estaba en duda en la época de Colón. "Colón, como todas las personas educadas de su tiempo, sabía que el mundo era redondo y mldr" ((Zvi Dor-Ner, Colón y la era de los descubrimientos (Nueva York: William Morrow, 1991), 72.))

Se sostiene ampliamente el mito de que los eruditos del Renacimiento creían que la Tierra era plana y Colón tuvo que demostrar que estaban equivocados navegando hacia el oeste a "India". Hace una gran historia, excepto que es categóricamente falsa. Desde los albores de la historia registrada, la gente se dio cuenta de que la Tierra era una esfera. Aristóteles llegó a esta conclusión a través de la geometría. Los eruditos romanos también fueron claros en este punto. Los relatos documentados toman nota de cómo el mástil de un barco permanece visible después de que el cuerpo desaparece en el horizonte. Incluso los marineros antiguos tenían que ser conscientes de la curva de la Tierra. (JSTOR)

[caption align = & ldquoalignnone & rdquo width = & ldquo389 & rdquo] La imagen de arriba es de una edición de 1550 de una reproducción de la obra. En la esfera del mundo que se escribió originalmente alrededor de 1230. [/ caption]

El culpable de la tierra plana

¿Cómo y por qué comenzó el mito de la tierra plana? La leyenda entró en la historia cuando Washington Irving publicó sus tres volúmenes Historia de la vida y viajes de Cristóbal Colón (1828). Irving, mejor conocido por “La leyenda de Sleepy Hollow” y “Rip Van Winkle”, usó sus habilidades de escritura de ficción para fabricar una supuesta confrontación que tuvo Colón con los eclesiásticos que sostenían que la Biblia enseñaba que la tierra era plana. Nunca tuvo lugar tal encuentro. Samuel Eliot Morison, un célebre biógrafo de Colón, describe la historia de Irving como "una tontería engañosa y traviesa, y es uno de los mitos colombianos más populares". ((Samuel Eliot Morison, Almirante del mar del océano: una vida de Cristóbal Colón (Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Co., 1942), pág. 89.))

El relato ficticio de Irving sobre Colón lo describe como “asaltado con citas de la Biblia y el Testamento: el libro del Génesis, los salmos de David, las oraciones de los profetas, las epístolas de los apóstoles y los evangelios de los evangelistas. A estos se agregaron exposiciones de varios santos y reverendos comentaristas. . . . Tales son muestras de los errores y prejuicios, la ignorancia y la erudición mezcladas, y la intolerancia pedante, con la que Colón tuvo que lidiar ". ((Citado en Russell, Inventar la tierra plana, 53.)) Sólo hay un problema con el relato de Irving: "Es una fabricación, y es en gran parte sobre este tejido que se estableció la idea de una tierra plana medieval". ((Russell, Inventar la tierra plana, 53.))

Al igual que los mapas de hoy, los mapas medievales eran planos. & ldquoEl mappae mundi [abajo] interpretó el mundo en términos tanto espirituales como geográficos, e incluyó ilustraciones bíblicas así como representaciones del aprendizaje clásico y leyendas. Como descripciones pictóricas del mundo exterior, estos impresionantes mapas también fueron educativos y se utilizaron para enseñar historia natural y leyendas clásicas, y reforzar las creencias religiosas. & Rdquo

[caption align = & ldquoalignnone & rdquo width = & ldquo346 & rdquo] Hereford Mappa Mundi (siglo XIII) [/ caption]

Atacando a la Iglesia

Boorstin afirma que desde el 300 d.C. hasta al menos el 1300, Europa sufrió lo que él describe como "amnesia académica" debido al surgimiento de "la fe y el dogma cristianos [que] suprimieron la imagen útil del mundo que había sido tan lenta y dolorosamente , y tan escrupulosamente dibujado por los geógrafos antiguos ". ((Boorstin, Los descubridores, 100.)) También afirma que los avances científicos hechos por los griegos fueron desmantelados por los cristianos basándose en una apelación a la Biblia. En realidad, es la Biblia, independientemente de cualquier cosmología en competencia, la que respalda los datos empíricos de que la tierra es un globo:

La religión hizo cumplir la demostración científica de la rotundidad de la tierra. Dios hizo de la tierra una esfera porque esa era la forma más perfecta. En el Antiguo Testamento hay una referencia a esto en Isaías xl.22: “El que está sentado sobre el círculo de la tierra” - “círculo” es la traducción del hebreo khug, esfera. ((Samuel Eliot Morison, El descubrimiento europeo de América: los viajes por el norte (Nueva York: Oxford University Press, 1971), 6.))

[caption align = & ldquoalignnone & rdquo width = & ldquo279 & rdquo] Mapa mundial de Salterio, mediados del siglo XIII[/subtítulo]

Por supuesto, no todos los cristianos apelaron a la Biblia por sus puntos de vista sobre la forma de la tierra. De hecho, la Biblia tiene poco que decir sobre el tema. Sin embargo, nada en la Biblia contradice los datos empíricos. Por ejemplo, Venerable Beda (673-735), un monje de Jarow y "el padre de la historia inglesa", sostuvo "que la tierra es un globo que se puede llamar una esfera perfecta porque las irregularidades de la superficie de las montañas y los valles son muy pequeñas". en comparación con su gran tamaño ". Él especifica que la "tierra es" redonda " no en el sentido de 'circular' pero en el sentido de una pelota ". ((Russell, Inventar la tierra plana, 20.))

[caption align = & ldquoalignright & rdquo width = & ldquo184 & rdquo] Disponible en la tienda en línea de American Vision[/subtítulo]

Profundo y ancho

El debate en la época de Colón no se centró en si la tierra era plana o redonda. “El problema era la anchura del océano y en eso la oposición tenía razón”. ((Morison, Almirante del mar, 89.)) Colón había subestimado la circunferencia de la tierra y el ancho del océano en un número significativo de millas. "De hecho, la distancia que Columbus planeaba cubrir [según mapas precisos] era de 10.600 millas por aire". ((Kenneth C. Davis, No sé mucho sobre la historia: todo lo que necesita saber sobre la historia estadounidense pero que nunca aprendió (Nueva York: Crown Publishers, 1990), 6.)) Providencialmente para Colón y su vanguardista equipo, las Américas se interpusieron en su camino.

Incluso teniendo en cuenta sus conclusiones erróneas sobre las medidas, “Columbus siempre recibe los más altos elogios de los eruditos en lo que respecta a la náutica. Fue, sin lugar a dudas, el mejor marinero de su tiempo ". ((Robert H. Fuson, El registro de Cristóbal Colón (Camden, ME: International Marine Publishing Co., 1987), 29.)) Prácticamente todos los estudiantes de Colón aceptan la opinión de Bartolomé de Las Casas (1484-1566), quien escribió en su Historia de las Indias, que "Cristóbal Colón superó a todos sus contemporáneos en el arte de la navegación". ((Citado en Fuson, El registro de Cristóbal Colón, 29.))

El mito de Colón es otro ejemplo de revisionismo histórico, el intento de los secularistas de proyectar a la Iglesia en una luz negativa. Los historiadores liberales disfrutan el hecho de que a los escolares de todo el país se les esté enseñando que los cristianos son ignorantes, chiflados de la tierra plana que no escuchan la razón y la ciencia. Sin embargo, cuando se examinan con precisión los hechos de la historia, descubrimos que la ciencia verdadera nunca entra en conflicto con la Biblia. La desinformación científica nunca se promueve mediante una comprensión precisa de la Biblia. En cambio, la manipulación de la verdad siempre ocurre fuera de la cosmovisión bíblica.


