Gran Bretaña antigua

Gran Bretaña antigua

Gran Bretaña (o más exactamente, Gran Bretaña) es el nombre de la más grande de las Islas Británicas, que se encuentran frente a la costa noroeste de Europa continental. El nombre es probablemente celta y deriva de una palabra que significa "blanco"; Se suele asumir que esto es una referencia a los famosos acantilados blancos de Dover, que cualquier recién llegado al país por mar difícilmente puede perderse. La primera mención de la isla fue por el navegante griego Pytheas, quien exploró la costa de la isla, c. 325 a. C.

Durante el Neolítico temprano (c. 4400 a. C. - c. 3300 a. C.), se construyeron muchos túmulos largos en la isla, muchos de los cuales todavía se pueden ver en la actualidad. A finales del Neolítico (c. 2900 a. C. - c. 2200 a. C.), aparecieron grandes círculos de piedra llamados henges, el más famoso de los cuales es Stonehenge.

Antes de la ocupación romana, la isla estaba habitada por un número diverso de tribus, conocidas colectivamente como británicos.

Bretaña romana

Antes de la ocupación romana, la isla estaba habitada por un número diverso de tribus que generalmente se cree que son de origen celta, conocidas colectivamente como británicos. Los romanos conocían la isla como Britannia.

Entra en la historia registrada en los informes militares de Julio César, quien cruzó a la isla desde Galia (Francia) tanto en el 55 como en el 54 a. C. Los romanos invadieron la isla en 43 EC, por orden del emperador Claudio, quien cruzó para supervisar la entrada de su general, Aulus Plautius, en Camulodunum (Colchester), la capital de la tribu más belicosa, Catuvellauni. Plautio invadió con cuatro legiones y tropas auxiliares, un ejército que ascendía a unos 40.000.

Debido a la supervivencia del Agricola, una biografía de su suegro escrita por el historiador Tácito (c. 105 EC), sabemos mucho sobre las primeras cuatro décadas de ocupación romana, pero la evidencia literaria es escasa a partir de entonces; afortunadamente, hay abundantes aunque ocasionalmente desconcertantes evidencias arqueológicas. Los emperadores romanos posteriores hicieron incursiones en Escocia, aunque el norte de Gran Bretaña nunca fue conquistado; dejaron atrás las grandes fortificaciones, el Muro de Adriano (c. 120 d.C.) y el Muro Antonino (142-155 d.C.), muchas de las cuales todavía se pueden visitar en la actualidad. Gran Bretaña siempre estuvo fuertemente fortificada y fue una base desde la cual los gobernadores romanos ocasionalmente intentaban tomar el poder en el Imperio (Clodius Albinus en 196 EC, Constantine en 306 EC).

A finales del siglo IV d. C., la presencia romana en Gran Bretaña se vio amenazada por fuerzas "bárbaras". Los pictos (de la actual Escocia) y los escoceses (de Irlanda) atacaban la costa, mientras que los sajones y los anglos del norte de Alemania invadían el sur y el este de Gran Bretaña. Hacia el 410 d.C., el ejército romano se había retirado. Después de las luchas con los británicos, los anglos y los sajones emergieron como vencedores y se establecieron como gobernantes en gran parte de Gran Bretaña durante la Edad Media (c. 450 - c. 800 d. C.).


Historia (antigua y moderna)

Tenga en cuenta que es posible que no haya datos disponibles si el número de participantes del curso es muy pequeño.

El curso de Historia Antigua y Moderna permite a los estudiantes estudiar la historia desde el Mediterráneo de la Edad del Bronce y el Cercano Oriente, pasando por el Imperio Romano, la Edad Media y el período moderno temprano, hasta la historia británica, europea y mundial en la actualidad. Abundan las comparaciones fructíferas entre sociedades, y los métodos por los que las estudiamos se esclarecen mutuamente.

La extraordinaria variedad de opciones (más de 90 opciones) para este curso refleja la amplitud de intereses de quienes enseñan aquí. Las facultades de Clásicos e Historia de Oxford son mundialmente famosas por la enseñanza y la investigación. Las personas que le enseñarán aquí serán a menudo investigadores líderes en su campo, y se alentará a los profesores a realizar nuevos cursos que reflejen sus propios intereses. Oxford también posee una biblioteca excepcional para la historia en la Biblioteca Bodleian, la Biblioteca de la Facultad de Historia, las colecciones especiales de la Biblioteca Sackler y Weston, así como un centro dedicado a los clásicos.

“Historia antigua y moderna es un título fantástico si no quieres descartar el estudio de un período particular de la historia. Es posible explorar ampliamente dentro de casi tres mil años de las sociedades humanas, estudiando temas que no están disponibles en el título de historia tradicional. Además de una gran variedad de opciones de papel, el curso de Historia Antigua y Moderna ofrece una enorme flexibilidad: los estudiantes pueden perseguir sus intereses para estudiar lugares y períodos que quizás no hayan considerado antes. La amplia gama de opciones de papel significa que siempre hay algo que discutir, especialmente útil en artículos comparativos. bibliotecas, incluida la biblioteca especializada en historia antigua Sackler, significa que nunca puedo encontrar, ni me veo obligado a comprar, un libro para mi curso ".
FLORA
“Estudiar AMH ha sido una de las experiencias más gratificantes, con una gran variedad de temas y períodos históricos para elegir. Si le resulta difícil delimitar su interés histórico, este curso es para usted. En mi tiempo en Oxford, he estudiado temas de las reinas del mundo helenístico después de la conquista de Alejandro, hasta las implicaciones de la masculinidad en la moda de los ochenta. El curso es muy flexible y tiene algo para todos, desde la política hasta la sociedad y la cultura. No solo los expertos en historia te enseñarán, sino también todos los aspectos del mundo antiguo ".
MARTHA
“La historia antigua y moderna me ha ofrecido una libertad asombrosa para cubrir temas tan variados como Alejandro el Grande hasta el Japón Meiji durante mis tres años en Oxford. Hablando con mis amigos en el curso de Historia tradicional, es realmente evidente cuánta flexibilidad disfrutamos los historiadores antiguos y modernos y la amplitud que podemos cubrir. Es asombroso leer los relatos de primera mano de la experiencia de Cicerón en la República tardorromana por la mañana y luego debatir el papel de Estados Unidos y la URSS en África durante la Guerra Fría por la tarde ".
OLIVER

