General Bragg - Historia

General Bragg - Historia

General Bragg

El general Braxton Bragg. Nació en 1817 en Warrentown, Carolina del Norte, y se graduó de West Point en 1837. Después de la acción en la Guerra Seminole, sirvió con destino en la Guerra Mexicana, especialmente en Buena Vista el 3 de febrero de 1847 cuando su artillería de campo rompió el Ataque mexicano. Renunció en 1836 y se convirtió en propietario de una plantación en Luisiana hasta que fue nombrado General de Brigada en el Ejército de los Estados Confederados el 23 de febrero de 1861. Ayudó al General Johnston en la reorganización de su ejército, fue ascendido a General por su valentía en Shiloh; y relevó al general Beauregard como comandante del ejército de Tennessee el 27 de junio de 1862. Después de ver la acción en Perryville, Stone River, Chickamauga y Chattanooga, fue relevado por el general Johnston el 2 de diciembre de 1863. Como asesor militar de Jefferson Davis, fue capturado con el Presidente Mayo de 1865. Después de la guerra ejerció como ingeniero civil hasta su muerte en Galveston el 27 de septiembre de 1876.

(SStr: t. 1.043, 1. 208 ', b. 32'8 ", dph. 16' dr. 12 ':
s. 10 k., A. 1 30 pdr., 1 32 pdr., 1 12 pdr.;

General Bragg, originalmente un vapor fluvial de cera de México construido en la ciudad de Nueva York en 1831. Propiedad de Southern Steamship Co., quedó impresionada por el servicio confederado como CSS General Bragg. En Nueva Orleans el 13 de enero de 1862 (. Fue capturada por la Flotilla Occidental de la Unión en un compromiso cerca de Memphis, Tennessee, el 6 de junio de 1862, y transferido al Departamento de Guerra el 30 de septiembre de 1862. Su primer oficial al mando fue It. Joshua Bishop.

El general Bragg fue equipado en Cairo, Ill., Partiendo
Julio de 1862 rumbo a Helena, Ark. Navegó el 16 de agosto de 1862 como parte de una escolta al vapor Iatan que llevaba 300 soldados a la desembocadura del Yazoo para el reconocimiento de las baterías confederadas y los grupos guerrilleros. Durante los siguientes 13 meses, a excepción de los períodos de reparación en Memphis, patrulló el río desde Helena hasta la desembocadura del río Yazoo, donde protegió contra los movimientos confederados hacia Vicksburg.

Con la caída de Vicksburg en julio de 1863, el general Bragg permaneció en las cercanías hasta su partida el 13 de diciembre, para su nueva estación en la desembocadura del río Rojo. Durante la primavera de 1864, era su deber proteger la desembocadura del río en apoyo de la expedición conjunta contra Shreveport on the Red. Comenzó a patrullar el río de nuevo, y el 15 de junio se enfrentó a una batería confederada con Naiad cerca de Tunica Bend, Luisiana. Durante un tiempo, los barcos sufrieron lo peor de la acción en medio de una lluvia de disparos y fusilería, pero finalmente ahuyentaron a los confederados con la ayuda. de Winnebago. El general Bragg quedó inhabilitado en la acción.

El resto de la carrera del General Braggs lo pasó patrullando el Mississippi desde la desembocadura del río Rojo hasta Natchez Miss. Con poca frecuencia navegaba tan al sur como Baton Rouge y Nueva Orleans. El barco regresó a Mound City, III., El 2 de julio de 1865 y fue dado de baja en El Cairo el 24 de julio de 1965. Vendido el 1 de septiembre de 1865, fue redocumentado en México.


General Bragg - Historia

Los investigadores Charles Guarino y Albert Seddons han citado dos orígenes probables del apellido Bragg, quienes hace muchos años distribuyeron una columna de periódico sindicado sobre apellidos y heráldica. En una columna de 1967 propusieron que un posible origen del nombre de Bragg era una palabra para describir el carácter de una persona, el otro posible origen era una derivación fantasiosa del nombre de un dios escandinavo.

En el vocabulario del inglés medio era una palabra deletreada & ldquobragge & rdquo, que significaba vivaz o vigorosa. La palabra normanda & ldquobraggi & rdquo describía a un hombre de grandes logros, un héroe. Cuando una El secretario se encontró con la tarea de ingresar en los registros oficiales los nombres de dos personas que llevaban el mismo nombre personal, a menudo agregaba una palabra tan descriptiva para diferenciar entre los dos. Así, por decisión de un secretario de una pequeña ciudad, nació el nombre de Bragg.

Los escandinavos & # 8212 daneses y escandinavos & # 8212 dejaron un gran impacto en las Islas Británicas y el proceso de dar nombres. Su dios de la sabiduría y la elocuencia se llamaba Bragi. En las fiestas de sacrificio escandinavas, un cuerno consagrado a Bragi fue utilizado como copa por los invitados que juraron hacer alguna buena acción digna de ser inmortalizada en verso.

El nombre Bragi fue honrado como una identificación personal y eventualmente se convirtió en un apellido. Bragg es el resultado en Inglaterra.

En heráldica, el escudo de Bragg se muestra como un fondo plateado con un galón verde rodeado por tres toros rojos.

Uno de los primeros registros de un nombre de Bragg se hizo en 1243 cuando Walter Bragge, un terrateniente, fue incluido en la Assize of Sommerset. Henry Brag aparece en 1275 en Wiltshire.

Se cree que el primer Bragg en viajar a las Américas fue Thomas Bragg, quien acompañó al Capitán Christopher Newport en un viaje de 1610 a Virginia, llevando a los emigrantes ingleses que establecieron el nuevo asentamiento de James Town. Thomas tenía fama de ser uno de los varios hermanos Bragg que emigraron de Inglaterra a principios del siglo XVII a puestos de avanzada en la América del Norte colonial. incluidos Massachusetts, Maine y Nueva Escocia.

Thomas, nacido en Inglaterra alrededor de 1579, fue el abuelo 8G del autor de este relato. Aunque el autor no conoce ningún registro escrito del matrimonio, muchos creen que el cónyuge de Thomas Bragg & rsquos fue Mary (Molly) Newport, la hija del capitán Newport.

Triunfadores y figuras públicas dignas de mención

En Estados Unidos, la familia del siglo XIX encabezada por Thomas Bragg de Warrenton, Carolina del Norte, es probablemente la familia Bragg más conocida de este lado del Atlántico. El segundo hijo de la familia y rsquos, también llamado Thomas Bragg (1810-1872), tuvo una carrera en el servicio público como legislador estatal de Carolina del Norte, fiscal, gobernador de Carolina del Norte (1855-59) y senador de los Estados Unidos. Cuando Carolina del Norte se separó de la Unión al comienzo de la Guerra Civil de los Estados Unidos, Thomas Bragg dejó el Senado y más tarde fue nombrado fiscal general de los Estados Confederados de América. Tuvo una práctica de derecho privado después de la guerra.

El cuarto hijo de la familia, Braxton T. Bragg (1817-1876), asistió a la Academia Militar de los Estados Unidos en West Point, Nueva York, y ocupó el quinto lugar entre los 50 graduados de la promoción de 1837. Se distinguió él mismo como capitán de artillería en la Guerra de México y se retiró del ejército como teniente coronel en 1856 para convertirse en un plantador de azúcar de Luisiana. Regresó al uniforme en 1861 como coronel de la Milicia de Luisiana cuando estalló la Guerra Civil, y ascendió al mando de los ejércitos centrales de la Confederación como oficial general de los Estados Confederados de América. El general Bragg tuvo un éxito desigual como comandante de campo, obteniendo algunos triunfos destacados pero también sufriendo algunas derrotas sin gloria. Estaba con el presidente de la CSA, Jefferson Davis, cuando las fuerzas de la Unión capturaron a Davis después de la guerra. La plantación de Braxton Bragg & rsquos fue incendiada durante la guerra y extraños se la apropiaron a través de la política de reconstrucción cuando terminó el conflicto. Braxton terminó su vida trabajando para otros como ingeniero civil en Louisiana, Alabama y Texas.

El escritor y reportero Rick Bragg (nacido el 26 de julio de 1959) es probablemente el contemporáneo estadounidense más conocido con el apellido Bragg. Nació y creció en el noreste de Alabama y trabajó para varios periódicos. Se unió al New York Times en 1994. Rick Bragg escribió muchas historias del NYT sobre crímenes de alto perfil, incluido el bombardeo terrorista doméstico del edificio federal en la ciudad de Oklahoma, los tiroteos en el patio de la escuela en Jonesboro, Arkansas, y el notorio asesinato de sus hijos por Susan LV Smith en Carolina del Sur. Como jefe de la oficina de Miami para el Times, Rick Bragg cubrió el tenso y volátil tira y afloja de 2000 que involucró la custodia del niño cubano Elián González. El trabajo de Bragg le valió el Premio Pulitzer a la escritura de largometrajes en 1996 por sus "historias elegantemente escritas sobre la América contemporánea". Rick Bragg es probablemente más conocido por sus libros sobre su familia. Su Todo menos el Shoutin y rsquo y Ava & rsquos Man ambos alcanzaron listas de bestsellers. Renunció al NYT en 2003 después de que fue suspendido brevemente por escribir un artículo en el que se utilizaron ampliamente las notas y el trabajo de informes de un trabajador independiente no remunerado sin atribución, reconocimiento o explicación. Esa práctica no era infrecuente en el NYT y otros periódicos, y es posible que el incidente de Rick Bragg no se haya hecho público, excepto que ocurrió durante un período en el que la credibilidad del NYT & rsquos estaba bajo una nube por un caso atroz de informes falsos de otro autor de autor. , Jayson Blair & # 8212, un caso que finalmente costó el trabajo a dos editores de alto rango.