La curiosa historia de la Sociedad Internacional de la Tierra Plana

Esta semana, una pseudociencia particularmente extraña volvió a asomar la cabeza cuando el rapero B.o.B. tomó Twitter y proclamó que la Tierra es plana. Desde entonces, el rapero ha provocado la ira de todo tipo de personas incrédulas, incluido el astrofísico Neil deGrasse Tyson.

Contenido relacionado

La gente sabe que la Tierra es redonda desde al menos el siglo VI a. C. Muchos se sorprendieron al escuchar que el concepto de la Tierra plana todavía se movía. Pero este no fue el primer resurgimiento de la idea. En la década de 1970 y & # 821680, un hombre llamado Charles Kenneth Johnson se convirtió en una celebridad menor por su negativa a creer que la Tierra es redonda, escribe Cheryl Eddy para & # 160iO9.

Johnson & # 8217s buen amigo & # 160Samuel & # 160Shenton & # 160 # 160 fundó un & # 160pequeño grupo marginal apodado la Flat Earth Society & # 160 en & # 1601950s. & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 & # 160 & # 160; Johnson se convirtió en el presidente de la sociedad después de & # 160Shenton & # 160 agrupar desde una pequeña colección de teóricos de la conspiración hasta una organización con miles de miembros. & # 160

Hizo olas en los medios de comunicación nacionales y se hizo conocido por insistir alegremente en que los científicos estaban engañando al resto del mundo, escribió Douglas Martin en el obituario de Johnson & # 8217 & # 160for the & # 160New York Times& # 160 en 2001.

"Si la tierra fuera una bola girando en el espacio, no habría ni arriba ni abajo", dijo Johnson a David Gates y Jennifer Smith para & # 160.Newsweek& # 160 en 1984. Del mismo modo, la esposa de Johnson & # 160Marjory & # 160 creía que la Tierra debía ser plana, porque de lo contrario habría pasado su infancia en su Australia natal colgada boca abajo de los dedos de los pies, escribió Martin en ese momento.

Durante su mandato como presidente de la Flat Earth Society, sus filas aumentaron a unas 3.500 personas. En sus boletines, Johnson descartó espectáculos como el amanecer y el atardecer como ilusiones ópticas, discutió cómo Charles Lindbergh demostró que la Tierra era plana y afirmó que la NASA y el aterrizaje en la luna no eran más que engaños, escribe Eddy.

"No se puede orbitar una tierra plana", dijo Johnson a & # 160Robert J. & # 160Schadewald & # 160for & # 160Science Digest en 1980. "El transbordador espacial es una broma & # 8212 y una broma muy ridícula".

Irónicamente, Johnson vivía justo encima de la colina desde la Base de la Fuerza Aérea Edwards en el sur de California, la instalación donde la Fuerza Aérea prueba aviones experimentales y donde aterrizaron los transbordadores espaciales de la NASA después de regresar a la Tierra.

Si bien la mayoría de los artículos sobre Johnson y sus creencias marginales se escribieron con firmeza en la mejilla, canalizó su extraña fama hacia el aumento de miembros de la Flat Earth Society (así como un papel protagónico en un comercial de helados). Pero no duró mucho: cuando Johnson murió, la sociedad se había reducido nuevamente a solo 100 miembros. La Flat Earth Society todavía existe, aunque siguen siendo poco más que un pequeño grupo marginal.

"Siempre es bueno preguntarse 'cómo sabemos lo que sabemos'", Christine & # 160Garwood, autora de & # 160Tierra plana: la historia de una idea infame, & # 160 le dice a Brendan O'Neill para el & # 160BBC. & # 160 "Pero también es bueno tener la capacidad de aceptar pruebas convincentes & # 8212, como las fotografías de la Tierra desde el espacio".

Las ciudades al fondo son aprox. 16 millas de distancia. donde esta la curva? por favor explique esto pic.twitter.com/YCJVBdOWX7

& # 8212 B.o.B (@bobatl) 25 de enero de 2016
Sobre Danny Lewis

Danny Lewis es un periodista multimedia que trabaja en prensa, radio e ilustración. Se enfoca en historias con una inclinación hacia la salud / ciencia y ha informado sobre algunas de sus piezas favoritas de la proa de una canoa. Danny tiene su sede en Brooklyn, NY.


¿Quién creía que la tierra era plana? - Historia

Contrariamente a la creencia popular, un porcentaje decente de la población humana ha sabido definitivamente que la Tierra era aproximadamente esférica durante más de dos mil años.

Contrariamente a la creencia popular, un porcentaje decente de la población humana ha sabido definitivamente que la Tierra era aproximadamente esférica durante más de dos mil años. Apenas impresionante, como se señaló en nuestro podcast BrainFood Show, las abejas también usan este hecho en su propia navegación absurdamente fascinante y en la comunicación de direcciones a otras abejas.

En cuanto a los humanos, nos tomó un poco más de tiempo darnos cuenta de esto, y a Pitágoras (siglo VI a.C.) generalmente se le atribuye el mérito de ser la primera persona conocida que sugirió una Tierra esférica, aunque la idea no se hizo realidad en este momento. Aristóteles (siglo IV a.C.) estuvo de acuerdo y apoyó la hipótesis con observaciones como que las constelaciones del sur se elevan más alto en el cielo cuando una persona viaja hacia el sur. También señaló que durante un eclipse lunar la sombra de la Tierra es redonda. Mucho más definitivamente, el bibliotecario jefe del siglo III a. C. en la Biblioteca de Alejandría, Eratóstenes, se basó en sus ideas y logró calcular la circunferencia de la Tierra con una precisión notable. ¿Cómo? Simplemente utilizó el conocimiento de que al mediodía del solsticio de verano había un pozo en Syene donde el sol se mostraba directamente hacia el fondo, sin sombra. Por lo tanto, al mediodía del solticio de verano, usó una varilla para medir el ángulo de la sombra hecha en Alejandría y encontró que era de aproximadamente 7 grados o aproximadamente 1/50 de un círculo. Con esta información, ahora solo necesitaba saber la distancia exacta entre Syene y Alejandría para obtener la circunferencia de la Tierra (aproximadamente 50 veces la distancia entre Syene y Alejandría). Contrató a un equipo de inspección, conocido como bematistas, para medir la distancia, que encontraron en unos 5.000 estadios. Luego concluyó que la Tierra debe tener unos 250.000 estadios alrededor. Dependiendo de la medida del estadio que estaba usando, su figura era solo un 1% demasiado pequeña o un 16% demasiado grande. Muchos eruditos piensan que es probable que estuviera usando el estadio egipcio (157,5 m), estando en Egipto en ese momento, lo que haría su estimación aproximadamente un 1% demasiado pequeña.

Pasando a la llamada Edad Media en la que el cristianismo supuestamente aplastó ideas tan extravagantes como una Tierra esférica, la verdad es en realidad lo contrario. En la Europa cristiana medieval, el monje y erudito católico del siglo VII Beda produjo un tratado influyente que incluía una discusión sobre la naturaleza esférica del mundo. Este trabajo, El ajuste de cuentas del tiempo, fue copiado y distribuido a los clérigos de todo el imperio carolingio. Más tarde, en la década de 1300, Dante Alighieri Divina Comedia también describe la Tierra como una esfera y, de nuevo, nadie parecía tener problemas con esto.