Historia (antigua y moderna)


Gran Bretaña antigua - Historia

Acerca de Jonathan Gray
. La fiebre de la arqueología se apoderó de mí por primera vez a la edad de diez años. Me intrigó el increíble viaje del explorador británico Percy Fawcett a la selva amazónica. Después de informar sobre su descubrimiento de una ciudad muerta, antigua y asfixiada por las enredaderas, regresó y desapareció.
¿Sabes que? Mi primera expedición fue a esa misma región inexplorada, ¡donde los pigmeos encogían cabezas humanas al tamaño de tu puño!
Esta búsqueda de misterios antiguos me llevó a través de más de 30 países.
Pronto comencé a tropezar con algo que realmente me sorprendió. usted los llamaría artefactos `` fuera de lugar ''. ¿Dije sorprendido? ¡Me volaron! Porque, de acuerdo con lo que nos enseñaron en la escuela, ¡estos nunca deberían existir! Y no estaban solo en un lugar. Había un patrón global para ellos.
Este patrón mostró una súper ciencia y tecnología perdidas. Fue entonces cuando supe que alguien tenía que hablar. Sabía que este contenido era de gran valor.

¿Se está suprimiendo la verdadera historia del planeta Tierra?

Hay muchos hallazgos arqueológicos que no son reconocidos porque no encajan en el registro oficial establecido sobre cómo evolucionó la vida en la tierra.

  • ¿Por qué es esto?

  • ¿Qué están tratando de mantener oculto?

Solo se puede suponer que hay algo de historia que no quieren que la gente sepa.

En otras palabras, nos están mintiendo sobre la historia real del planeta Tierra. Al igual que la quema de la biblioteca en Alejandría, mantener al público en la oscuridad se ha convertido en una característica de nuestros gobernantes mundiales actuales. Casi se podría suponer que existe información que, si se conoce, causaría una pérdida de control y poder para manipular los resultados de la realidad.

Jonathan Gray ha viajado por el mundo e investigado muchos registros asombrosos de civilizaciones perdidas. Él llama a su represión un escándalo.


Lo que tengo que decirles tiene que ver con el escándalo que está ocurriendo hoy en el mundo científico.

Es un escándalo que, si usted es como la mayoría de las personas que conozco, le esté engañando a su ascendencia y le esté robando muchos beneficios serios que debería obtener del conocimiento científico existente.

Probablemente te hayan engañado, con información errónea, muchas veces este año sin que lo supieras.

Artefactos arrojados deliberadamente al Océano Atlántico. ciertos sitios de descubrimiento están prohibidos a los investigadores que hacen preguntas embarazosas. un arqueólogo ordenó negar un descubrimiento importante.

En solo un momento descubrirás secretos de nuestro pasado que te dejarán boquiabierto

Vas a ver el mundo que te rodea bajo una nueva luz que las personas desinformadas en todas partes están perdiendo constantemente. Y algunos acertijos sobre el pasado comenzarán a tener sentido.

“Hubo un tiempo en que Conrad consideraba que la integridad del sistema científico era irreprochable.

Pero después de siete años de tratar con paleontólogos y arqueólogos, dijo que los ha encontrado como un grupo tortuoso y poco confiable cuyas acciones en relación con él han sido francamente deshonestas y engañosas ''.

"Conrad cree que su descubrimiento ha asustado a los miembros del sistema arqueológico / paleontológico fuera de sus cabales. Temen la verdad, dice, porque saben que su pequeña y acogedora camarilla desaparecerá con los eones.

Ya no podrán cenar en la vaguada del darwinismo, disfrutando de trabajos suaves con salarios enormes ''.

Historia antigua que ha La ciencia OVNI se vincula con la sabiduría antigua se suprime.

Por ejemplo Academia cubre la evidencia de los antiguos egipcios en Gran Bretaña.

Los antiguos egipcios que huían de la reacción violenta contra el faraón hereje Akhenaton, vinieron a vivir a Gran Bretaña alrededor de 1354 a. C. La evidencia arqueológica está siendo ignorada por la Academia para mantener la visión dogmática existente de la historia de que el Los antiguos egipcios nunca habían viajado tan lejos.

Un barco egipcio fue encontrado en Ferriby, hace casi cincuenta años, y rápidamente fue ignorado por la Academia.

Lorena Evans reúne las piezas de evidencia ignorada que existe en Museos, en su libro Reino del arca, afirmando que la antigua raza británica desciende de los faraones.

Como qué Academia ignora la evidencia que contradice su dogma, concluye:

“El hecho de que hubiera desenterrado tantas pruebas, arqueológicas e históricas, para mostrar el asentamiento egipcio en las Islas Británicas planteaba una pregunta.

¿Por qué se había ignorado todo esto en los círculos académicos? Una de las principales razones, en mi opinión, era que si tal información se aceptaba fácilmente, la academia tendría que reescribir rápidamente grandes porciones de la historia. Esto pondría en tremenda duda ciertos "hechos históricos" tradicionales. Es importante enfatizar que las carreras de muchos académicos se basan en estos 'hechos' y refutarlos de la noche a la mañana haría que estas personas fueran redundantes.

Durante la investigación para este libro, pronto descubrí que algunos académicos estaban bastante dispuestos a compartir su trabajo extraoficialmente, pero cuando se trataba de comprometerlo a imprimir, pronto se echaron atrás y un muro de silencio me saludó. Ninguno de ellos, al parecer, quería arriesgar su trabajo, a decir verdad.La triste realidad del asunto es que confiamos en estas personas para que nos cuenten nuestra historia, pero parecen contentos de operar bajo un velo. de la censura académica.