En Inglaterra, el Bragg más respetado y conocido es posiblemente el escritor, locutor, historiador y defensor de las artes Lord Melvyn Bragg. Nació el 6 de octubre de 1939 de padres de clase trabajadora en el extremo norte de Inglaterra, a pocos kilómetros de la frontera con Escocia, en Carlisle, en el condado de Cumbria. El empezó su carrera en la BBC en 1961. Fue escritor, editor y presentador de El show de South Bank para London Weekend Television desde 1978 hasta que el programa artístico finalizó en 2010. El príncipe Carlos calificó el programa como "uno de los faros más importantes de las artes que este país ha tenido la suerte de disfrutar", y la mayoría de los británicos quedaron desconcertados por la cancelación del popular programa. El espectáculo anual de los premios South Bank, el equivalente británico de los premios Oscar, Emmy y Grammy estadounidenses, todo en uno, se ha mantenido vivo, con Melvyn Bragg como anfitrión. Bragg también sigue siendo el presentador erudito del programa BBC Radio 4. En nuestro tiempo, una discusión intelectual semanal de personajes históricos, filosofía, cultura y eventos que está disponible como podcast o transmisión en línea. Bragg también escribe un boletín semanal sobre el programa, que ocasionalmente se lee como un diario de sus idas y venidas en el torbellino diario de la vida pública de Londres. Es autor de más de una docena de novelas y aproximadamente el mismo número de obras de no ficción, incluidas biografías y obras sobre lengua y literatura. También es guionista. Entre sus muchos cargos públicos, Melvyn Bragg es rector de la Universidad de Leeds (desde 1999), presidente de la Campaña Nacional para las Artes (desde 1986) y gobernador de la London School of Economics (desde 1997). Educado en Wadham College, Oxford, donde leyó historia moderna, Bragg ha obtenido 13 doctorados honorarios al momento de escribir este artículo (2010). Un importante partidario del Partido Laborista de Gran Bretaña y rsquos, Melvyn Bragg fue nombrado miembro de la Cámara de los Lores como Compañero de la vida laboral (Baron Bragg de Wigton) en 1998. El periodista Nick Barratt de The Telegraph of London escribió una historia sobre la genealogía de Melvyn Bragg para su inclusión en la serie de periódicos "Family Detective". El artículo del 11 de agosto de 2007 se cargó aquí en el sitio web de The Telegraph & rsquos.

El músico Billy Bragg es otro inglés muy conocido en ambos lados del Atlántico. Stephen William Bragg, nacido el 20 de diciembre de 1957 en una familia de clase trabajadora en el este de Londres, es una alternativa músico de rock que toca y canta música folclórica, punk rock y canciones de protesta política y conciencia social. Comenzó su carrera musical comercial en 1977. Ha grabado más de una docena de álbumes musicales. Billy Bragg es un firme partidario de muchos esfuerzos progresistas y de izquierda. Bragg ha sido un partidario activo de las causas laborales y los candidatos del Partido Laborista en Gran Bretaña, y ha sido un franco oponente del fascismo, el racismo, la intolerancia, el sexismo y la homofobia. Es un defensor de una sociedad multirracial en Gran Bretaña. cuya posición ha provocado duras críticas por parte de grupos extremistas de derecha. El escritor Nick Barratt hizo un artículo de "Family Detective" sobre la ascendencia de Billy Bragg en The Telegraph en marzo de 2007. La historia de Barratt está aquí en el sitio web de The Telegraph.

Los únicos Braggs que ganaron un Premio Nobel fueron el equipo de padre e hijo de Sir William Henry Bragg (1862-1942) y Sir William Lawrence Bragg (1890-1971). Ganaron el premio en 1915 por su investigación en física. En 1912-14, los Bragg habían fundado una nueva rama de la ciencia de gran importancia al desarrollar el uso de rayos X para analizar la estructura atómica de los cristales. La idea fue promulgada y explorada por primera vez por el hijo, William Lawrence Bragg, cuando tenía solo 22 años. Sigue siendo el ganador más joven de un premio Nobel. Tanto el padre como el hijo eran ingleses, pero el hijo nació en Australia cuando su padre era profesor de matemáticas y física en la Universidad de Adelaide. Durante la Primera Guerra Mundial, William Henry Bragg dirigió la investigación de Gran Bretaña y rsquos sobre la detección y medición de sonidos submarinos para localizar submarinos. En reconocimiento a este trabajo, así como a su eminencia científica, William Henry Bragg fue nombrado caballero en 1920 por el rey Jorge V. Habiendo sido miembro de la Royal Society desde 1907, fue elegido presidente de la Sociedad en 1935. Tenía 16 honorarios títulos de doctorado en el momento de su muerte. William Lawrence Bragg, el hijo, fue nombrado caballero por el rey Jorge VI en 1941. Más tarde, se centró en aplicar la física para estudiar la estructura de las proteínas y resolver misterios biológicos. Como director del Laboratorio Cambridge & rsquos Cavendish, apoyó el trabajo de Watson, Crick y Wilkins en su monumental descubrimiento de 1953 de la estructura del ADN.

En el ámbito del comercio, el nombre de Bragg que los consumidores estadounidenses ven con más frecuencia se encuentra en los productos de una empresa de alimentos saludables llamada Bragg Live Food Products, con sede en Santa Bárbara, California. El producto más conocido de la compañía es su vinagre de sidra de manzana orgánico, vendido por tiendas de alimentos independientes y de cadena, minoristas de alimentos naturales y tiendas de suplementos alimenticios. La empresa fue fundada por Paul Chappius Bragg (nacido el 6 de febrero de 1895 en Batesville, Indiana). Paul C. Bragg era un emprendedor cuyo afán por la autopromoción al estilo de Hollywood lo llevó a inventar historias sobre su vida y sus logros. Por ejemplo, en las décadas de 1920 y 1930, como conferencista itinerante sobre estilos de vida saludables y evangelizador de sus propios métodos, Paul C. Bragg agregó 14 años a su propia edad en un aparente esfuerzo por exagerar los beneficios de su régimen de salud. Él afirmó falsamente ser descendiente del general Braxton Bragg (ver arriba), aunque los registros genealógicos muestran que el general Bragg y su esposa no tuvieron hijos. Puede que haya algo de verdad en algunas de las enseñanzas relacionadas con la salud de este hombre que se hacía llamar "especialista en extensión de la vida", pero los detalles de las fabricaciones e hipérbole de Paul C. Bragg nos dan motivos para el escepticismo. Hasta el día de hoy, la promoción de la empresa Bragg y rsquos se basa en gran medida en la eliminación de nombres de celebridades. Bragg afirmó haber aprendido sus técnicas para la buena salud mientras se curaba de la tuberculosis en una clínica suiza cuando era joven. Afirmó haber luchado en los Juegos Olímpicos de 1908 y 1912, peleado en todas las batallas importantes de la Primera Guerra Mundial, jugó tenis con Teddy Roosevelt y enseñó boxeo a los hijos de TR & rsquos, y afirmó haber fundado la primera tienda estadounidense de alimentos saludables en Los Ángeles en 1912. Los investigadores han desmentido estos cuentos al examinar los registros históricos, incluidos los registros del Censo, el Seguro Social, la inmigración y el Servicio Selectivo, así como los registros del condado de Ripley, Indiana, donde nació. Paul C. Bragg murió en 1976 a la edad de 81 años pero afirmando tener 95. El rostro de Bragg Live Food Products hoy es Patricia Bragg, quien todavía se aferra a la ficción de que ella es la hija de Paul C. Bragg & rsquos. En realidad, nació Patricia Pendleton en 1929 en Oakland (condado de Alameda), California, y fue la ex nuera de Paul & rsquos. Patricia estaba casada con el hijo de Paul & rsquos, Robert E., de quien se divorció en 1956 después de que Robert la acusara de un escándalo que involucraba a su padre.


Braxton Bragg

Braxton Bragg comandó el Ejército Confederado de Tennessee en la Batalla de Chickamauga y las Batallas por Chattanooga. Era un graduado de West Point (Clase de 1837), un veterano de la Guerra Seminole, un distinguido veterano durante la Guerra México-Estadounidense y un veterano oficial del Ejército de los Estados Unidos. Bragg renunció al ejército en 1856 y estaba supervisando su plantación de Louisiana cuando comenzó la guerra.