Los católicos y más tarde otras ramas del cristianismo no fueron las únicas sectas religiosas que parecían tener su clero y eruditos casi universalmente pensando que el mundo era esférico. El mundo islámico también estuvo de acuerdo. Como resume el historiador Jeffrey Burton Russell,

Con extraordinarias excepciones, ninguna persona educada en la historia de la civilización occidental desde el siglo III a.C. en adelante creía que la Tierra era plana.

Más allá de los académicos del mundo occidental, incluso el marinero con la cabeza más vacía sabía que la Tierra era esférica simplemente por el hecho de que los barcos desaparecen en el horizonte con el fondo primero y luego el mástil el último en ser avistado. Se observa un efecto similar al avistar tierra desde un barco. No hace falta ser un cirujano de cohetes para darse cuenta de que la superficie del mar debe curvarse continuamente.

A pesar de esto, todavía hay un pequeño porcentaje de la población del mundo desarrollado que cree que el mundo es plano.

En este punto, es posible que se pregunte cuántos. Si bien los hilos de comentarios de Internet hacen que parezca que el porcentaje es grande, la realidad probablemente sea drásticamente menor. (Comenta que los trolls van a troll.)

En cuanto a algunos números, según una encuesta de 2018 realizada por la firma de investigación de mercado masiva YouGov, las 8.215 respuestas que se eligieron para tener una alta probabilidad de representar con precisión a la población adulta en general, mostraron:

  • El 84% de los encuestados dijo que siempre ha creído que el mundo es redondo.
  • El 5% declaró "Siempre pensé que el mundo es redondo, pero más recientemente soy escéptico / tengo dudas",
  • El 2% declaró "Siempre pensé que el mundo es plano, pero más recientemente soy escéptico / tengo dudas"
  • y el 2% fue con "Siempre he creído que el mundo es plano".
  • El 7% restante declaró “Otro / no estoy seguro”.

Si bien la buena gente de YouGov ciertamente sabe lo que hace con respecto a la obtención de datos precisos que representen a la población en general, teníamos curiosidad por saber qué revelaría una muestra más grande de nuestra propia audiencia, aunque con la salvedad de que una encuesta general de Internet a veces puede ser notoriamente inexacto. Pero para los curiosos y lo que sea que valga la pena, nuestra encuesta que hizo más o menos las mismas preguntas recibió más de 72.000 votos. ¿Cuáles fueron los resultados? Aproximadamente

  • El 96% de los encuestados afirmó que "cree firmemente que el mundo es redondo",
  • El 1% dijo: "Solía ​​creer firmemente que el mundo es redondo, pero ahora tengo dudas".
  • El 1% votó por "Creo firmemente que el mundo es plano".
  • 0% declaró "Solía ​​creer firmemente que el mundo es plano, pero ahora tengo dudas"
  • El 1% señaló "No estoy seguro de lo que creo sobre este tema".

Estos números parecen sorprendentemente razonables para una encuesta en línea en comparación con algo implementado un poco más rigurosamente como la encuesta de YouGov. Si bien nuestros números se inclinan más hacia Round Earthers, esto quizás sea de esperar dado que sabemos definitivamente que nuestra audiencia se inclina hacia ser mucho más educada que la población en general.

Y solo porque teníamos curiosidad por los muchos, muchos trolls en línea que, como se dijo, es nuestra hipótesis favorita que en realidad hacen que parezca que hay muchos más Flat Earthers de los que realmente hay, hicimos una encuesta de seguimiento que obtuvo 54,000 votos. . Por lo que sea que valga, en este, aproximadamente

  • El 9% de los encuestados dijo: "Creo que el mundo es redondo, pero a veces dicen que en línea es plano".
  • El 2% declaró "Creo que el mundo es plano y defiendo esta posición en línea".
  • El 89% restante declaró "Ninguno de los dos se aplica a mí".

(Y, sí, sabemos que esos números no suman exactamente el 100% en ninguno de los casos, pero el sistema de encuestas de YouTube se redondea al número completo, así que aquí estamos).

Quitando esos números, esto finalmente nos lleva a quién inició el movimiento relativamente moderno de la Tierra Plana y cómo en la Tierra esferoide achatada de Dios este movimiento está creciendo en una era en la que casi todo el conocimiento humano está casi literalmente al alcance de todos.

La génesis de la Flat Earth Society moderna comenzó a mediados del siglo XIX gracias a un tal Samuel Rowbotham de Londres, Inglaterra. Al abandonar la escuela a la tierna edad de 9 años, Rowbotham finalmente se convenció, o al menos afirmó que lo era, de que no solo la Tierra era plana, sino que todo lo que vemos en los cielos está en realidad a solo unos pocos miles de millas de la Tierra. - estrellas y todo. Si bien sus ideas eran absurdas por una increíble cantidad de razones, incluso teniendo en cuenta la tecnología y el conocimiento científico de su época, lo que Rowbatham tenía a su favor era que, según los informes, era increíblemente rápido en los debates y un orador extremadamente carismático, capaz de torcer el discurso. palabras incluso de los mejores académicos. No importaba si realmente tenía razón o no, solo que era mejor para convencer a los laicos que los académicos con los que debatía regularmente, o al menos bueno para crear dudas razonables. Como se señala en un artículo contemporáneo publicado en el Leeds Times,

Una cosa que sí demostró fue que los aficionados a los científicos que no están acostumbrados a la defensa de las plataformas son incapaces de lidiar con un hombre, un charlatán por así decirlo (pero inteligente y completamente en su teoría), completamente consciente de la debilidad de sus oponentes.

Además de hacer una pequeña fortuna hablando en público, también escribió varias obras, incluido un libro titulado acertadamente La tierra no es un globo. Rowbotham finalmente creó la Sociedad Zetetic, que, además de abogar por una Tierra plana, también defendía que solo los hechos que uno podía probar a sí mismo podían aceptarse como verdaderos. Por otro lado, Rowbotham también comenzó a decir “Dr. Samuel Birley ”y ganar dinero vendiendo a la gente panacea y prolongadores de vida de su propia invención, entre otras actividades similares.

Si bien a principios del siglo XX la sociedad que inició se había desvanecido gradualmente en una oscuridad aún mayor de la que ya estaba en su apogeo durante la vida de Rowbotham, no todo estaba perdido. ¡La verdad no se puede matar tan fácilmente! En 1956, cuando la humanidad estaba a punto de poner un satélite en órbita, Samuel Shenton de Dover, Reino Unido, se encontró con las obras anteriores de la Universal Zetetic Society, sucesora de la de Rowbotham, y quedó enganchado. Luego estableció la Sociedad Internacional de Investigación de la Tierra Plana (IFERS), que adoptó algunas de las ideas de la Sociedad Zetetic antes, sobre todo, como habrás adivinado por su nuevo nombre, que la Tierra es plana.

Por supuesto, su momento no fue exactamente el ideal dado el lanzamiento del Sputnik en 1957 que, más allá de estar en órbita, emitió una señal que cualquiera con un poco de conocimiento podría rastrear, demostrando muy claramente la naturaleza esférica de la Tierra.