Un sábado por la tarde en el Museo Británico, hordas de turistas caminan con indiferencia junto a algunas de las mayores colecciones de artefactos del mundo antiguo. Mientras las cámaras parpadean y la gente posa junto a las exhibiciones más famosas, se encuentra, en la Galería Medieval, posiblemente la pieza más importante de todo el museo.

Junto a una caja débilmente iluminada descansa el piedra antigua de Llywel.

Desenterrado en el campo de un granjero en Gales en 1843, fue vendido al Museo Británico por la exigua suma de £ 10,00.

Una pieza de roca tallada de forma ornamentada, su verdadera importancia parece haber sido menospreciada por su ubicación. La talla más significativa de esta piedra parece haber sido ofuscada deliberadamente por los poderes fácticos.

Volteado de cara a la pared, e imposible de ver, hay una clara representación de una persona vestida con atuendo egipcio que sale de las pirámides de Egipto en su viaje hacia el oeste. & quot

Dependemos demasiado de la academia para decirnos la verdad, cuando `` ellos '' no están realmente interesados ​​en la `` verdad ''.

La versión de la historia que nos dan es una ficción, que están muy felices de apoyar porque es su fuente de ingresos. ¿Por qué la gente pierde el tiempo tratando de dar sentido al fenómeno OVNI dentro del contexto del sistema de creencias que estos Académica han configurado para nosotros?

Toda la historia está mal.

Y estos Académica se contentan con mantener esa ilusión.

Si acepta que los antiguos egipcios estaban en Gran Bretaña, entonces nuestra historia necesita una gran reforma. Cuando cristiandad se impuso en Europa, sufrimos una reescritura de la historia, y desde entonces la gente ha tratado de mantener esa historia falsa que se nos impuso, ignorando las pruebas en contrario.

los Renacimiento fue iniciado por el redescubrimiento de textos antiguos de los griegos, etc. Uno de los más influyentes fue el Escritos de Thoth-Hermes , que era religión, filosofía y ciencia. Influyó en científicos como Newton, Leonardo da Vinci, etc.

Luego, en el siglo XVII, todos los escritos fueron declarados un broma, y una de las razones más importantes por las que se pensó que era un engaño, fue porque el mensaje religioso en los escritos era una mezcla demasiado de cristianismo, islam, budismo, judaísmo, etc., que de ser cierto significaba todas las creencias religiosas existentes fueron incorrecto.

Durante los últimos 2000 años ha todo ha sido sobre religión. Algunas personas quieren creer tal o cual cosa, y alterarán los hechos o los ignorarán para poder seguir creyendo en sus delirios.

Mucho antes Daniken, hubo algunas personas que dijeron que los Antiguos estaban mucho más avanzados de lo que deberían haber estado.

El Dr. Soddy, un científico famoso por sus investigaciones sobre radiactividad, vio los vínculos entre sus investigaciones sobre radiactividad y la sabiduría antigua.

Dio una serie de conferencias en 1908 explicando los últimos descubrimientos de la radiactividad al público en general y en su libro de 1909 Interpretación del radio, se preguntó si los Antiguos ya sabían sobre la radiactividad.

“Dado que el mundo probablemente tiene una antigüedad mucho mayor de lo que la ciencia física ha pensado que es posible, es interesante e inofensivo especular si el hombre ha compartido con el mundo su historia más remota.

es decir, se pregunta si la humanidad tiene una historia tan larga como la de nuestro planeta. Y continúa:

A este respecto, es curioso cuán extrañamente aparecen algunos de los viejos mitos y leyendas sobre la materia y el hombre a la luz de los conocimientos recientes.

Considere, por ejemplo, el antiguo símbolo místico de la materia, conocido como Ouroboros - "El devorador de la cola" - que era una serpiente, enrollada en un círculo con la cabeza devorando la cola y con el lema central, "El todo es uno".

Además, esto simboliza la evolución, es la evolución de la materia, el aspecto más reciente de la evolución, cuya existencia fue negada enérgicamente por Clerk Maxwell y otros del siglo pasado.

La idea que surge en la mente de uno como la explicación más atractiva y consistente del universo a la luz del conocimiento actual es, quizás, que la materia se está descomponiendo y su energía evolucionando y degradando en una parte de un ciclo de evolución, y en otra parte, aún desconocida para nosotros, la materia se vuelve a construir con la utilización de la energía residual.

Si uno quisiera simbolizar tal idea, ¿de qué mejor manera podría hacerlo que con la antigua serpiente devoradora de cola?

Por ejemplo, reconoce que los Antiguos hablaban en simbolismo y era un simbolismo universal en todo el mundo Antiguo. Relacione eso con el descubrimiento de Evans de Antiguos egipcios en Gran Bretañay Academia que quiere negar la evidencia.

Algunas de las creencias y leyendas que nos han llegado desde la antigüedad son tan universales y están tan arraigadas que estamos acostumbrados a considerarlas casi tan antiguas como la propia raza.

Uno se siente tentado a preguntar hasta qué punto la insospechada idoneidad de algunas de estas creencias y dichos para el punto de vista tan recientemente revelado es el resultado de una mera casualidad o coincidencia, y hasta qué punto puede ser evidencia de una antigua civilización totalmente desconocida e insospechada de que todas las demás reliquias han desaparecido.

Es curioso reflexionar, por ejemplo, sobre la notable leyenda de la piedra filosofal, una de las creencias más antiguas y universales, cuyo origen, por muy atrás que nos adentremos en los registros del pasado, probablemente no rastreemos hasta su origen. fuente real.

A la piedra filosofal se le acreditó el poder no solo de transmutar los metales, sino de actuar como elixir de la vida.