En 1861, fue nombrado y confirmado general de brigada en el Ejército Provisional de los Estados Confederados y fue puesto al mando de las defensas a lo largo de la Costa del Golfo (desde Pensacola, Florida, hasta Mobile, Alabama). Bragg fue ascendido a general de división en septiembre de 1861 y asistió al general Albert S. Johnston en Shiloh en abril de 1862. Poco después de la batalla, fue elevado al rango de general y, en junio, reemplazó al general P.G.T. Beauregard como comandante del Ejército de Mississippi, más tarde rebautizado como Ejército de Tennessee. Lideró este ejército en Kentucky, donde se encontró con la derrota en la batalla de Perryville en octubre de 1862. Su siguiente gran batalla se libró contra el general de división William S. Rosecrans a lo largo de las orillas del río Stones, Tennessee (31 de diciembre de 1862 y 2 de enero de , 1863). Después de ser expulsado de Middle Tennessee y Chattanooga, Bragg derrotó a Rosecrans en la batalla de Chickamauga, luchó el 18, 19 y 20 de septiembre de 1863. Luego asedió al ejército de la Unión en Chattanooga hasta noviembre, cuando las fuerzas bajo el mando del general US Grant lo obligó a retirarse a Georgia. Renunció a su mando y Joseph E. Johnston ocupó su lugar como comandante del Ejército de Tennessee. El presidente Jefferson Davis llamó a Bragg a Richmond, donde fue puesto bajo la dirección del presidente "con la conducción de las operaciones militares en los ejércitos de la Confederación". Al final de la guerra, Bragg encontró su camino de regreso al campo, viendo más servicio en Carolina del Norte.

Warner, Ezra J. Generales de gris: Vidas de los comandantes confederados. Baton Rouge: LSU Press, 2006.


Braxton Bragg

Muy bien, mi última publicación fue sobre Braxton Bragg y su invasión de Kentucky; ahora debo emitir una opinión impopular. Bragg no era un general terrible, era un general pésimo, te lo aseguro, y estaba lejos de ser el mejor. Sin embargo, casi nunca se enamoró de las trampas sindicales. Se anticipó a la campaña de Chattanooga y la invasión de Georgia al entrar por la puerta trasera e invadir Kentucky con una fuerza inferior: trajo más de 2,000 vagones y mantuvo a su ejército en el rumbo mientras destruía todo un cuerpo sindical en Perryville (¡con solo 17.000 hombres!). No lo consideraría un desastre hasta su fracaso en la explotación de Chickamauga y la derrota en Missionary Ridge. Mi humilde opinión, podría estar equivocado.

No consideraría a Bragg un pésimo general, sino el segundo mejor comandante de un ejército rebelde. No puedo pensar en nada que supere la gran mudanza de Tupelo a Chattanooga. Ese movimiento, junto con lo que considero una invasión exitosa de Kentucky, salva a Chattanooga y al sur del sur durante más de un año. Bragg trae de Kentucky una buena cantidad de cosas, 35 cañones, 8.000 cabezas de ganado y unos 50.000 barriles de carne de cerdo.

Murfreesboro es una gran pelea, lo mejor de Bragg & # x27s, digo. No puedo recordar ninguna otra batalla importante en la que una línea federal se haya doblado 90 grados hacia atrás. Por supuesto, lo que supongo que viene a la mente de la mayoría cuando están aquí en la & quot; Batalla de Murfreesboro & quot sería el asalto más pequeño y sin éxito del 2 de enero, que he oído etiquetar como Bragg intentando asesinar a Breckinridge & # x27s Division por alguna supuesta transgresión cometida. por Breckinridge. Todo lo que Bragg quería era que Breckinridge tomara un terreno elevado para que la artillería federal no pudiera ocuparlo, pero Breckinridge continúa y luego se pulveriza, y de alguna manera es culpa de Bragg.

Tullahoma está honestamente triste. Bragg & # x27s agotado física y mentalmente, envió cinco brigadas de infantería y dos brigadas de caballería a Johnston, Wheeler & # x27s bad, Forrest & # x27s peor, y Polk y Hardee no se preocupan por las órdenes de Bragg & # x27s.

Luego está & # x27s Chickamauga, y el & quot; no explotar & quot; del que escucho con tanta frecuencia. Bragg & # x27s acaba de sufrir más de 18,000 bajas, y se supone que a qué? ¿Descuidar de inmediato a sus heridos, los federales heridos, los federales capturados y perseguirlos de inmediato? Bragg tiene efectivamente al Ejército de Cumberland al borde de la inanición durante un mes más o menos antes de que los federales vuelvan a abrir la línea de suministro porque Longstreet se convierte en el nuevo Polk.

Incluso yo, como partidario dedicado de Bragg, realmente no puedo excusar a Missionary Ridge. La falta de trincheras de Bragg & # x27 no es característica y no es buena, pero si bien puedo culparlo por la construcción tardía, no puedo culparlo por la construcción deficiente, ya que fue culpa de su ingeniero jefe y de Breckinridge.

Así que sí, esa es mi opinión condensada de Bragg como comandante del Ejército del Mississippi / Ejército de Tennessee.


Contenido

Bragg nació en Unadilla, Nueva York, hijo de Margarette (Kohl) y Joel B. Bragg. [1] [2] Bragg asistió a las escuelas del distrito cuando era niño. Luego asistió a la academia local y al Geneva College (hoy Hobart College) en Ginebra, Nueva York, [1] donde fue uno de los miembros fundadores de la Sociedad Kappa Alpha. Dejó la universidad antes de graduarse, en 1847, y estudió derecho en las oficinas del juez Charles C. Noble. Fue admitido en el Colegio de Abogados del Estado de Nueva York en 1848 y trabajó como socio menor del Juez Noble hasta 1850. [2]

En 1850, viajó al oeste en una gira de prospección en Wisconsin, con la intención de establecerse cerca de Green Bay. En el camino entre Chicago y Green Bay, reconoció el nombre de un ex compañero de escuela en un letrero en Fond du Lac, Wisconsin, y decidió establecerse allí. [2]

Bragg rápidamente se destacó en Fond du Lac, asociándose con el Partido Demócrata. Fue elegido fiscal de distrito de Fond du Lac en 1853 y fue delegado de la Convención Nacional Demócrata de 1860 en Charleston, Carolina del Sur, que nominó a Stephen A. Douglas y Herschel V. Johnson para presidente y vicepresidente de los Estados Unidos. [1] [2]

Cuando llegó la noticia del ataque a Fort Sumter, Bragg estaba involucrado en un caso en Oshkosh, Wisconsin, donde actuaba como abogado defensor de una mujer que había sido acusada de asesinato. [2] Pidió un receso y regresó inmediatamente a Fond du Lac. Esa noche se dirigió a una asamblea en la ciudad y se levantó toda una compañía de voluntarios de "tres meses". Mientras Bragg arreglaba sus asuntos personales, llegó la llamada de otra ronda de voluntarios para que se alistaran durante tres años de servicio. Bragg reclutó a otra compañía y fue elegido capitán. La compañía fue conocida como "Rifles de Bragg" y se convertiría en la Compañía E del 6º Regimiento de Infantería Voluntaria de Wisconsin. [1]

El sexto Wisconsin se organizó en Camp Randall en Madison, Wisconsin, y entró en servicio el 16 de julio de 1861, bajo el mando del coronel Lysander Cutler. [3]: 443 Se les ordenó que se dirigieran a Washington, DC, para servir en el teatro oriental de la guerra. Una vez en Washington, se organizaron en la Brigada del General Rufus King. Pronto se les unieron los regimientos 2º de Wisconsin, 7º de Wisconsin y 19º de Indiana en lo que se conocería como la Brigada de Hierro del Ejército del Potomac. [3]: 444 Desde este punto hasta el final de la guerra, Bragg participó en casi todas las batallas de la Brigada de Hierro. [4]

Washington (otoño de 1861 - primavera de 1862)

El sexto Wisconsin pasó el otoño de 1861 y la primavera de 1862 en piquetes cerca de Washington, construyendo fortificaciones y perforando en preparación para el combate. [3]: 444 Durante este tiempo, Bragg fue ascendido a mayor, el 17 de septiembre de 1861, y luego a teniente coronel, el 21 de junio de 1862, después de que el teniente coronel Benjamin Sweet fuera comisionado como coronel del nuevo 21 ° Regimiento de Infantería Voluntaria de Wisconsin. . [4] [5]

Virginia del Norte (verano de 1862)

En abril de 1862, la Brigada de Hierro marchó hacia el sur y acampó en Falmouth, Virginia, en el río Rappahannock, frente a Fredericksburg, Virginia, donde permanecieron durante la mayor parte de la campaña de la Península. [6]: 40 En junio, fueron puestos brevemente en alerta para prepararse para reforzar al general George B. McClellan, pero finalmente no participaron. [3]: 445

En julio, después de que el general John Pope reemplazara a McClellan en el mando general del Ejército de la Unión, se asignó a la Brigada de Hierro a participar en redadas contra la infraestructura y la logística confederadas al sur de Rappahannock. [6]: 52 El más notable es el asalto a Frederick's Hall, en la primera semana de agosto, destinado a cortar el ferrocarril central de Virginia. Parte del sexto Wisconsin, incluido el teniente coronel Bragg, fue separado de la brigada y enviado en una marcha rápida hacia el río North Anna, donde descubrieron que una gran fuerza confederada estaba presente en su flanco. Se convocó a un consejo de oficiales para discutir si debían abandonar su incursión debido al peligro de ser aislados y capturados. Bragg, junto con el mayor Rufus Dawes y el teniente coronel Hugh Judson Kilpatrick, insistieron en que la redada debería continuar. [6]: 54 [nota 1] La misión finalmente tuvo éxito ya que dos millas de la vía del Ferrocarril Central de Virginia fueron destruidas y los asaltantes de la Unión regresaron sanos y salvos a Falmouth. [6]: 55 [nota 2]