Sin embargo, esto no lo desconcertó en lo más mínimo. Simplemente señaló que los satélites giraban en círculos sobre el disco del mundo y que, “¿Navegar alrededor de la Isla de Wight probaría que era esférica? Es lo mismo para esos satélites ".

Cuando se tomaron imágenes de la Tierra desde el espacio que mostraban claramente la naturaleza esférica del planeta, el hombre que abogaba firmemente por confiar en lo que se puede ver con sus propios ojos dijo: "Es fácil ver cómo una fotografía como esa puede engañar al ojo inexperto".

Cuando los astronautas regresaron todavía creyendo que la Tierra no era plana, siguió la explicación general de cualquier teoría de la conspiración cuando no se puede pensar en otra explicación adecuada: "Es un engaño del público y no está bien".

A pesar del montículo gigante y aproximadamente esférico de evidencia que mira a los miembros directamente a la cara, incluida la variedad fácilmente confirmada por cualquiera con un mínimo de conocimiento en física, la sociedad no murió por completo, aunque en 1972 había caído de un pico de aproximadamente 3,000 miembros hasta alrededor de 100 en todo el mundo.

Ese mismo año murió Shenton y el californiano Charles Johnson más o menos se hizo cargo de los remanentes, creando la International Flat Earth Research Society of America. Johnson también defendió que había una conspiración global con respecto a la Tierra muy plana, no solo hoy, sino que abarca milenios. Para citarlo, esta fue una conspiración contra la que "Moisés, Colón y FDR lucharon". Beyond that Columbus most definitely thought that the Earth was roughly spherical, simply misjudging its circumference, we’re guessing Moses didn’t have to fight anyone on this one as the Ancient Egyptians firmly believed in the concept of a flat Earth, as did seemingly the Hebrews around the time he supposedly lived.

So what exactly do the world’s governments and countless scientists and high school physics students throughout human history have to gain by convincing people the world is spherical instead of flat? Well, Johnson advocated that this is a tool used by scientists to get rid of religion. Of course, as noted, Christian scholars throughout history on the whole advocated for the very spherical Earth and we’re not aware of any major religious denomination the world over today that goes with the flat Earth model, so no apparent conflict… But, hey, we guess Eratosthenes must have really had it in for those Ancient Egyptian and Greek gods…

In any event, despite Johnson’s less than compelling arguments, over time this new society actually gained followers up to a peak of about 3,500 members under his leadership. Disaster struck, however, when a fire at headquarters destroyed some of the records of membership in 1997. Ultimately Johnson himself passed away in 2001 and the society was temporarily just as dead.

All was not lost, however, as there is no medium greater than the Internet at giving humans ability to discover the truth in anything for themselves… if we weren’t all so lazy and our monkey brains not so chock full of cognitive biases.

And so it was that in 2004, one Daniel Shenton created a discussion forum home for the mostly dead Flat Earth Society and by 2009 a new wiki website was created in its place, with the society slowly growing from there to apparently around 500 members to date. There are also many Flat Earth pages and channels on sites like Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube sometimes exceeding 100K members or subscribers of a given page, channel, or profile, for whatever that’s worth.

In the latest incarnation of the society, as with their forebears, the modern group strongly advocates for only accepting that which you can see with your own eyes and prove with your own efforts. As they note on their website,

The simplest is by relying on ones own senses to discern the true nature of the world around us. The world looks flat, the bottoms of clouds are flat, the movement of the Sun these are all examples of your senses telling you that we do not live on a spherical heliocentric world. This is using what’s called an empirical approach, or an approach that relies on information from your senses. Alternatively, when using Descartes’ method of Cartesian doubt to skeptically view the world around us, one quickly finds that the notion of a spherical world is the theory which has the burden of proof and not flat earth theory.

As for the model of the Earth they go with, while there is some dissension among the ranks over exact details, the current belief advocated by the Flat Earth Society is that the the Earth is disc shaped. The North Pole lies at the center of this disc and there is an ice wall surrounding the outer most parts of the Earth that keeps the oceans contained. This wall is nearly impossible to reach owing to the fact that NASA is closely guarding it, ensuring no one ever gets close enough to see it for themselves. NASA also is extremely active in generating satellite photos of the Earth and generating other data all meant to keep people believing in a spherical Earth. Seemingly the Google Earth team must be in on it too, clearly abandoning the company’s long held unofficial mantra of “Don’t be evil.”

As evidence of this conspiracy and how far reaching it is, they also point out on their website that the United Nations emblem strongly resembles the Flat Earth Society’s view of what the Earth actually looks like.

(We guess clearly showing the logo design team, led by industrial designer Oliver Lincoln Lundquist, in 1945, didn’t get the memo that the true shape of the Earth was supposed to be a secret. You had one job Lundquist.

To be fair, however, when his team designed it, it was originally just supposed to be used on the badges at the United Nations Charter signing conference, so only for people who already knew the Earth was flat… Fun fact, Lundquist did, however, make up for the screw up by later designing the classic blue and white Q-tip box.)

In any event, you might at this point be wondering how the Flat Earth Society believes commercial airlines and ships the world over continue to seemingly travel in one direction and manage to circle the globe. Well, this is because these ships and planes are literally circling. They state, “circumnavigation is performed by moving in a great circle around the North Pole.”

As for how the ship and plane captains don’t seem to be aware of this, in modern times it’s because GPS devices and autopilots are designed in software to simply make it seem like the craft is circling a globe and not continually turning slightly. Of course, it’s not clear how they account for people tricking themselves when navigating before or without GPS, which has only been ubiquitous for a couple decades or so. (See: Who Invented GPS and How Does It Work?)

There’s also the fact that fuel burn on these ships and airplanes are carefully calculated, particularly important for planes where weight and balance is always an essential consideration if one doesn’t want to die a fiery death. Thus, if they were really traveling in the way the Flat Earthers claim, the fuel requirements would be different, sometimes vastly so. (No surprise here that Big Oil must be involved…)

As for, you know, the whole day and night thing, this is explained on their website “The sun moves in circles around the North Pole. When it is over your head, it’s day. When it’s not, it’s night. The light of the sun is confined to a limited area and its light acts like a spotlight upon the earth… The apparent effect of the sun rising and setting is…a perspective effect.”

How exactly the light from the Sun only works as a spotlight isn’t clear. It’s also not clear how the phases of the Moon and lunar and solar eclipses work given this spotlight model and given they believe the Sun is always above the Earth…

Moving on- as for the many people who claim to be able to see the curvature of the Earth when on high altitude commercial flights, well, the Flat Earth Society, who advocated trusting your own senses over what anyone tells you. tells these people, to quote, “Quite simply you cannot… the windows on commercial aircraft are small and heavily curved. Even if they flew high enough for a person to see curvature, it would still not be visible to passengers.”

As for the issue of someone with even a half way decent telescope being able to see the spherical nature of other planets in the solar system, including them spinning away, the Flat Earth Society claims,

Planets are orbiting astronomical objects. The Earth is not a planet by definition, as it sits at the center of our solar system above which the planets and the Sun revolve. The earths uniqueness, fundamental differences and centrality makes any comparison to other nearby celestial bodies insufficient – Like comparing basketballs to the court on which they bounce.