Ahora bien, cualquiera que haya sido el origen de este revoltijo de ideas aparentemente sin sentido, en realidad es una expresión perfecta, pero muy ligeramente alegórica, de los puntos de vista actuales que tenemos hoy. No se requiere mucho esfuerzo de la imaginación para ver en la energía la vida del universo físico, y se sabe que la clave de las fuentes primarias de la vida física del universo actual es la transmutación.

Entonces, ¿esta vieja asociación del poder de transmutación con el elixir de la vida es simplemente una coincidencia?

Prefiero creer que puede ser un eco de una de las muchas épocas anteriores en la historia no registrada del mundo, de una época de hombres que han pisado antes el camino que estamos recorriendo hoy, en un pasado posiblemente tan remoto que incluso los mismos átomos de su civilización, literalmente, han tenido tiempo de desintegrarse.

Sin embargo, démosle a la imaginación un momento más libre de alcance en esta dirección antes de cerrar. ¿Qué pasa si este punto de vista que ahora se ha sugerido es cierto y podemos confiar en el esbelto fundamento que brindan las tradiciones y supersticiones que nos han sido transmitidas desde una época prehistórica?

¿No podemos leer en ellos alguna justificación para la creencia de que una antigua raza de hombres olvidada alcanzó no solo el conocimiento que hemos ganado tan recientemente, sino también el poder que aún no es nuestro?

La ciencia ha reconstruido la historia del pasado como un ascenso continuo del hombre al nivel actual de sus poderes.

Frente a la evidencia circunstancial existente de este constante progreso ascendente de la raza, la visión tradicional de la Caída del Hombre desde un estado anterior superior se ha vuelto cada vez más difícil de entender. Desde nuestro nuevo punto de vista, los dos puntos de vista son de ninguna manera tan irreconciliables como parecían. Una raza que pudiera transmutar la materia tendría poca necesidad de ganarse el pan con el sudor de su frente.

Si podemos juzgar por lo que nuestros ingenieros logran con sus suministros de energía comparativamente restringidos, tal raza podría transformar un continente desértico, descongelar los polos congelados y hacer que el mundo entero sea una sonrisa. Jardín del Edén.

Posiblemente podrían explorar los reinos exteriores del espacio emigrando a mundos más favorables mientras los superfluos de hoy emigran a continentes más favorables, La leyenda de la Caída del Hombre, posiblemente, puede ser todo lo que ha sobrevivido de tal tiempo antes, por alguna razón desconocida, el mundo entero se sumergió de nuevo bajo el indiscutible dominio de la Naturaleza, para comenzar una vez más su arduo viaje ascendente a través de las edades.

El Dr. Soddy establece las conexiones de que los Antiguos hablaban de manera simbólica con respecto a su ciencia. Que pudo haber existido una civilización olvidada. Que nuestra ciencia podría estar redescubriendo su conocimiento ancestral.

¿Seguramente un área interesante para que la academia investigue? ¿Y la Academia decide investigar? Respuesta: no, no lo hacen.

En cambio, eligen esperar a aficionados como Daniken para investigar este tema, y ​​luego montar una campaña para burlarse de él y sus seguidores. Academia no está interesado en nada más que manteniendo su existente dogma.

Todos los intentos de explicar los ovnis dentro de los Creencias académicas están condenados al fracaso. El marco de creencias con el que se espera que los investigadores de ovnis estén de acuerdo y se ganen el título de ser Científico en sus estudios es una ilusión.

Y la ciencia que realmente funciona, se descarta como una tontería supersticiosa: magia, paranormal, sobrenatural.

La naturaleza de esa ciencia, Tom Lethbridge Me las arreglé para relacionarnos con la posibilidad de que hubiéramos sido visitados por extraterrestres en nuestro pasado remoto, o que nosotros mismos pudiéramos ser extraterrestres de este planeta.

Él resuelve una posible manera de cómo Círculos de piedra podrían usarse como marcadores para embarcaciones aéreas de la siguiente manera:

“Es difícil para nosotros hoy visualizar la Gran Bretaña de, por ejemplo, hace cinco mil años.

Hoy en día se desconoce la gran extensión de bosques naturales, excepto en la vegetación tropical. Las zarzas y los árboles caídos dificultaban enormemente los caminos y cubrían la mayor parte del país. Solo en algunas tierras bajas el paso era relativamente fácil y no estaba exento de grandes parches de enebros, arbustos espinosos, aulagas y zarzas.

Las amplias vistas de los pastizales ondulados no existían. Se puede suponer que los grupos de exploración se dejarían caer en los bordes de todo esto y se encontrarían rastros de ellos, si es que se encuentran, en el tipo de situaciones en las que encontramos estos anillos y alineaciones de piedra en la actualidad. Un anillo de piedra se notaría desde el aire, solo porque tales cosas no suceden a menudo en la naturaleza.

Tampoco serían frecuentes las líneas rectas.

Pero puede haber otra razón para colocar las piedras, incluso si su objeto fuera el mismo. Durante incontables generaciones se ha creído, especialmente por los devotos de la antigua religión de las brujas, que por medio de excitar a la gente para que ejecute salvajes danzas circulares, se podría generar energía y almacenarla en piedras y árboles.

En realidad, esto parece ser un hecho científico. El Sr. P. Callahan ha demostrado en América que las polillas generan bioelectricidad por el calor provocado por los movimientos de sus alas y lo utilizan para localizar a sus parejas o comida. Detecté lo mismo con los escarabajos. Este es un hecho observado y ya no es algo al margen del conocimiento.

Ahora bien, si tiene un gran número de personas bailando salvajemente en un ring, obviamente genera una gran cantidad de esta bioelectricidad, electricidad viva.

Si realizas esta actuación en anillos formados por piedras con espacios entre ellas, tienes una forma de dínamo. Se ha demostrado que el Los campos electromagnéticos de piedras, árboles y agua absorberán la bioelectricidad del exterior. y esta es la razón probable por la que algunas personas ven fantasmas en situaciones que fueron favorables a la conservación de tales impresiones.