Segunda corrida de toros (agosto de 1862)

La Brigada de Hierro llegó a Cedar Mountain, Virginia, dos días después de la batalla allí. [3]: 445 Participaron en el enterramiento de los muertos y participaron en escaramuzas, dirigidas por el coronel Bragg, asociadas con la Primera Batalla de la Estación Rappahannock a lo largo de la nueva línea defensiva en el Río Rappahannock. [6]: 57 [nota 3] [3]: 446

Después de que Stonewall Jackson maniobrara con éxito alrededor del flanco del ejército de la Unión, se dio la orden de replegarse a Centerville, Virginia, en un intento de rodear el Cuerpo de Jackson. En la noche del 28 de agosto, mientras marchaba hacia el noreste con otras tres brigadas en Warrenton Turnkpike, la Brigada de Hierro se encontró con el Cuerpo de Jackson cerca de Gainesville, Virginia. [3]: 446 El general Irvin McDowell, que comandaba su división, estaba convencido de que los confederados representaban una fuerza intrascendente y ordenó a las brigadas que prosiguieran su marcha hacia Centerville. Sin embargo, cuando los confederados abrieron fuego de cañón, el general John Gibbon ordenó a la Brigada de Hierro que se enfrentara al enemigo e intentara capturar la artillería. Se produjo una dura batalla cuando la Brigada de Hierro se enfrentó a un asalto combinado de cinco brigadas del Cuerpo de Stonewall Jackson. Durante la batalla, el coronel Cutler resultó gravemente herido. [6]: 62 [nota 4] El teniente coronel Bragg tomó el mando del sexto Wisconsin y permanecería al mando del regimiento durante la mayor parte de los dos años siguientes. [4] Bragg y el sexto Wisconsin mantuvieron el extremo derecho de la línea contra las brigadas de Isaac R. Trimble y Alexander Lawton. [6]: 66

La lucha en Gainesville se refiere a menudo en documentos históricos como la "Batalla de Gainesville" y representó el primer día de lucha en la Segunda Batalla de Bull Run. [3]: 446 [6]: 60 A pesar de ser superados en número por más de 3 a 1, la brigada se mantuvo firme y la lucha terminó de manera indecisa alrededor de la medianoche. Aquí es donde el apodo de "Brigada de Hierro" se aplicó por primera vez a su unidad. [3]: 447 [nota 5]

Bragg y la Brigada de Hierro estaban descansando y permanecieron en reserva durante el segundo día de batalla, pero se reincorporaron a la lucha el tercer día, el 30 de agosto de 1862, en apoyo del V Cuerpo de Fitz John Porter y su desafortunado asalto frontal a la posición de Jackson. . Cuando el ataque flaqueó y el masivo ataque de flanqueo confederado comenzó a materializarse, Bragg mantuvo a su regimiento en línea y desplegó escaramuzadores para frenar el ataque enemigo. [6]: 71 Cuando el ejército de la Unión retrocedió, se ordenó a Bragg que organizara el sexto Wisconsin para actuar como retaguardia. [6]: 72 [nota 6] El sexto Wisconsin fue el último en retirarse, marchando en una retirada ordenada durante casi una milla a la vista de ambos ejércitos opuestos. [6]: 73 [nota 7]

Cuando el ejército de la Unión se retiró del campo en la noche del 30 de agosto, el general Philip Kearny ordenó a la Brigada de Hierro que actuara como retaguardia del ejército. [6]: 75 [3]: 448 Bragg y el Teniente Coronel Lucius Fairchild, que comandaba el 2º y 7º Wisconsin consolidado, manejarían la acción, estableciendo piquetes y fogatas falsas para engañar al enemigo. [6]: 75

Maryland y Antietam (septiembre de 1862) Editar

Después del fracaso de la campaña de Pope, el general McClellan volvió al mando del ejército de la Unión. [6]: 76 El general Robert E. Lee tomó la iniciativa e invadió Maryland. [3]: 450 La Brigada de Hierro, ahora designada 4ª Brigada, 1ª División, en el I Cuerpo de Joseph Hooker, [3]: 450 [6]: 78 se unió a la persecución de la Unión de Lee en Maryland y se encontró con su ejército en South Mountain, al sur de Hagerstown, Maryland. [3]: 450

En la Batalla de South Mountain, el 14 de septiembre de 1862, la Brigada de Hierro recibió instrucciones especiales para avanzar por la Carretera Nacional y enfrentarse a la brigada de Alfred H. Colquitt en Turner's Gap. [6]: 80 El coronel Bragg comandó el sexto Wisconsin protegiendo el flanco derecho del ataque, [3]: 451 [nota 8] maniobrando su regimiento en buen orden sobre terreno difícil, luego subiendo la pendiente del campo para obtener un campo favorable de fuego sobre la posición enemiga. [6]: 82–83 Desde su posición ventajosa, el general McClellan pudo ver los combates y más tarde le escribió al gobernador de Wisconsin, Edward Salomon: "Le ruego que agregue mi gran admiración por la conducta de los tres regimientos de Wisconsin en la brigada del general Gibbon. ellos bajo fuego actuando de una manera que refleje el mayor crédito y honor posible sobre ellos mismos y su estado. Son iguales a las mejores tropas de cualquier ejército del mundo ". [2] [6]: 85

Lee evacuó South Mountain esa noche, pero McClellan lo alcanzó nuevamente en Antietam Creek, cerca de Sharpsburg, Maryland, el 16 de septiembre de 1862. [3]: 452 Esa noche, la Brigada de Hierro, junto con el resto del I Cuerpo, cruzó Antietam Creek y tomó posición en el extremo derecho de la línea Union. [3]: 452

Al amanecer, comenzó la Batalla de Antietam con el I Cuerpo avanzando bajo fuego de artillería. [6]: 87 Bragg lideró al sexto Wisconsin en el extremo derecho del avance de la Unión, donde fueron atacados desde los bosques en su flanco derecho. [3]: 453 Bragg, a pesar de haber recibido un disparo en el bombardeo inicial, ordenó a los hombres que reformaran y devolvieran el fuego al bosque. [6]: 80 [nota 9] Bragg colapsó y fue llevado a la retaguardia. Pudo regresar al regimiento alrededor del mediodía, pero aún no estaba en condiciones de regresar al servicio. [7] [6]: 93

A raíz de la batalla, uno de los sargentos escribió por error a la esposa de Bragg informándole que había sido asesinado. [6]: 99 [nota 10] La historia se difundió en Wisconsin y resultó en que su obituario apareciera en varios periódicos. [8]

Antes de Antietam, Bragg recibió solicitudes de Wisconsin para postularse para el Congreso como demócrata de guerra en la boleta del Partido Unión Nacional. Bragg había respondido: "No rechazaré una nominación en la plataforma, el gobierno debe ser sostenido, pero mis servicios no pueden ser retirados del campo. Yo mando el regimiento y no puedo irme en tiempos como estos". [6]: 76 Sin embargo, después de la batalla, recibió la noticia de que había sido nominado por la convención de distrito del Partido Unión Nacional. [6]: 99 Finalmente perdió las elecciones ante el demócrata pacifista Charles A. Eldredge. [2] [9] [6]: 105–106 [nota 11]

Fredericksburg y Chancellorsville (invierno de 1862 - primavera de 1863)

In the Winter of 1862–63, there were two more Union offensives attempted against Fredericksburg, Virginia. Bragg led the regiment through the Battle of Fredericksburg and the aborted Mud March, but they were not engaged in serious fighting in either campaign. [3] : 456 [6] : 108 The Iron Brigade spent most of the rest of the winter camped at Belle Plains, Virginia, where they were reorganized and resupplied. During this time, Bragg received his official promotion to colonel, effective March 10, 1863, [4] [6] : 129 and was one of several officers invited to meet with President Abraham Lincoln. [6] : 131–132

The campaigning resumed in April 1863 under General Joseph Hooker, now in overall command of the Army of the Potomac. [6] : 132 In the Battle of Chancellorsville, the Iron Brigade was charged with securing the creation of a pontoon bridge at Fitz Hughes Crossing on the Rappahannock, southeast of Fredericksburg. [6] : 135 After the bridge engineers came under attack from the far side of the river, Colonel Bragg was tasked with forcing a crossing and securing the far bank of the river. [3] : 457 [6] : 136 [note 12] Within an hour, Bragg had secured the beachhead and taken nearly 200 of Confederate prisoners. [3] : 457 Bragg and the 6th Wisconsin received special compliments from their division commander, General James S. Wadsworth, for the daring raid. [2] [3] : 457 After crossing, they were joined by VI Corps and the rest of I Corps, forming the left wing of Hooker's attack. However, after remaining in position for two days under enemy shelling, on May 2, I Corps and the Iron Brigade were recalled to cross back to the north side of the river and move west to reinforce Hooker at Chancellorsville. [3] : 458 Ultimately, Hooker was forced to withdraw and the Iron Brigade and its Division again acted as rearguard for the Union retreat. [3] : 458