As for how gravity works in the flat Earth model, it turns out that, “The earth is constantly accelerating up at a rate of 32 feet per second squared (or 9.8 meters per second squared). This constant acceleration causes what you think of as gravity. Imagine sitting in a car that never stops speeding up. You will be forever pushed into your seat. The earth works much the same way. It is constantly accelerating upwards being pushed by a universal accelerator (UA) known as dark energy or aetheric wind.”

You may have spotted a problem with this explanation given the whole issue of eventually exceeding the speed of light. In fact, if constant acceleration at 9.8 meters per second squared, it would only take about a year for the Earth to reach the speed of light.

Well, they’ve got you covered, explaining: “Due to special relativity, this is not the case. At this point, many readers will question the validity of any answer which uses advanced, intimidating-sounding physics terms to explain a position. However, it is true. The relevant equation is v/c = tanh (at/c). One will find that in this equation, tanh(at/c) can never exceed or equal 1. This means that velocity can never reach the speed of light, regardless of how long one accelerates for and the rate of the acceleration.”

Anyway, as to what lies below the Earth, this is heavily disputed among Flat Earthers. But it doesn’t really matter as you can’t get there anyway. You see, to quote Flat Earther Robbie Davidson in an interview with Forbes, “We don’t believe anything can fall off the edge, because a big portion of the flat earth community believes that we’re in a dome, like a snow globe. So the sun, moon and stars are all inside. It’s very high but all contained inside. So there’s no way to actually fall off of the earth.”

Given it only takes a modicum of effort to disprove pretty much everything said on their website and prove definitively for one’s self that the Earth is roughly spherical without needing to trust any scientist or government, you might think the Flat Earthers just aren’t trying. Well, you’re kind of right, but there are exceptions! Case in point- limo driver Mike Hughes who managed to raise about $8,000 thanks to a Flat Earth fundraiser. ¿Por qué? To build a rocket to reach the heavens with to once and for all prove the Earth was flat.

Reportedly the final hilariously fitting steam powered rocket and launch platform cost around $20,000 and took about ten years to build. With it, Hughes managed to achieve an altitude of almost 1,900 feet, which while kind of impressive for an amateur built home made rocket that could carry a human, was nonetheless not able to achieve his objective of getting him to space.

If only it was possible to build more powerful rockets… Or if there existed a balloon designed to be able to soar into the heavens with some sort of device on board that could capture and store what it sees through an eye like apparatus… Or, stick with us here people, if a human going along for the ride was a requirement to show NASA hadn’t tampered with this futuristic visual capture device, some sort of bird-like machine that could carry humans above 1,900 feet…

On that note, for a mere $12,000-$16,000 Hughes could have purchase a charter flight ticket to not only take him higher than altitudes of 1,900 feet, but also take him to Antarctica to see the massive ice wall for himself. Or if the Flat Earth society wanted to pool together their resources, for prices from $25,000-$70,000 they could charter a flight to the South Pole itself. Though, a thing they don’t tell you on the vacation package brochure is that while you can go visit the South Pole, NASA subjects everyone that does to severe mental retraining to ensure all memories of the ice wall have been erased and replaced with pleasant, but very wall free, recollections.

All joking and head scratching aside, it’s always important to note that many of the core psychological quirks that see Flat Earthers intractably convinced the Earth is flat in the face of all evidence to the contrary exist in all of us. Monkey brain gonna monkey. We further all have many beliefs we firmly cling to just as tenuously supported by our level of knowledge on a subject, though thankfully for most of us the absurdity isn’t quite so easy to spot, allowing us to safely continue to think of ourselves as superior to mere mortals with alternate ideas…

In the end, we all firmly believe many things that aren’t true at all and no amount of evidence could ever convince any of us to change our minds on some of these things. Food for thought.

This article is originally posted in Today I Found Out.

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Flat Earth News From The Early 1900’s — Our Hidden History

Here are some flat earth articles that were written in the early 1900’s. It’s clear by reading some of the articles of the period, flat-earthers were unbelievably derided for their views. I’ve read through enough articles to see the vitriol and outright condemnation much as is experienced today. What really comes into focus is a time span of about 45 years starting around 1890 that was seemingly designed to snuff-out the flat earth and geocentrism forever more.

The first step in the process was the Organic Act of 1871 changing the United States of America to the Corporation of The United States. In short, the United States was now owned by the Jesuits and Vatican and we’re considered employees of the corporation of The United States. Para obtener más información, haga clic aquí. A hop skip and a jump later the Federal Reserve Act is passed in 1913 and the Vatican’s banking cartel managed by the Rothschild’s has total control of all U.S. currency creation. To put it mildly, the Jesuits now have the former Republic of the United States in a defacto headlock and takedown.

Included in that headlock was the beginning of mass indoctrination and social engineering for all generations to come, force-fed a steady diet of the grandest of new religions, Scientism. As Morpheus said to Neo, fate is not without it’s ironies. Why are the prime movers of Scientism and heliocentricity incubated by a group of Jesuit priests? Seem’s to be quite the contradiction doesn’t it? But heck, without Jesuit priest father Georges Lemaitre we wouldn’t have the Big Bang Theory or the television show!

Chronology Of 500 Year Jesuit Deception And Flat Earth

One of the things that scientism needed to fix-up patch-up lie about was the Jesuit heliocentric deception after the disastrous results of the Michelson-Morley Test at the turn of the century. Because of the epic failure of the Michelson test, geocentrism was alive and kicking. With Nikola Tesla also emerging as a huge threat, the Jesuit owned media went after flat-earthers hard in the press and brought in their Zionist dupe Albert Einstein to serve up his relativity junk and become the Bill Nye of his time. As you’ll see, the flat earth debate was still hotly contested in the early 1900’s and serve’s as a timely reminder that many have come before us and stood alone, this time many more are coming and we will stand together!! Let’s finish what they started and bring the dome home.


16 Odd belief: Demi Lovato - Believes a random ghost found her

Successful actress and singer Demi Lovato is one of the most popular celebrities on social media today. That made it a bigger story when she revealed that her Texas home was haunted, and she believed that a ghost wanted to find her.

Lovato stated that the home had a young female ghost named Emily. She hired ghost hunters that confirmed her suspicion of the ghost’s name. Lovato even claims she interacted with the ghost and referred to her as a best friend.

Some fans believed Demi was having fun by making up a wild story, but there are those that believe she was telling the truth.


Flat Earth Concepts In Religion And All That Malarkey

Ancient Pagan religions in the Mediterranean region taught that the Earth was shaped like a flat disk, and was located at the center of the universe . Above the Earth was a dome, which was referred to as the &ldquoFirmament.&rdquo It was supported by mountains at the edge of the Earth.

Authors of the Hebrew Scriptures (a.k.a. Old Testament) taught the same beliefs.

Ancient Greeks and Romans both believed that the firmament was made of glass.

The Bible describes the Firmament as metallic.

The sun, moon, planets and stars were were believed to be located just under the Firmament, and circled around the Earth once a day. Above the dome were the &ldquoupper seas.&rdquo

Also above the Firmament was Heaven, where God was believed to dwell. It had numerous windows that could be opened from time to time to allow some of the upper waters to fall onto the the Earth in the form of rain or snow. The Earth itself was supported on multiple columns or pillars.

Unfortunately, there is no clear indication in the Bible how the pillars were supported.