En otra parte he sugerido los nombres de campos de remos para los de piedras, campos de dríades para los de árboles y campos de náyades para los de los arroyos, de acuerdo con la creencia griega de que las ninfas con estos nombres se encontraban en esos lugares.

. mi esposa y yo experimentamos descargas eléctricas al intentar datar las piedras del círculo de las Merry Maidens en Cornwall. La fuerza bioelectrónica había sido almacenada en un momento por el esfuerzo de los bailarines en ese círculo y nunca más se había vuelto a sacar. El círculo todavía está completo. Pero, ¿por qué alguien deseaba almacenar energía electrónica en esos lugares? ¿A qué posible uso se le podría dar?

Bueno, los experimentos con el péndulo han demostrado que los campos electrónicos alrededor de un objeto son conos dobles de altura y profundidad ilimitadas. También se ha demostrado que una longitud de péndulo del mismo radio que la base del cono doble registrará contacto con ese cono.

Entonces, si tuvieras un aparato en una máquina voladora ajustado a la longitud de onda correcta, podrías recoger los rayos de la energía almacenada en las piedras y volver a casa en ella como la polilla a su pareja.

Estos anillos de piedras podrían haberse utilizado como balizas de navegación visibles e invisibles.

LethbridgeCreo que estaba en algo, pero esa línea de investigación científica por parte de la academia se suprime tanto como la academia suprime la historia propiamente dicha.

Es por eso que a la academia le gusta ignorar la evidencia de que los antiguos egipcios vinieron a Gran Bretaña, significaría que todo lo demás que han estado construyendo durante tanto tiempo es un castillo de naipes esperando a caer.

Todo lo que a la Academia le gusta suprimir encaja para dar una perspectiva diferente sobre los ovnis, y comienza a parecer que podría ser cierto.

Entonces, ¿cómo pueden `` ellos '' mantener este engaño por más tiempo?

Fácil: ofrezca la 'zanahoria' a los investigadores de ovnis, si quiere respetabilidad, entonces necesita el título de ser Científicoy para conseguir ese título tienes que aceptar mantener la mayor cantidad posible del engaño del `` castillo de naipes ''.

Si a muchas personas se les encomienda la tarea de evitar que estas cartas se caigan, entonces puede ser que la ilusión pueda mantenerse durante unos miles de años más. Es asombroso lo que los humanos son capaces de lograr cuando se lo proponen.

Pueden mantener sistemas de creencias delirantes a través de incontables generaciones enseñándolos como dogma, configurándolo como exámenes y permitiendo el progreso en el orden jerárquico de la sociedad, solo si crees las mentiras.

Y la verdad es Se esperaba que NOSOTROS tragáramos una enorme cantidad de mentiras.


Explore nuestras próximas conferencias

Troya: el mundo del héroe

Para profesores

La exposición del Museo Británico sobre la antigua ciudad de Troya revela nuevas y emocionantes dimensiones en varios componentes de la calificación OCR tanto en Civilización clásica como en Historia antigua, especialmente El mundo del héroe, El mundo homérico, Guerra y guerra y Fundaciones de Roma. Los maestros están invitados a un evento organizado por el Museo en asociación con la iniciativa ACE Advocating Classics Education en King's College London. Esto combina una conferencia de la profesora Edith Hall sobre las ideas homéricas y vergillianas del héroe con una visita gratuita a la exposición.

Lunes 13 de enero de 2020 14.30 — 15.30

Teatro de conferencias Stevenson

Habrá la oportunidad de visitar la exposición de Troya GRATIS entre las 15.30 y las 16.45 horas.

Clásicos de OCR en 20 objetos del Museo Británico

Para estudiantes y profesores

El Museo Británico alberga una gama espectacular de los objetos prescritos en muchos de los componentes de las calificaciones de OCR en Civilización Clásica e Historia Antigua, incluidas las esculturas del Partenón, el Cilindro de Ciro e imágenes de Cleopatra. Este evento, organizado en asociación por el Museo y la iniciativa ACE Advocating Classics Education en King's College London, brinda a los maestros y a sus estudiantes una oportunidad emocionante para observar y aprender sobre estos objetos, junto con otros relevantes para los componentes, en la empresa. de expertos académicos con amplia experiencia en las especificaciones OCR.

Lunes 24 de febrero de 2020- COMPLETAMENTE RESERVADO

Sesión 1 GCSE Civilizaciones clásicas 10.30 - 11.30

Sesión 2 GCSE Historia antigua 11.30 - 12.30

Sesión 3 Civilizaciones clásicas de nivel A 13.00 - 14.00

Sesión 4 A level Historia antigua 14.00 - 15.00

Teatro de conferencias Stevenson

Esta conferencia ahora está completamente reservada. Si desea que lo agreguen a la lista de espera para eventos futuros, envíe un correo electrónico a [email protected]

Habrá la oportunidad de visitar la exposición de Troy GRATIS. Las entradas programadas para entrar a las 11:00, 13:30 y 15:00 horas se asignarán a la llegada.

Los estudiantes deben estar acompañados por un miembro del personal de la escuela. Los estudiantes educados en el hogar deben estar acompañados por un adulto.

Bretaña romana

Para estudiantes y profesores

La provincia romana de Britannia existió durante casi 400 años desde la invasión romana inicial en el año 43 d. C. hasta el final del control romano en las islas británicas alrededor del 411 d. C. ¿Qué impacto tuvo el dominio romano en la provincia? Utilizando objetos expuestos en el Museo Británico como evidencia principal, esta presentación considerará ejemplos de cambio y continuidad durante este período de la historia británica y la imagen de la vida en la Gran Bretaña romana construida por hallazgos y sitios arqueológicos. ¿Cuán romana era la Gran Bretaña romana?