Colonel Bragg became seriously ill after Chancellorsville, possibly due to the poor weather conditions during the battle, combined with a wound he received from being kicked by Major John Hauser's horse. [6] : 146 [note 13] He remained in his tent attempting to recuperate, but, in early June, was sent to a hospital in Washington, D.C. [6] : 149 [note 14] While sick, Bragg missed the entire Gettysburg campaign, leaving the regiment under the command of Lt. Colonel Rufus Dawes, who performed heroic duty leading the regiment on the first day of the Battle of Gettysburg. [3] : 461 [note 15] Colonel Bragg briefly attempted to return to the regiment in the days after the Battle of Gettysburg but was still too ill to participate, and had to return again to medical care. [7] [6] : 189 [note 16]

Bristoe, Mine Run, and Reorganization (Fall 1863 – Spring 1864) Edit

Colonel Bragg returned to the 6th Wisconsin about August 28, 1863, finding them camped near Rappahannock Station. [6] : 201 [note 17] In the Bristoe campaign and the Battle of Mine Run, the Iron Brigade engaged in a series of rapid maneuvers, but did not engage in serious fighting. [3] : 464–465

In January 1864, the 6th Wisconsin officially achieved Veteran status and those who re-enlisted were given a furlough to return to Wisconsin. [6] : 201 [note 18] Bragg and the re-enlisted veterans traveled by train and were celebrated at a ceremony in Milwaukee, hosted by former Governor Edward Salomon, Milwaukee Mayor Edward O'Neill, and Bragg's former 2nd Wisconsin Regiment counterpart, General Lucius Fairdhild—who had just been elected Wisconsin's Secretary of State. [6] : 237 [10]

Overland Campaign (Summer 1864) Edit

In March 1864, General Ulysses S. Grant was appointed the commander of the Union Army in the Virginia theatre, replacing General George Meade, who had been in command since the Gettysburg Campaign. That same month, the Iron Brigade veterans returned to camp and engaged in drilling and reorganization under the new commander. For the next phase of the war, they would be the 1st Brigade, 4th Division, in Gouverneur K. Warren's V Corps. [3] : 465

On May 3, 1864, they returned to campaign, marching from their camp at Culpeper Court House. They arrived at the Wilderness Tavern south of the Rapidan River at dusk on May 4. [3] : 465 [6] : 259 On the morning of May 5, the Iron Brigade, along with their division, marched southwest and encountered the enemy in the woods at the start of what became the Battle of the Wilderness. [3] : 465 The fighting in the woods was confusing and, after engaging with the enemy, Colonel Bragg ran out on his own to attempt to identify the location of other nearby Union regiments, nearly falling into the hands of the enemy. [6] : 260–261 [note 19] [note 20]

That afternoon, their division received new orders to detach and proceed to the south to reinforce Winfield Scott Hancock's II Corps and John Sedgwick's VI Corps. [6] : 261 Near dawn on May 6, the fighting resumed as Sedgwick launched his attack. The Iron Brigade attacked the left flank of the Confederate Third Corps under A. P. Hill. [6] : 261 Though initially successful, the offensive stalled when elements of the Confederate First Corps under James Longstreet arrived and counterattacked. [6] : 262 The Union forces fell back under the Confederate counterattack but stabilized along the Brock Road, between Wilderness Tavern and Todds Tavern, Virginia. [3] : 466

After the fighting on May 6, Colonel Bragg was placed in command of the all-Pennsylvanian 3rd Brigade of their Division—sometimes referred to as the "Pennsylvania Bucktail Brigade"—by General Lysander Cutler. [3] : 466 [6] : 263 Cutler, who had been Bragg's original commanding officer in the 6th Wisconsin, had become Division commander with the death of General James S. Wadsworth in the fighting earlier that day. [3] : 466 Bragg replaced Colonel Roy Stone, who was reportedly drunk during the battle on both May 5 and May 6. On both days, his brigade had performed poorly, marching and firing in a disorganized manner, scattering in the face of Confederate skirmishers, and accidentally shooting at members of their own unit. [11] Stone was finally relieved of command after his horse fell on top of him as his lines broke again during the May 6 attack. [11] Colonel Bragg led the brigade for most of the remainder of the Overland Campaign. His leadership stabilized the brigade and they performed admirably at the battles of Spotsylvania Court House, North Anna, Totopotomoy Creek, and Cold Harbor, where he turned over command of the brigade to Gettysburg hero Joshua Chamberlain. [1] [6] : 263 [12] : 611 [note 21]

On the night of May 7, V Corps was ordered to proceed southeast toward Spotsylvania Court House, as Grant attempted to maneuver his army in between Lee and the Confederate capitol, Richmond. Arriving at Laurel Hill, northwest of Spotsylvania Court House, on the morning of May 8, they found a Confederate force had already reached the site and occupied strong defensive positions. [6] : 264 Bragg's brigade participated in four Union assaults against the Confederate fortifications between May 8 and May 12. [3] : 467 On the afternoon of May 12, they marched to their left and engaged in fighting at the "Bloody Angle". [6] : 268

Colonel Bragg was, once again, incorrectly reported killed in action after the fighting at Spotsylvania Court House. A letter from Colonel Thomas Allen announced his death—along with the deaths of Lt. Colonel Rufus Dawes and Captain John Azor Kellogg—and was widely reprinted in several Wisconsin newspapers. [13] [14] [15] [6] : 272 [note 22] All three officers were actually alive and relatively unharmed—although Kellogg had been taken prisoner. [6] : 285 [note 23]

After days of skirmishing and shelling at the fortifications around Spotsylvania Court House, V Corps was again ordered to move to the south, continuing the maneuver toward Richmond. After stopping at Guinea's Station and the Po River, they crossed the North Anna River near dusk on May 23, 1864. [6] : 274 That evening, before they were able to fully establish their battle lines, they were attacked by Confederates of A. P. Hill's Third Corps in the first action of the Battle of North Anna. After initially giving ground, the division rallied and drove the Confederates from the field. [3] : 468 After more days of entrenched stalemate, on the evening of May 26, Grant again ordered the Union divisions to stealthily evacuate their lines and proceed south around the Confederate right flank. [3] : 468 They crossed the Pamunkey River on May 28 and set defensive lines behind the cavalry Battle of Haw's Shop. They moved again on May 29 and May 30, encountering divisions of the Confederate 1st Corps at the Battle of Totopotomoy Creek and repelled them. [6] : 279

Over the next two weeks, they were engaged in the trench warfare of the Battle of Cold Harbor. [3] : 469 On June 6, in the midst of this battle, Bragg's Pennsylvanian brigade was detached from the division and Bragg was placed in command of the Iron Brigade. [6] : 283 [16] : 650 [note 24] Colonel Bragg's account of the actions of the Pennsylvanian brigade during the Overland campaign can be found in the Official War Records, Series 1, Volume 36, Part 1, Item 141. [12] : 636–639

Siege of Petersburg (Summer 1864 – Spring 1865) Edit

On June 12, they made another sudden evacuation of their position and crossed the James River, engaging the Siege of Petersburg, and entrenching southeast of the city. [3] : 473 On June 18, they participated in the futile charge against the Petersburg defenses in the Second Battle of Petersburg. In the battle, the Iron Brigade was part of a general assault on the Confederate line, charging half a mile over open field toward the enemy. [6] : 291 They were ordered to halt under enemy fire and waited there for Union regiments on their left, which had become panicked and disorganized. [3] : 473 Ultimately, after nearly two hours under fire, they retreated to their trenches. [3] : 474 In his report of the battle, their division commander, General Lysander Cutler, said, "In this affair I lost in killed and wounded about one third of the men I had with me, and among them many valuable officers." He continued to say that they never reached within seventy five yards of the enemy lines. [6] : 291

For the next several weeks, they remained in position besieging Petersburg. They remained on the trench line—where they could be subject to sniper fire and artillery—until June 26, when they were relieved temporarily. [6] : 298 During this time, Colonel Bragg received word of his official promotion to brigadier general, effective June 25, 1864. [4] [6] : 298 [16] : 709–710 [note 25] They rotated back to the trenches a few weeks later.