It is often believed that the Hindu religion has taught that the world lies on top of a gigantic turtle, which is lying on top of a pile of progressively larger turtles. Legends say that when someone asked a religious authority what the lowest and largest turtle stood on, the reply was that &ldquoit is turtles all the way down.&rdquo

Perhaps the pillars holding up the Earth also were believed to go &ldquoall the way down.&rdquo

The Earth&rsquos oceans and seas were referred to as the &ldquolower waters.&rdquo Under the Earth there was believed to be a massive cave called Sheol where everyone went after they died and were buried. This belief is similar to Hades, in the ancient Greek religion.

The Firmament

The first chapter in the Hebrew Scriptures (a.k.a. Old Testament) clearly explains this arrangment. los King James Version of Genesis translates the original Hebrew as::

Chapter 6 & 7:

&ldquoAnd God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the [upper] waters from the [lower] waters. And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so. ..&rdquo

Chapter 16 & 17:.

&ldquoAnd God made two great lights the [Sun, the] greater light to rule the day, and the [Moon. the] lesser light to rule the night: he made the stars also.17 And God set them in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth.&rdquo

Plato (circa 428 to 348 BCE ) was a philosopher in Classical Greece. Deviating from the Flat Earth concept, he taught that the Earth was spherical in shape. He believed, incorrectly, in the geocentric concept: that the sun, moon, planets and stars rotated in perfect circles around the Earth.

Many centuries after Genesis was written, Eratosthenes of Cyrene in Greece (276 to 194 BCE) proved that the Earth was approximately spherical in shape by measuring its approximate diameter. He had the length measured of the shadows produced by two sticks stuck vetically into the Earth. at different locations, at noon time. His estimate was based on the distance between the locations, which were due North of each other. His estimate was within 15% of the actual value.

The earth-centered universe concept was adopted by the early Catholic Church which fiercely defended the belief. This was in the days before religious tolerance became widespread, when people in many countries were only free to believe in the teachings of the established state religion.

The Church had the Italian philosopher, Giordano Bruno (1548-1600 CE), burned at the stake, at least in part because of his astronomical beliefs.

The Italian polymath, Galileo Galilei, (1564 &ndash 1642 CE) was luckier. Because of his advanced age, he was only placed under house arrest.

Today, essentially all scientists have rejected the flat earth belief. They have agreed for over two millennia that the earth is roughly spherical in shape &mdash a slightly pear shaped, oblate spheroid to be more accurate.

Belief in the flat Earth returns:

During the 19th century, Samuel Rowbotham (1816 to 1884 CE ), who adopted the pseudonym &ldquoParallax,&rdquo promoted the Biblical view of the Earth. He wrote the book &ldquoZetetic Astronomy: Earth Not a Globe&rdquo which taught that the Earth is flat. Since 2004, the Flat Earth Society has promoted Parallax&rsquos beliefs. Its members and other believers, who are often referred to as flatists, have become very active on You Tube and the rest of the Internet, attempting to prove their beliefs. Some are undoubtedly sincere. Others may join the Society to obtain a signed membership certificate and a hand-cast pewter medallion to display on the wall for people&rsquos amusement.

Many flatists believe that the earth is flat and round , with the North Pole at its center. Most do not believe that Antarctica is a continent, Rather, they view it it is a ring of ice that circles all the continents at the edge of the earth. Its purpose is to prevent the oceans from draining off of the side of the Earth. If their belief were proven to be valid, then everyone will have an additional concern about Climate Change : the higher temperatures might melt a portion of the ice wall and our oceans might disappear into oblivion.

Flatists often believe that the Sun is a tiny sphere only about 32 miles in diameter located about 3,000 miles above the Earth. The moon is viewed as similar in its diameter and distance. Most believe that all of the photographs of the Earth taken from outer space are simply forgeries, mainly created by NASA. Most are confident that humans have never walked on the surface of the Moon. They believe that if a rocket tried to travel to the moon it would crash into the firmament only a relatively short distance from the Earth&rsquos surface.

There are many proofs that the Earth is not flat and it doesn&rsquot require a deep scientific knowledge to understand this.


Who believed the earth was flat? - Historia

The Flat-Earth Belief of Bible Writers

All Christian sects recognize the Bible as the primary source of revelation. This compiled material was allegedly inspired by God and written by chosen authors to reveal him and his will to man. The Bible, then, is the foundation of the Christian religion. To Christian fundamentalists who believe in verbal inspiration, the Bible is an infallible foundation. They claim that &ldquothe Holy Spirit so dominated and guided the minds and pens of those who wrote (the Bible) as to make their writings free from mistakes of any and all kinds, whether it be mistakes of history or chronology or botany or biology or astronomy, or mistakes as to moral and spiritual truth pertaining to God or man, in time or eternity,&rdquo (Wilbur F. Tillett, &ldquoThe Divine Elements in the Bible,&rdquo The Abingdon Bible Commentary).

Despite the obvious sincerity of those who so view the Bible, the inerrancy doctrine has no basis in fact. That the Bible contains mistakes in every area mentioned by Mr. Till is a truth widely recognized by reputable Bible scholars. One of the most consistent scientific errors that Bible writers made concerned their misconception of the earthʼs shape. In Psalm 24:2, for example, it was said that &ldquothe world and all that is in it belong to the Lord the earth and all who live on it are his. He built it on the deep waters beneath the earth and laid its foundations in the ocean depths,&rdquo (GNB).

This passage and others like it in the Bible make no sense until they are interpreted in terms of the ancient Hebrew conception of the world as represented in the graphic illustrations on the following page that were published in the New American Bible and The Interpreterʼs Dictionary of the Bible. (Similar ones appear in other Bible dictionaries.) If you will study the graphics and then read the above quotation again, the psalmistʼs meaning will become quite clear. He thought the earth rested on foundations or pillars that God had set in the ocean depths. Needless to say, modern science knows better.

Here are just a few of the many other passages that prove Bible writers were ignorant of Earthʼs spherical shape:
Daniel 4:7-8, &ldquoI saw a tree of great height at the center of the world. It was large and strong, with its top touching the heavens, and it could be seen from the ends of the earth.&rdquo This was allegedly an inspired dream, yet it conveys a flat-earth concept, because no matter how tall a tree would be, people on the other side of a spherical earth could not see it.

Matthew 4:8, &ldquoThe devil took him (Jesus) to a very high mountain and displayed before him all the kingdoms of the world in their magnificence&hellip.&rdquo The only plausible reason for the &ldquovery high mountain&rdquo was that the altitude would make it possible to see to the ends of the earth. Only on a flat earth would this be remotely possible, so the New Testament writers were as ignorant as the Old.

In Genesis 11:4, the people wanted to build a tower up to heaven. If you look at the graphics above, you can see their concept of heavenly bodies under the dome, not all that far away. Presumably, the Lord was afraid they would be able to accomplish their plan, so he caused them to speak various languages. This, of course, is not the reason people speak different languages, but nothing is too fantastic for the ignorant to believe.

The following references show that Bible writers thought there was water above a solid dome with floodgates (look at the graphics again) that could be opened to make it rain:

Job 38:22, &ldquoHave you entered the storehouse of the snow, and seen the treasury of the hail?&rdquo Look at items two and three in the graphic from the Interpreterʼs Dictionary, and the intended meaning of this statement becomes very clear.

Psalm 104:3, 13, &ldquoYou stretch the heavens out like a tent, you build your palace on the waters above&hellip You water the mountains from your palace.&rdquo Here God dwells in a palace above the waters over the firmament or dome. To water the mountains, he opens the floodgates. Quite unscientific!