Lunes 16 marzo 2020 11.00— 12.00

Viernes 3 julio 2020 11.00— 12.00

Los estudiantes deben estar acompañados por un miembro del personal de la escuela. Los estudiantes educados en el hogar deben estar acompañados por un adulto.


Una historia de migración

En conjunto, los dos estudios cuentan una historia de las migraciones de población y su influencia en Gran Bretaña.

Michael Weale, un genetista estadístico y de poblaciones del King's College de Londres que no participó en el estudio, le dice al Monitor en un correo electrónico que ha habido un "debate en curso entre historiadores, genetistas y otros sobre la medida en que los cambios históricos en la cultura corresponde a eventos migratorios históricos (y si es así, qué tan grandes podrían ser estos eventos migratorios) ".

"Para tomar un contraejemplo moderno, hay un McDonalds en casi todas las capitales del mundo, pero esto no significa que haya habido una migración masiva de estadounidenses, por lo que este es un ejemplo de cómo las culturas pueden cambiar sin migración", explica. .

La investigación genética es una buena forma de responder preguntas sobre estas migraciones porque el ADN contiene pistas sobre la ascendencia de una persona, dice el Dr. Weale. "Cada uno de nosotros es una amalgama del ADN de todos nuestros antepasados ​​(un número que aumenta exponencialmente en el tiempo), por lo que un solo genoma puede, de hecho, darnos una imagen promedio sobre un gran grupo de personas (es decir, sobre el ancestros) ", explica.

Así que, aunque estos estudios analizan solo un puñado de genomas de individuos antiguos, Weale dice: "En realidad, nos da una ventana a eventos e historias a escala poblacional".

Reciba las Historias de Monitor que le interesan en su bandeja de entrada.

Al combinar el análisis de ADN moderno y antiguo, estos dos nuevos estudios ayudan a centrarse en el impacto de estas migraciones históricas, dice Weale.

"Ahora podemos decir con certeza que los romanos no dejaron mucho rastro y no contribuyeron mucho al acervo genético británico", dice Schiffels. "Pero los anglosajones lo hicieron mucho".


¡Ataque de los gigantes!

Otros cronistas afirman que en realidad medía doce codos de altura, por lo que esto lo habría hecho de 18 pies (5,5 metros) de altura. Gogmagog fue descrito como tan fuerte que podía arrancar un roble y agitarlo como una varita de avellana. De todos modos, el gigante feroz atacó el campamento de Corineus con veinte de sus parientes. Esto se convirtió en una batalla total y Corineus y sus hombres llamaron a sus aliados locales y finalmente los derrotaron en un sangriento conflicto. Brutus decidió mantener vivo a uno de los gigantes, ya que quería presenciar un combate de lucha libre entre Gogmagog y Corineus. Durante el reñido combate, Gogmagog le rompió tres costillas a Corineus, y estaba tan enfurecido que alzó a Gogmagog sobre sus hombros con una fuerza sobrehumana y corrió hacia el acantilado donde lo arrojó a la muerte. Su cuerpo se rompió en muchos pedazos después de golpear rocas afiladas y manchó el agua de rojo, que “ estaba tan descolorido con su sangre como para continuar teñido con ella durante mucho tiempo .”

El acantilado desde el que fue arrojado se conoció como Langnagog o "El salto de los gigantes". Fue en Plymouth Hoe que se convirtió en el lugar legendario donde se produjo la lucha porque se registró en 1486 que se talló una figura gigante cortada en césped que representaba dos figuras, una de ellas Gogmagog.


Gran Bretaña antigua - Historia

INTRODUCCIÓN

Vimos en la Parte 2 de La historia temprana del hombre 1 que los reyes paganos de los antiguos británicos rastrearon su propia descendencia hasta Noé a través de Jafet, mejorando así fuertemente el relato bíblico de la Tabla de las Naciones (Génesis 10 y 11.) 2 Una genealogía simple, compilada de los dos libros de Nennius Historia Brittonum (Siglo IX d.C.) y de Geoffrey de Monmouth Historia Regum Britanniae (XII century AD,) demonstrated that descent. However, it is important that that genealogy now be tested for historical reliability, and we are going to test some of its credentials here by reconstructing the chronology of these kings. This, to my knowledge, has never been successfully attempted before, and this lack of success, or even effort on the part of previous scholars, has led to the denigration and eventual dismissal of this valuable record. And that, in turn, has cost us dear.

Previous attempts to compile the chronology of the ancient British kings have invariably ended with the scholars concerned giving it all up as a bad job. But most of these attempts were made by men who had already convinced themselves that the task would be hopeless. Even those rare scholars who thought that Geoffrey of Monmouth deserved more serious consideration than he currently receives, were easily dissuaded from the task. Witness Thorpe:

"Accustomed as he is to precise dates, the modern reader will wonder occasionally just where he is in time. In what year did Bladud have his flying accident? When exactly did Leir die? When did Utherpendragon see the great star? Geoffrey gives only three dates: the death of Lucius occurred in AD 156, the abdication of Arthur in AD 542, and the death of Cadwallader in AD 689. He has, however, a series of synchronisms. by which he is at pains to reassure his readers and add verisimilitude to his story. (but) some of these synchronisms leave us more confused than if we had not read them." 3

Worse, two of Geoffrey's given dates are demonstrably wrong! Lucius did not die in AD 156, and that is usually enough to convince the modernist investigator that Geoffery was telling stories. However, the date AD 156 crops up elsewhere with regard to King Lucius, namely in Bede's Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum (AD 751):

"In the year of our Lord's Incarnation 156, Marcus Antoninus Verus, fourteenth from Augustus, became emperor jointly with his brother Aurelius Commodorus. During their reign, and while the holy Eleutherus ruled the Roman Church, Lucius, a British king, sent him a letter, asking to be made a Christian by his direction." 4

Pope Eleutherus, we learn from the Annuario Pontifico, did not lord it over the flock until the year AD 175 - 189, and so Geoffrey's date for the death of Lucius (that is, AD 156) is wrong by twenty or thirty years or so. Did Geoffrey misread Bede in his attempt to date the events mentioned in the source-book he was translating from British into Latin? Or was the source-book itself in error? It is more likely that Geoffrey, in whichever book the misreading occurred, mistook 156 for the year 186. It is easy to mistake a 5 for an 8 even with the clear print of today. We must also remember that when Bede gives the date 156, he does not do so in any direct connection with Lucius, but with reference to the beginning of the joint rule of the empire by Antoninus and Commodius. It is within the more general framework of the joint reign of these two emperors that Lucius is introduced into the narrative. More importantly, however, Geoffrey's mistake is one of which we are aware, and moreover it is one that can be easily sorted out.