They remained engaged in the siege for the rest of the year and into early 1865. On July 30, a Union sapper mine detonated explosives underneath the Confederate trench, resulting in a day of fighting in what's called the Battle of the Crater. [6] : 302 On August 18, 1864, they were part of the successful Union raid, known as the Battle of Globe Tavern, to cut the Weldon Railroad and reduce the supply lines for the Petersburg defenders. [3] : 475 In October, there was another attempt, known as the Battle of Boydton Plank Road, to sever another Confederate supply line, but the attack was withdrawn. [3] : 476

General Bragg's final battle of the war was the Battle of Hatcher's Run, occurring February 6, 1865, near the site of the Battle of Boydton Plank Road. [3] : 476 The Iron Brigade took heavy casualties, and, following the battle, had to be significantly reorganized. General Bragg was summoned to Washington with four regiments and then sent to Baltimore to supervise transportation of conscripts. He remained in Baltimore until the end of the war. [2] He mustered out October 9, 1865. [4]

Following the war, Bragg returned to his legal practice in Fond du Lac. [4]

Johnson appointments controversy Edit

In 1866, General Bragg was appointed postmaster of Fond du Lac by President Andrew Johnson. This occurred as tensions were beginning to rise between President Johnson and the Radical Republican Congress. In February 1867, the Senate voted to rescind Bragg's appointment, along with several other Johnson appointments. [17] Johnson subsequently nominated Bragg to be Assessor of Internal Revenue for the 4th district of Wisconsin, which the United States Senate also defeated. [18] [19]

Democratic minority Edit

Later in 1867, General Bragg won election to the Wisconsin State Senate from the 20th senatorial district, serving in the 21st and 22nd Wisconsin Legislatures (1868 & 1869). [20] He did not run for re-election in 1869, but remained extremely active in Democratic politics, campaigning for the Democratic tickets and running for office several times. He was mostly unsuccessful for the next several years, as Republican politics remained dominant in Wisconsin.

In 1868, Bragg was a member of the executive committee for the National Convention of "Conservative Soldiers and Sailors"—part of the 1868 Democratic National Convention in New York City. The Soldiers and Sailors convention favored the nomination of Major General Winfield Scott Hancock for president, but were ultimately unsuccessful, as the convention nominated former New York Governor Horatio Seymour. [21] Bragg campaigned vigorously for the Democratic ticket in the fall, though papers commented that he didn't seem to share the candidate's views on African American suffrage. [22] He was also a delegate to the 1872 Democratic National Convention, which nominated Horace Greeley.

He was the Democratic nominee for Attorney General of Wisconsin in 1871, but was defeated along with the entire Democratic ticket. [23]

In the hotly contested 1875 United States senate election in the Wisconsin Legislature, Bragg was the choice of the Democratic caucus, believed to be a potential compromise candidate for the fourteen Republicans who had pledged to prevent the re-election of Matthew H. Carpenter. [24] However, after no candidate was able to obtain a majority through several ballots, a new compromise candidate emerged in Angus Cameron. Cameron was ultimately elected on the 12th ballot. [25] [26]

In more local affairs, Bragg engaged in a years-long feud with Congressman Charles A. Eldredge, who had defeated him running on an anti-war platform in the 1862 congressional election. [27] In 1874, Bragg was successful in defeating Eldredge in local primaries and taking a slate of delegates to the district convention, preventing Eldredge's renomination. But the nomination ultimately went to Samuel D. Burchard. [28] [29] Bragg came back two years later, however, and this time defeated Burchard in his attempt for renomination. [30]

Congress Edit

In November 1876, Bragg was elected to represent Wisconsin's 5th congressional district in the 45th United States Congress. [31] Bragg would go on to win re-election in 1878 and 1880, but, after redistricting in 1881, he was unable to win renomination in 1882. [32]

During these six years in Congress, Bragg was chairman of the Committee on Expenditures in the Department of Justice from 1877 to 1879 and of the Committee on War Claims from 1879 to 1881. He was, again, a delegate to the Democratic National Convention in 1880, which nominated General Winfield Scott Hancock.

After the 1880 census, redistricting was carried out and Bragg's county, Fond du Lac, was moved from the 5th congressional district to the 2nd district. Bragg now found himself in an intense contest for renomination against Arthur Delaney of Dodge County. In the days before he would attend the convention in September, however, Bragg was arrested and accused of a financial fraud deriving from a transaction with the Tremont House institution in Chicago. Though the charges were eventually dropped, the controversy likely harmed his chances of renomination. [33] At the convention, the vote deadlocked for hundreds of ballots with delegates for the two candidates unwilling to compromise. The matter was resolved when Bragg had to leave the convention to attend his daughter's wedding—a former ally, Daniel H. Sumner, convinced a group of delegates to pick him as a compromise candidate on the 1,601st ballot. Bragg initially considered an independent bid, but decided against it, stating that he was retiring from politics. [34] [35]

Nevertheless, General Bragg remained involved in state politics. In 1884, he was, again, a delegate to the Democratic National Convention. At that convention, he seconded the nomination of Grover Cleveland for the presidency saying "We love him for the enemies he made."—referring to Cleveland's conflicts with the corrupt Tammany Hall organization. The phrase became a slogan for the Cleveland campaign and Cleveland was elected the 22nd President of the United States that November.

That same fall, Bragg again pursued the Democratic nomination for Congress at the district convention, held at Beaver Dam, Wisconsin, in September. Daniel Sumner was seeking renomination, Arthur Delaney was again a chief rival, with Judge Hiram W. Sawyer of Washington County also in the race. The balloting again deadlocked with no candidate able to secure the majority. Finally, before the 150th ballot, Sawyer and Sumner withdrew from the contest, allowing Bragg to win the nomination in a 15–13 vote over Delaney. [36]

Bragg won the November general election with 55% over Republican Samuel S. Barney. [37] During the 49th United States Congress (1885–1887) Bragg was chairman of the Committee on Military Affairs.

In 1886, Bragg again faced a contested convention when seeking renomination. Delaney was his chief rival, again, and, once again, a bitter and lengthy convention fight ensued. On the 216th ballot, Delaney was finally able to secure the nomination from Bragg. [38] Delaney, however, went on to defeat in the general election. [39]

Split with Democrats Edit

Bragg returned to his law practice in Fond du Lac, Wisconsin, but returned to public office in January 1888, when he was appointed United States Minister (Ambassador) to Mexico by President Grover Cleveland. He served in the role until his successor was appointed and confirmed, in May 1889, under the administration of President Benjamin Harrison. [2] As a diplomat, Bragg was said to have formed a good rapport with Mexican President Porfirio Díaz, and was fond of the country and his time there. In 1893, when President Cleveland returned to office, Bragg solicited a re-appointment to the post. [40] Despite strong backing from the Wisconsin congressional delegation in 1893—and when the seat became open again in 1895—Cleveland did not reappoint General Bragg, in what was taken as a snub. [41]

After returning from Mexico in 1889, Bragg again returned to his legal career and state politics. In 1890 he was organizing for another attempt at election to the United States Senate, but ultimately made a deal with William Freeman Vilas, whereby Bragg would support Vilas in 1891 and would, in turn, have the support of Vilas in the 1893 senate election, assuming Democrats still held a majority in the Wisconsin Legislature at that time. [42] This consideration also likely influenced his decision to become involved in the famous "gerrymandering" cases of 1892, in which he advocated against a challenge to the Democrats' 1891 redistricting law (1891 Wis. Act 482) before the Wisconsin Supreme Court. [43] The Court, however, in a bipartisan opinion, sided with the challengers and the district map was struck down as an unconstitutional partisan gerrymander. [44]

Despite the court loss, Democrats won massive majorities in the Wisconsin Legislature in the 1892 elections, but Bragg did not ultimately benefit from it in the senatorial election. The Democratic caucus deadlocked in a three-way race between Bragg, John H. Knight of Ashland, and John L. Mitchell of Milwaukee. On the 31st ballot, the Knight delegation broke in favor of Mitchell. [45] Bragg's supporters saw it as a betrayal by Vilas, who was seen as a supporter of Mitchell. [46] Subsequently, at the 1894 Democratic state convention, Bragg was favored for the nomination for Governor, but refused nomination. [47]

In 1896, Bragg was once again one of the leaders of the Wisconsin delegation to that year's Democratic National Convention in Chicago. Bragg, however, was deeply bothered by the nomination of William Jennings Bryan and the ascendance of the "populist fanatics." [48] Bragg threatened to vote for the Republican, William McKinley. He became one of the leaders of a Democratic schism, called the National Democratic Party, and was a candidate for president at its convention in Indianapolis in September. [49] McKinley went on to win the election, carrying Wisconsin by roughly the exact margin Bragg had predicted—100,000 votes. [48]

The schism would prove permanent for Bragg, who supported McKinley for re-election in 1900, as well as state Republicans, such as gubernatorial candidates Edward Scofield in 1898 and Robert M. La Follette in 1900. In May 1902, President Theodore Roosevelt appointed him consul general in Havana, Cuba, which had recently ratified their U.S.-backed constitution. But he was unhappy with the assignment, so, in September 1902, he was reassigned to Hong Kong, then a British crown colony, serving until 1906. [1]

Bragg married Cornelia Colman on January 2, 1854. Cornelia was a granddaughter of Colonel Nathaniel Rochester, who was the namesake and one of the founders of Rochester, New York. They had three sons and three daughters, though two of their sons died in childhood. [50] : 204 Their youngest daughter, Bertha, married George Percival Scriven, who would go on to become the first chairman of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, the forerunner of NASA.

Bragg was a cousin of Frederick William Benteen, a senior captain (brevet brigadier-general) of the U.S. 7th Cavalry under George Armstrong Custer. Benteen was a major figure in the ill-fated Battle of the Little Bighorn and was singled out by Major Marcus Reno for his leadership during the two days of fighting endured by the survivors. Benteen mentioned his relationship to Bragg in a letter to Theodore Goldin dated February 10, 1896 (Benteen-Goldin Letters, Carroll, 1974).