Genesis 1:6-7, &ldquoLet there be a dome to divide the water and to keep it in two separate places&hellip and it was done. So God made a dome, and it separated the water under it from the water above it.&rdquo So the NAB and The Interpreterʼs Dictionary of the Bible are quite correct in their graphic representations of what the Bible writers believed and taught. How many of you readers believe the earth is flat? The Bible teaches it is!

Christian fundamentalists have used various scriptures to try to prove that Bible writers knew the earth was round. Since I have already shown that these writers thought the earth is flat, if some verses actually do teach that it is round, then there is a contradiction in the Bible and the fundamentalists lose anyway.

Job 38:13-14 is sometimes quoted as a round-earth text: &ldquoHast thou commanded the morning since thy days and caused the dayspring to know his place that it might take hold of the ends of the earth, that the wicked might be shaken out of it? It is turned as clay to the seal and they stand as a garment.&rdquo Claim is made that the statement about the earth &ldquoturn(ing) as clay to the seal&rdquo was a reference to the earthʼs rotation, but this passage has nothing to do with movement. The word used was haphak, which meant &ldquoto convert, to change, or to make clear.&rdquo It is the same word that was used in Exodus 7 in reference to Aaronʼs rod turning into a serpent and the waters of Egypt turning to blood, so rather than the word meaning turning in the sense of movement, it meant turning in the sense of changing. The GNB clarifies the meaning in Job 38:14: &ldquoDaylight makes the hills and valleys stand out like the folds of a garment, clear as the imprint of a seal on clay.&rdquo So, far from teaching the revolution of the earth, this was merely a reference to the effects of sunlight in the morning. Notice also that the KJV refers here to &ldquothe ends of earth.&rdquo This would indicate a flat earth, since there are no ends to a globe.

Job 26:7 has also been cited as proof that the writer of this book knew that the earth was a sphere: &ldquoHe stretcheth out the north over the empty place and hangeth the earth upon nothing.&rdquo An NAB footnote at this verse says, &ldquoThe North: used here as a synonym for the firmament, cf. Is. 14:13,&rdquo (emphasis inserted). Thus, we read, &ldquoHe stretches out the dome (firmament) over the empty space.&rdquo In other words, the dome was unsupported in the middle. The reference in Isaiah 14:13 says, &ldquoYou (King of Babylon) were determined to climb up to heaven and place your throne above the highest stars (see the graphics). You thought you would sit like a king on that mountain in the north where the gods assemble.&rdquo The &ldquonorth&rdquo was indeed used as a synonym for the heavens or firmament, so the passage was actually speaking of a &ldquomountain in the heavens where the gods assemble.&rdquo

&ldquoHe&hellip hangeth the earth upon nothing&rdquo simply expressed a Hebrew belief that the flat earth, although supported by pillars, did not rest on the back of Atlas or a turtle or an elephant, as their pagan neighbors believed. In this Job was right but not because he was inspired otherwise, he wouldnʼt have said in the same context, &ldquoThe pillars of the heavens tremble (see the graphics) and are stunned at his thunderous rebuke,&rdquo (26:11). He thought the thunder was Godʼs voice!

Fundamentalists use Isaiah 40:22 to argue that Earthʼs rotundity was known to the writer: &ldquoIt is he (God) that sitteth upon the circle of the earth, and the inhabitants thereof are as grasshoppers that stretcheth out the heavens as a curtain, and spreadeth them out as a tent to dwell in.&rdquo They misunderstand the first half of the verse, which is clarified by the placement of &ldquoGodʼs throne&rdquo in the NAB graphic, and they avoid the second half. The NAB gives us a proper translation of the verse: &ldquoHe sits enthroned above the vault (dome) of the earth&hellip. He stretches out the heavens like a veil, spreads them out like a tent to dwell in.&rdquo See the graphic illustrations again and check the Hebrew concept of firmament as explained in Eerdmans and other reliable Bible dictionaries.

The Hebrews were inspired by nothing more than their political and religious motivations. Thus, being ignorant of scientific facts, they thought the earth was flat, that sick people were possessed by demons, and that essentially everything was caused by either gods or demons. Unfortunately, many people are still just as ignorant.
Article written by Adrian Swindler.


4 A Flat-Earther Launched A Homemade Rocket In An Attempt To View The Earth From Space

Mike Hughes wants to travel to space so that he can finally prove the Earth is flat. To achieve his pipe dream, he built a rocket right in his backyard. The rocket is not perfect and is just a working prototype. It cost $20,000 and was built with scrap metal.

Hughes tested his rocket in March 2018. It (and Hughes) went 572 meters (1,875 ft) into the air before the rocket&rsquos parachute deployed, and it glided back to the ground. It landed hard, injuring Hughes. However, he suffered no permanent damage and probably returned to working on his rocket when he got better. [7]


‘Columbus Set Out to Prove the Earth Was Round’

Advertisements In October 2019, a number of memes about the legacy of Italian explorer Christopher Columbus circulated on Facebook around Columbus Day, among them a meme about the claim that he “proved” that Earth is round:

In the above meme, the top and bottom text read:

“COLUMBUS DISCOVERED THE WORLD WAS ROUND”
NO THE FUCK HE DID NOT

Clockwise from the top left, three images including spherical globes were captioned:

Statue of Atlas holding the world 148 AD
Crate of Mallus globe 160 BC
Behaim Globe started 1490

The first image at the middle top left appeared to show Greek titan Atlas, represented, as he frequently is, in his now-familiar position “with bent knees and back, straining to hold the globe on his shoulders.” Depictions of Atlas date back to at least six centuries before the current era, or BCE, and the precise year labeled in this image is 148 BCE.

Atlas as seen in this particular meme is a work known as the Farnese Atlas, dated to around 150 BCE. Although experts still dispute its precise age, it came from well before the time of Columbus.

Próximo. the meme cites the “Crate of Mallus globe” from 160 BCE Crates of Mallus was a philosopher and grammarian in ancient Greece. Crates devised one of the earliest, if not the earliest, known spherical model of the Earth (also known as a globe) around 150 BCE, fairly close to the meme’s representation.

Third cited by the meme was “Behaim Globe,” started presumably in 1490 CE. Also known as “Erdapfel,” or “Earth Apple,” the artifact (dated coincidentally to 1492) is believed to be the earliest surviving actual globe:

Also called the Behaim Globe, the construction of the Erdapfel is credited to the 15th century polymath Martin Behaim. Behaim, a German, was a well-known geographer, merchant, mariner, and philosopher. It was after his travels across the Known World, to places such as Portugal and the West Coast of Africa, that he returned to his native Nuremberg, where he convinced the city council of his hometown to commission a globe from him.

All three of the images are roughly correct, if possibly off by a few years across the millennia. But the meme’s central claim was that contrary to history lessons trotted out every October in schools throughout the United States, Christopher Columbus didn’t actually “prove the Earth was round” or disabuse sailors of their fear that their ships would plummet off the edge of a flat ocean should they travel too far.

Widely repeated claims that Christopher Columbus “prove” that the world is spherical were addressed in Jeffrey Burton Russell’s 1991 book Inventing the Flat Earth: Columbus and Modern Historians. In his book. Russell described a push — predominantly between 1870 and 1920 — to rewrite history by advancing the idea that people in the Middle Ages were ignorant of a spherical planet. He said in a 1997 talk on the same subject:

Historians of science have been [attempting to debunk the myth of widespread belief in a flat Earth] for at least 70 years (most recently Edward Grant, David Lindberg, Daniel Woodward, and Robert S. Westman), without making notable headway against the error. Schoolchildren in the US, Europe, and Japan are for the most part being taught the same old nonsense. How and why did this nonsense emerge?