The same goes for the second wrong date that Geoffrey provides. He tells us that the British king Cadwallader, died in the year AD 689. Cadwallader however, actually reigned from AD 654 - 664. What Geoffrey (or rather his source-book?) has done is to mistake the British Cadwallader for the Saxon king of Wessex named Caedwalla who did indeed die (at Rome) in the year AD 689! So, in our reconstruction of the British chronology, we shall assign to Cadwallader the true dates of his reign and not that given by Geoffrey for his death. But again, the error is something that we know about and can easily sort out, so the reluctance of previous scholars to seriously grapple with these problems becomes more puzzling as we progress.

Thorpe complains that Geoffrey of Monmouth provides too few clues for dating purposes, and that even those that he does provide only serve to confuse us. Upon examination of Geoffrey's Historia, however, we find that Thorpe was quite mistaken. los Historia is rich in clues compared to many other of these early accounts, and far from confusing us, they actually help us to build a most erudite picture.

Let us begin with Brutus, the very first king of the Britons and from whom the Britons derived their name. Geoffrey tells us in Book 1, chapter 18 of his Historia, that Brutus was born two or three generations after the Trojan Wars. The Trojan Wars having occurred around 1240 BC, that would place his birth in about the middle of the XII century, say around 1150 BC. Moreover, Geoffrey goes on to tell us that Brutus reigned as king for 23 years, and further, that he ruled Britain at the time that Eli was judge in Israel. We know that Eli judged Israel between the years 1115 - 1075 BC. Thus, we are given two synchronisms, not one, and both of these confirm each other, thus allowing us to date the reign of Brutus with much confidence. No cause for complaint there!

Following Brutus's reign, we are told that his son Locrinus ruled for 10 years, and that his, Locrinus's, widow, Queen Gwendolen, ruled after him for 15 years at the time when Samuel judged Israel (Book 2, chapter 6.) We know that Samuel judged Israel for the forty year period between 1075 - 1035 BC, and thus Geoffrey's synchronisms begin to take on an unexpected, and hitherto uncredited, aura of respectability.

Gwendolen abdicated in favour of her son, Maddan, and he went on to rule for 40 years after her. Then his son, Mempricius, ruled for 20 years, and his reign, we are told, roughly coincided with that of Saul (Book 2.6.) Saul was king in Israel between 1030 - 1010 BC.

Likewise Mempricius was succeeded by his son, Ebraucus. Ebraucus reigned for 39 years, and we are told that his reign corresponded roughly in time with that of David of Israel (Book 2.7.) Again, we know that David ruled from 1010 - 970 BC.

Table 1. The Chronology of the early British kings.

The next two kings of the Britons were Brutus Greenshield and Leil who ruled for 12 and 25 years respectively, and their reigns, Geoffrey tells us, coincided roughly in time with that of Solomon who ruled between the years 970-930 BC.

Hudibras and Bladud, the next kings of the Britons, ruled for 39 and 20 years respectively when Elijah prophesied in Israel (Historia, Book 2.10.) We know that Elijah was active during the reign of king Ahab, and that Ahab was king of Israel between 874 - 853 BC. (The chronology in Table 1 gives these two reigns as running from c.920 - 86l BC.)

Cunedagius, who ruled for 35 years (2 of them jointly with Marganus I,) reigned during the time of Isaiah according to Geoffrey (Book 2.15,) and we know that Isaiah was active between 740 - 70l BC. Now, referring to the chronology in Table 1 where we have followed Geoffrey exactly, we see that his particular synchronism of Geoffrey's is about 20 years out by modern reckoning. But, and as anyone who has ever worked on ancient chronologies will tell you, that is not a bad error for this period! Geoffrey, I think, can be forgiven such a trivial margin of error, especially as he enjoyed neither the benefits nor the amenities of modern research, and so far, other than the much-lamented unreliability so readily laid at Geoffrey's door these days, we see he shows surprising accuracy and consistency in his dates!

Hereafter, and without synchronisms of any description, we are given, out of a total of 61 kings, the lengths of reign enjoyed by only five. Dunvallo Molmutius reigned for 40 years (2.15) Archgallo reigned during his second term as king for 10 years: Ingenius reigned 7 years (3.9): Enniaunus ruled for 6 years (3.9) and Heli ruled 40 years (3.9).

It is not until Book 4 of the Historia that we come to our next synchronism, that of Cassivelaunus who resisted Julius Caesar's invasions of 55 and 54 BC (4.1-10.)

Thereafter, we read that Guiderius and Arvirargus resisted the Claudian invasion of AD 44 (Guiderius was killed during that invasion, Book 4.l2- 15,) and that Vesparsian (AD 69-79) was emperor of Rome when Marius ruled Britain (4.16).

Lucius, as we have already seen, must have been alive at least after AD 75, and our chronology allows him a reign of 59 years from AD 137 - 186.