He was also a cousin of Confederate Army General Braxton Bragg. [51] Though the two Braggs were both major participants in the prosecution of the Civil War, they never met in battle.

General Bragg suffered a paralytic stroke on June 19, 1912, and died the next day at his home in Fond du Lac, Wisconsin. [1] [7] He was interred at Fond du Lac's Rienzi Cemetery.


Chickamauga

At the end of 1862, Bragg's army was tested again when the Union's Army of the Cumberland moved into central Tennessee in hopes of seizing control of the area. Bragg reacted by setting up a strong defensive position at Stones River, near the town of Murfreesboro. The Union force, commanded by General William Rosecrans (1819–1898), attacked Bragg's position on New Year's Eve, 1862. The battle raged for three days, as both armies desperately fought for possession of the battlefield. The clash finally ended on January 2, 1863, after Bragg learned that Union reinforcements were on the way to help Rosecrans. He reluctantly retreated from the region, giving up on his hopes of establishing Confederate control over the area.

The Battle of Stones River (also known as the Battle of Murfreesboro) badly damaged both armies. Rosecrans lost more than thirteen thousand of his forty-seven thousand troops, while Bragg's thirty-eight thousand–man force suffered more than ten thousand casualties. These heavy losses forced both commanders to remain inactive for the next several months. By June 1863, however, Rosecrans's army had recovered. Armed with reinforcements that swelled the size of his Army of the Cumberland to about sixty thousand troops, Rosecrans launched a skillful military campaign that pushed Bragg's army all the way across Tennessee. By early September, Bragg had abandoned the city of Chattanooga, even though it was a major Confederate railroad center and supply depot.

Encouraged by Bragg's evacuation of Chattanooga, Rosecrans tried to acquire even more rebel territory. But when Bragg received reinforcements in northern Georgia, he turned to confront his pursuer. In mid-September he counterattacked near a small stream known as Chickamauga Creek. Over the course of two days (September 19 and 20) the brutal Battle of Chickamauga raged, until Bragg's Army of Tennessee finally gained the advantage and chased Rosecrans' troops from the field. Rosecrans retreated all the way back to Chattanooga. Bragg gave chase, but his progress was slowed by continued bickering with his junior (lower-ranked) officers over military strategy and other issues.


Braxton Bragg

One of the most controversial figures of the Confederate army, Braxton Bragg, was born on March 22, 1817, in Warrenton, North Carolina. Bragg’s father, a successful carpenter, determined to send his son to the United States Military Academy. Thanks to the political connections of his older brother, Bragg received his appointment at age 16 and graduated fifth in the class of 1837, ahead of Jubal Early, John Sedgwick, John C. Pemberton, Joe Hooker, and others.

Bragg served in the Second Seminole War and commanded Fort Marion in Florida, displaying a penchant for strict discipline and the first hints of an argumentative personality. In spite of this reputation, Bragg won promotions for bravery during the Mexican War, where the timely arrival of his artillery at the Battle of Buena Vista, helped the Americans repel the numerically superior Mexican force. This action earned him nationwide fame and the undying gratitude of the commander of a Mississippi regiment, Jefferson Davis. Bragg resigned from the Army in 1856 when he and his wife purchased a sugar plantation in Louisiana.

Though opposed to secession, Bragg organized Louisiana troops during the secession crisis and seized the Federal arsenal at Baton Rouge on January 11, 1861. After Louisiana’s secession, Bragg was appointed major general commanding the state’s forces before joining the Confederate army in March. In September, Bragg assumed command of the Department of West Florida and supervised the instruction of troops there. In February 1862, Bragg requested that he and his 10,000 troops be transferred to Albert Sidney Johnston’s command in Corinth, Mississippi, where he believed they would be of more use. By that Spring Bragg commanded a corps in Johnston’s army and led it at the Battle of Shiloh, where received a promotion to full general for his leadership.

Following the loss of Corinth, Mississippi, Bragg replaced Beauregard as commander of the Confederate Army of Mississippi, later renamed the Army of Tennessee. Under Bragg the army scored partial victories—at places like Perryville, Stones River, and Chickamauga—but never delivered the finishing blow. This infuriated his subordinates, who were already frustrated with Bragg’s poor temper and combative personality. Many advocated for Bragg’s removal, but Davis’ support for his old friend was unwavering. Only after Bragg’s defeat at Chattanooga in November 1863, did Davis accept Bragg’s resignation as army commander. Bragg, however, remained active in the Confederate army for the duration of the war, serving as military advisor to President Davis and as a corps commander under Joseph E. Johnston at the Battle of Bentonville in 1865. Bragg attended the last final cabinet meeting of the Confederate government as was captured on May 9 in Georgia.


General Braxton Bragg (March 22, 1817 &ndash September 27, 1876)

Fort Bragg, California was named after General Braxton Bragg a West Point graduate who rose to be a Lieutenant Colonel in the US Army and later a Commanding General of the Western Division of the Confederate States Army in the American Civil War. General Bragg was a very controversial figure and, believe it or not, he ended up being an inspector of railroads.

His pre-Civil War career was highly distinguished. After seeing action against the Seminoles, he went on to win three brevets in the Mexican War, in which his battery of "flying artillery" revolutionized, in many respects, the battlefield use of that arm. In 1856, as a lieutenant colonel by brevet-in the 3rd Artillery, he resigned from the Army, and bought a Louisiana sugar plantation.

During the Civil War, he held many posts in the Confederate Army. Initially commanding in Louisiana, he was later in charge of the operations against Fort Pickens in Pensacola Harbor. Ordered to northern Mississippi in early 1862, he briefly commanded the forces gathering there for the attack on Grant at Shiloh. During the battle itself he directed a corps and was later rewarded with promotion to full general. As such he relieved Beauregard when he went on sick leave and was then given permanent command in the West.

Of the eight men who reached the rank of full general in the Confederate army Braxton Bragg was the most controversial. The North Carolinian West Pointer (1837) had earned a prewar reputation for strict discipline as well as a literal adherence to regulations. At one time, the story goes, he actually had a written dispute with himself while serving in the dual capacity of company commander and post quartermaster.

Having served during the Corinth siege, he led the army into Kentucky and commanded at Perryville, where he employed only a portion of his force. On the last day of 1862 he launched a vicious attack on the Union left at Murfreesboro but failed to carry through his success on the following days. Withdrawing from the area, he was driven into Georgia during Rosecrans' Tullahoma Campaign and subsequent operations.

In September he won the one major Confederate victory in the West, at Chickamauga, but failed to follow up his success. Instead he laid siege to the Union army in Chattanooga and merely waited for Grant to break through his lines.

Throughout these campaigns, Bragg fought almost as bitterly against some of his uncooperative subordinates as he did against the enemy, and they made multiple attempts to have him replaced as army commander. The defeat at Chattanooga was the last straw and Bragg was recalled in early 1864 to Richmond, where he became the military adviser to Confederate President Jefferson Davis. His disputes with his subordinates especially Leonidas Polk, James Longstreet, and William J. Hardee severely injured the effectiveness of the Army of Tennessee. Several top officers left the army for other fields, and Longstreet and Simon B. Buckner were dispatched into East Tennessee. With the army thus weakened, Bragg was routed at Chattanooga and was shortly removed from command. Almost immediately he was appointed as an advisor to Jefferson Davis, his staunch supporter, and maintained an office in Richmond.

Bragg and his wife Elise lost their home in late 1862 when the plantation in Thibodaux was confiscated by the Federal Army. It briefly served as a shelter, the Bragg Home Colony, for freed slaves under the control of the Freedmen&rsquos Bureau. The couple moved in with his brother, a plantation owner but they found the life of seclusion there to be intolerable. In 1867 Bragg became the superintendent of the New Orleans waterworks, but he was soon replaced by an African-American as the Reconstructionists came to power.

In late 1869 Jefferson Davis offered him a job as an agent for the Carolina Life Insurance Company. He worked there for four months before becoming dissatisfied with the profession and its low pay. He considered but rejected a position in the Egyptian Army. In August 1871 he was employed by the city of Mobile, Alabama, to improve the river, harbor, and bay, leaving after quarreling with a "combination of capitalists." Moving to Texas, he was appointed the chief engineer of the Gulf, Colorado, and Santa Fe Railroad in July 1874, but within a year disagreements with the board of directors over his compensation caused him to resign. He remained in Texas as inspector of railroads.

At the age of 59, Bragg was walking down a street with a friend in Galveston, Texas, when he suddenly fell over unconscious. Dragged into a drugstore, he was dead within 10 to 15 minutes. A physician familiar with his history believe that he "died by the brain" (or of "paralysis of the brain"), suffering from the degeneration of cerebral blood vessels. He is buried in Magnolia Cemetery, Mobile, Alabama.

Bragg has had a very controversial legacy. James McPherson's reference to "the bumblers like Bragg and Pemberton and Hood who lost the West" sums up the judgment of many modern historians. Bragg's shortcomings as an army commander included his unimaginative tactics, mostly his reliance on frontal assault and his lack of post-battle follow up that turned tactical victories or draws into strategic disappointments. His sour disposition, penchant to blame others for defeat, and poor interpersonal skills undoubtedly caused him to be criticized more directly than many of his unsuccessful contemporaries.