In my research, I looked to see how old the idea was that medieval Christians believed the earth was flat. I obviously did not find it among medieval Christians. Nor among anti-Catholic Protestant reformers. Nor in Copernicus or Galileo or their followers, who had to demonstrate the superiority of a heliocentric system, but not of a spherical earth. I was sure I would find it among the eighteenth-century philosophes, among all their vitriolic sneers at Christianity, but not a word. I am still amazed at where it first appears.

No one before the 1830s believed that medieval people thought that the earth was flat.

The idea was established, almost contemporaneously, by a Frenchman and an American, between whom I have not been able to establish a connection, though they were both in Paris at the same time. One was Antoine-Jean Letronne (1787-1848), an academic of strong antireligious prejudices who had studied both geography and patristics and who cleverly drew upon both to misrepresent the church fathers and their medieval successors as believing in a flat earth, in his On the Cosmographical Ideas of the Church Fathers (1834). The American was no other than our beloved storyteller Washington Irving (1783-1859), who loved to write historical fiction under the guise of history. His misrepresentations of the history of early New York City and of the life of Washington were topped by his history of Christopher Columbus (1828). It was [Irving] who invented the indelible picture of the young Columbus, a “simple mariner,” appearing before a dark crowd of benighted inquisitors and hooded theologians at a council of Salamanca, all of whom believed, according to Irving, that the earth was flat like a plate. Well, yes, there was a meeting at Salamanca in 1491, but Irving’s version of it, to quote a distinguished modern historian of Columbus, was “pure moonshine. Washington Irving, scenting his opportunity for a picturesque and moving scene,” created a fictitious account of this “nonexistent university council” and “let his imagination go completely…the whole story is misleading and mischievous nonsense.”

Russell was disputing a myth within a myth, the belief that Columbus had bravely sought to disprove a prevailing scientific and geographic notion in his time within the larger story of the explorer’s role in history. He cited academic Antoine-Jean Letronne as one of the higher-profile anti-religious scholars to develop and promulgate the story as part of a larger effort to link religion and religious leaders of Columbus’ time with ignorance and hostility to scientific notions.

Russell also pointed to author Washington Irving as an originator of the tale, thanks to Irving’s described penchant for blending “historical fiction” with history under the auspices of strictly authoring history. Russell described Irving’s claims about Columbus and a flat-earth belief as “misleading” as well as “mischievous nonsense.”

In that 1997 talk, Russell concluded by arguing that the creation of the myth of flat Earth belief in the Middle Ages was really about a dispute over evolution, an allegory intended to cast doubt on creationists:

The reason for promoting both the specific lie about the sphericity of the earth and the general lie that religion and science are in natural and eternal conflict in Western society, is to defend Darwinism. The answer is really only slightly more complicated than that bald statement. The flat-earth lie was ammunition against the creationists. The argument was simple and powerful, if not elegant: “Look how stupid these Christians are. They are always getting in the way of science and progress. These people who deny evolution today are exactly the same sort of people as those idiots who for at least a thousand years denied that the earth was round. How stupid can you get?”

As RationalWiki notes, both Letronne and Irving died before Darwinism was introduced. Letronne died in 1849 and Irving in 1859 Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of the Species was first published in 1859.

History.com also identifies Letronne and Irving in advancing the myth, but posits that mischievousness and creative license (not a smear campaign against Darwin’s then-nascent theory) was the culprit in Irving’s case:

That was thanks to scientists, philosophers and mathematicians who, as early as around 600 B.C., made observations that Earth was round. Using calculations based on the sun’s rise and fall, shadows and other physical properties of the planet, Greek scholars like Pythagoras and Aristotle determined that the planet is actually a sphere … The myth of Columbus’ supposed flat earth theory is tempting: It casts the explorer’s intrepid journey in an even more daring light. Problem is, it’s completely untrue. The legend doesn’t even date from Columbus’ own lifetime. Rather, it was invented in 1828, when Washington Irving published The Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus.

Irving, a master storyteller, was already famous for tales like “Rip Van Winkle” and “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow” when he tackled the life of Columbus. His inspiration came after his friend, Alexander Hill Everett, the United States’ minister to Spain, invited Irving to stay with him in Madrid. While visiting the city, Irving was tempted by a giganticarchive of documents about Columbus and decided to write the explorer’s biography.

The archive may have been extensive, but Irving couldn’t help from adding fictional flourishes to Columbus’ already fascinating life. Crucially, he claimed that when the explorer told Spanish geographers the earth was not actually flat, they refused to believe him, even questioning his faith and endangering his life.

As that article noted, there was a dispute between Columbus and his financiers about his proposed voyage. But it didn’t involve a widespread belief the world was flat rather, it was over an ongoing debate about the length of the route and the general distances between land masses.

A careful reading of history has always shown that humans acknowledged the Earth’s spherical nature before the Middle Ages, and even in antiquity. But it doesn’t prevent folklore about Columbus’ motivations from infecting lessons and talks about the science of previous eras. In 2014, historian Darin Hayton referenced writings and remarks by astronomer Chris Impey and writes:

More recently still, Chris Impey, an astronomer at University of Arizona who claims to be interested in and knowledgable about history, fell prey to the Columbus myth in a lecture posted on YouTube, “Ancient Astronomy.” … [Imp ey] underscores this claim in his video series “Teach Astronomy” (which is part of an online textbook). In the section on “The Dark Ages” he says:

In the fourth century with the fall of Rome and the sacking of the great library at Alexandria scientific darkness fell across Europe. Even the language of learning, Latin, splintered as warring tribes took over. The theology of the day was defined by Augustine, and the Christian church was mostly anti-science. The learning of the Romans and the Greeks was denigrated as pagan knowledge. Even the knowledge of the round Earth was lost for many centuries.

Impey’s comments reveal, I think, the power of the Columbus myth. It has become so central to the idea of modernity, that even a self-described student of history who is both smart and very educated — part of the “educated extreme” — is not motivated to do a simple internet search to fact check that part of his lecture and textbook. Whereas Irving had mixed truths and truthiness into a “clear and continued narrative,” subsequent authors have pruned the historical truths from the story, leaving just a myth that has become part of modern folklore.

It is not a carefully guarded secret that Christopher Columbus’ journey to the New World was never to disprove the common man’s belief that the Earth was actually flat. Many texts and other items from centuries past show without a doubt that previous generations were well aware the Earth was “round,” and that knowledge was not “lost” by the Middle Ages, only to be rediscovered by Columbus. Notions to the contrary did not really stick until author Washington Irving embellished Columbus’ backstory in an 1828 book. Esa exageración creativa dio lugar a un mito pernicioso al que todavía se hace referencia en la actualidad (aunque probablemente no lo haya hecho nadie que haya dedicado tiempo a verificar la afirmación). presa de su existencia como parte de un tratado más amplio sobre la valoración de la ciencia y la historia por encima de la superstición y los mitos.


Ver el vídeo: LA TIERRA Secretos del Planeta Nacimiento y Muerte de la Tierra - Documentales