Peter Cozzens wrote about his relationship with subordinates &hellip. &ldquoEven Bragg's staunchest supporters admonished him for his quick temper, general irritability, and tendency to wound innocent men with barbs thrown during his frequent fits of anger. His reluctance to praise or flatter was exceeded, we are told, only by the tenacity with which, once formed, he clung to an adverse impression of a subordinate. For such officers&mdashand they were many in the Army of the Mississippi&mdashBragg's removal or their transfer were the only alternatives to an unbearable existence.&rdquo

So Fort Bragger&rsquos now you know about the man for whom your town is named.

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General Bragg - History

Grave of Gen. Braxton Bragg
Confederate flags fly at the grave of General
Braxton Bragg in observance of Confederate
Memorial Day. He is buried in Mobile, Alabama.

Confederate General Braxton Bragg is
buried with his wife at Magnolia Cemetery in
Mobile, Alabama . An ornamental enclosure
and monument mark his grave in the
Confederate rest section of the cemetery.

One of the more enigmatic and controversial
figures of the War Between the States (or
Civil War), Braxton Bragg was born in North
Carolina on March 22, 1817. His family was
one of humble circumstances and not part of
the wealthy elite that actually included only a
small percentage of Southerners during the
antebellum era.

Bragg showed promise as a young student
and received an appointment to the U.S.
Military Academy at West Point. He graduated
5th in the Class of 1837, finishing ahead of
future generals Joseph Hooker, Jubal Early,
Israel Vogdes, John C. Pemberton and John
Sedgwick.

Commissioned a lieutenant in the U.S. Army,
Bragg served in Florida during the Second
Seminole War. In 1840 he became the
commander of Fort Marion at St. Augustine,
the historic Spanish citadel known today as
the Castillo de San Marcos .

A man of strong moral character, Bragg did
not approve of drunkenness or gambling.
This did not go over well with some of his
men and they plotted to kill him by setting off
an artillery shell beneath his bunk.

The shell exploded as planned and tore
Bragg's bunk to pieces. Miraculously, he
survived the blast without so much as a
scratch.

In 1845, Bragg's company from the 3rd U.S.
Artillery was ordered to Texas to join the
command of General Zachary Taylor. los
Mexican-American War erupted one year later
and the young officer served with distinction
in the Battles of Fort Brown, Monterey and
Buena Vista.

It was at Buena Vista that Bragg, already
promoted to brevet major for heroism at
Montery, helped save the American Army. los
battle was fought on February 23, 1847.

The critical moment came when General
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna launched an
attack on one wing of Taylor's army. Bragg
and his artillery battery were ordered up and
directed to maintain their position "at all
costs."

The gunners were firing furiously as Mexican
troops under General Francisco Perez came
hacia adelante. Determined to hold, General Taylor
rode up to Bragg and yelled, "Double-shot
your guns and give 'em hell, Bragg!"

Bragg and his men then fired double loads of
canister into the Mexican ranks. The assault
collapsed and the American army prevailed.

Taylor's orders - often misquoted as "A little
more grape, Captain Bragg" - struck a chord
with patriotic citizens back in the United
Estados. "Double-shot your guns and give 'em
hell" became the campaign slogan that put
Zachary Taylor in the White House. Braxton
Bragg became a national hero.

Among the troops that Bragg's guns saved at
Buena Vista was the Mississippi regiment of
Colonel Jefferson Davis. From the bloody
carnage at Buena Vista grew a friendship
between the two men that lasted for the rest
of their lives.

Colonel Bragg left the U.S. Army in 1856 to
purchase a sugar plantation in Louisiana.
Although he opposed secession, he believed
that his first loyalty was to his state.

Anticipating the coming war, Louisiana
organized a 5,000 man state army. Braxton
Bragg was appointed major general and
given command. On March 7, 1861, he was
appointed a brigadier general in the regular
Confederate army by his old friend and now
President, Jefferson Davis.

General Bragg was sent to Florida where he
defended Pensacola with impressive energy.
He molded his undisciplined force into one
of the Confederacy's best trained armies.

When Forts Henry and Donelson fell in
Tennessee and opened the South to major
Union invasion, General Bragg and his men
were ordered to report to General Albert
Sidney Johnson in Corinth, Mississippi .

The Confederates attacked the Union army of
General Ulysses S. Grant at the Battle of
Shiloh on April 6, 1862. Bragg's Corps fought
fiercely against desperate Federals at the
"Hornet's Nest."

The Union lines were driven back into a final
position and the Confederates were closing
in when General P.G.T. Beauregard suddenly
called off a final attack. Johnston had been
killed in the fighting and Beauregard was
now in command.

Bragg objected to the decision and urged
one last attack, but Beauregard was stunned
by the magnitude of the bloodshed and the
final assault did not take place. Reinforced
during the night, the Union army attacked on
the next day and pushed the Confederate
army from the field. Had Bragg's advice for a
final assault been followed, the Union army
might well have been destroyed and the
reputation of Ulysses S. Grant with it.

Promoted to major general for his conduct at
Shiloh, Bragg became the commander of
Department Number 2 and the Army of
Tennessee a short time later. He stunned
Union commanders by pushing all the way to
the Ohio River. A promised flood of recruits
failed to appear in Kentucky so he ordered a
slow withdrawal from the state, fighting the
Battle of Perryville along the way.

The Kentucky Campaign ended with Bragg's
army occupying Murphreesboro, Tennessee,
far to the north of its starting point. He aquí el
men could obtain supplies and threaten
Nashville.

General William Rosecrans finally brought
the Union army out of Nashville at Christmas.
The result was the mid-winter Battle of
Stones River in which the two armies fought
to a bloody stalemate. Unable to drive back
Rosecrans and fearful that the river might
rise and divide his army, Bragg withdrew to
Tullahoma, Tennessee.

Rosecrans avoided another pitched battle
and moved his army around Bragg through
North Alabama and into Georgia. los
Confederates fell back through Chattanooga.

Reinforced by James Longstreet's Corps
from the Army of Northern Virginia, Bragg
turned on the Federals and launched the
Battle of Chickamauga on September 19,
1863. On the next day he achieved the signal
victory of his career when an attack by
Longstreet's Corps hit a gap in the Union
lines and shattered Rosecrans army.

Like Beauregard at Shiloh, however, Bragg
was now immobilized by the magnitude of
the slaughter. Chickamauga was second
only to Gettysburg in terms of human cost,
with the armies reported combined losses of
34,624 men. Left uncertain by the blood
letting, he failed to aggressively pursue the
defeated Federals.

Tensions were already simmering between
Braxton Bragg and his subordinate generals,
but they exploded after Chickamauga. Algunos
of them requested his removal, but his old
friend Jefferson Davis kept him in command.

Bragg is remembered today as a grumpy
and disagreeable man, but it is seldom
noted that he suffered from several severe
illnesses. These included chronic migraines,
dyspepsia, nerve pain and rheumatism. Él
lived in constant and often severe pain.

In November 1863, the Army of Tennessee
was defeated in battle at Lookout Mountain
and Missionary Ridge. Bragg offered his
resignation and was replaced by General
Joseph E. Johnston.

Unlike many other commanding officers in
such circumstances, however, Braxton Bragg
continued to do what he could for the cause
of the South. He traveled to Richmond where
he served as chief of staff to President Davis.
In this position he improved the organization
of the South's supply system and improved
the operation of the conscription (or draft).

It was Braxton Bragg who urged Jefferson
Davis to appoint P.G.T. Beauregard to the
command of the defenses of Richmond and
Petersburg. The decision prevented the fall of
Richmond when Beauregard was able to
hold off a much larger attacking Union force
at Petersburg until Robert E. Lee could arrive
with the Army of Northern Virginia.

As the war near its end, he swallowed his
pride and served in North Carolina as a
subordinate to his one-time replacement,
Joseph E. Johnston. He achieved one final
victory at the Second Battle of Kinston on
March 7-10, 1865 before taking part in the
last defeat of the Army of Tennessee at the
Battle of Bentonville on March 19-21.

On May 1, 1865, he joined the party of fleeing
Confederate President Jefferson Davis at
Abbeville, South Carolina. He attended the
final meeting of the Confederate Cabinet at
Washington, Georgia, where he bluntly told
Davis that the cause was lost.

General Braxton Bragg's military career came
to an end at Monticello, Georgia, on May 9,
1865, when he was captured and paroled by
the Union army.

The fall of the Confederacy was devastating
to Bragg and his wife Elise. Their home in
Louisiana had been seized by the U.S.
Government and they wound up living with
the general's brother in Lowndesboro,
Alabama . They eventually moved on to New
Orleans and finally Texas as Bragg worked a
series of jobs.

He was walking down a street in Galveston,
Texas, when he suddenly fell to the ground
on September 27, 1876. Bystanders and
friends pulled him into a drugstore, but he
died a few minutes later.

Since he had family in Alabama, General
Bragg's body was returned there for burial.
He and Elise rest beneath a monument in
the Confederate Rest section of Mobile's
Magnolia Cemetery.

The cemetery is open daily and is located at
1202 Virginia Street, Mobile, Alabama. Allí
is no fee to visit.


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