The death of Arthur we can allow to stand as having occurred in AD 542, as this fits in very comfortably with the rest of the chronology, and the reign of Cadwallader we have already corrected to its true dates. In all, we are given sufficient information in Geoffrey's Historia to compile the chronology that appears in Table 1. We obviously cannot be certain about he lengths of reign or even the precise dates of every king. That is ever possible in these early lists. Rather, the number of years of any given time-gap is divided up among the number of kings who reigned in that period, and each king is allotted an equal portion for his reign. This is an entirely legitimate exercise in perfect accord with accepted historical method.

For example, between Marganus II, who began to rule c. 289 BC, and Digueillus, whose reign ended c. 113 BC, there reigned 32 kings within a period of 176 years. That gives an average reign of 5.5 years for each king within this period. For convenience's sake, therefore Marganus II is allotted a reign of 5 years, and his successor Enniaunus is given 6 years. Enniaunus's successor is allotted 5 years, and his successor in turn is given 6, and so on. Now obviously, we know that some of these kings would have reigned for only a year or so, while others would have reigned for decades, but this is the best that we can possibly hope for at this remove.

The only thing that we are left to puzzle over is what on earth Thorpe and his colleagues have been complaining about all these years! What appears in Table 1 is an extremely comprehensive chronology, and it is, moreover, one that has been built entirely upon the information given us by Geoffrey of Monmouth. So why the reluctance to produce a perfectly feasible chronology similar to that which appears here as Table 1? Could it be that that would give Geoffrey of Monmouth (and Nennius) a credibility that would damage, rather than enhance, modern(ist) theories about our past? Could it also be that it would lend credibility to the ancient assertion that our ancestors were indeed descended from Noah as Genesis teaches? Such descent was held to be true not just by early Christians, but by the again Britons and others who lived throughout the long centuries that preceded the coming of Christ. They themselves traced through long genealogies their descent from Noah, and there can be only one reason for this remarkable occurrence. But that would not accord with today's philosophy hat would have us believe that Genesis is an insubstantial myth.

1. Cooper, W.R., 1991. The Early History of Man - Part 2. The Irish-Celtic, British and Saxon Chronicles. CEN Tech. J., 5 (1):2-28. See especially pp. 8-18 and Tables 3 and 4.
2. Cooper, W.R., 1991. The Early History of Man - Part.1. The Table of Nations. CEN Tech. J., 4:67-92.
3. Thorpe, Lewis (tr.), 1966. The History of the Kings of Britain, Guild Publishing, London, p. 285.
4. Sherley-Price, Leo (tr), 1968. The History of the English Church and People, Dorset Press, New York. p.42.

Bill Cooper is a student of Bible history, archaeology and paleontology. This article is reproduced by permission of the author and the editor of the Creation Ex Nihilo Technical Journal (PO Box 302, Sunnybank, Qld. AUSTRALIA 4109.)


Witches in Britain

Witchcraft was not made a capital offence in Britain until 1563 although it was deemed heresy and was denounced as such by Pope Innocent VIII in 1484. From 1484 until around 1750 some 200,000 witches were tortured, burnt or hanged in Western Europe.

Most supposed witches were usually old women, and invariably poor. Any who were unfortunate enough to be ‘crone-like’, snaggle-toothed, sunken cheeked and having a hairy lip were assumed to possess the ‘Evil Eye’ ! If they also had a cat this was taken a proof, as witches always had a ‘familiar’, the cat being the most common.

Many unfortunate women were condemned on this sort of evidence and hanged after undergoing appalling torture. The ‘pilnie-winks’ (thumb screws) and iron ‘caspie-claws’ (a form of leg irons heated over a brazier) usually got a confession from the supposed witch.

Witch fever gripped East Anglia for 14 terrible months between 1645 – 1646. The people of these eastern counties were solidly Puritan and rabid anti-Catholics and easily swayed by bigoted preachers whose mission was to seek out the slightest whiff of heresy. A man called Matthew Hopkins, an unsuccessful lawyer, came to help (!) He became known as the ‘Witchfinder General’ . He had 68 people put to death in Bury St. Edmunds alone, and 19 hanged at Chelmsford in a single day. After Chelmsford he set off for Norfolk and Suffolk. Aldeburgh paid him £6 for clearing the town of witches, Kings Lynn £15 and a grateful Stowmarket £23. This was at a time when the daily wage was 2.5p.

A heart carved on a wall in the market place at Kings Lynn is supposed to mark the spot where the heart of Margaret Read, a condemned witch who was being burnt at the stake, leapt from the flames and struck the wall.

Much of Matthew Hopkins theories of deduction were based on Devils Marks. A wart or mole or even a flea-bite he took to be a Devils Mark and he used his ‘jabbing needle’ to see if these marks were insensitive to pain. His ‘needle’ was a 3 inch long spike which retracted into the spring-loaded handle so the unfortunate woman never felt any pain.

Matthew Hopkins, Witch Finder General. From a broadside published by Hopkins before 1650

There were other tests for witches. Mary Sutton of Bedford was put to the swimming test. With her thumbs tied to opposite big toes she was flung into the river. If she floated she was guilty, if she sank, innocent. Poor Mary floated!

A last reminder of Hopkins’ reign of terror was discovered in St. Osyth, Essex, in 1921. Two female skeletons were found in a garden, pinned into unmarked graves and with iron rivets driven through their joints. This was to make sure a witch could not return from the grave. Hopkins was responsible for over 300 executions.

Mother Shipton is remembered still in Knaresborough, Yorkshire. Although called a witch, she is more famous for her predictions about the future. She apparently foresaw cars, trains, planes and the telegraph. Her cave and the Dripping Well , where objects hung under the dripping water become like stone, are a popular site to visit today in Knaresborough.

In August 1612, the Pendle Witches, three generations of one family, were marched through the crowded streets of Lancaster and hanged.

Though many of the Acts against witchcraft were repealed in 1736, witch hunting still went on. In 1863, an alleged male witch was drowned in a pond in Headingham, Essex and in 1945 the body of an elderly farm labourer was found near the village of Meon Hill in Warwickshire. His throat had been cut and his corpse was pinned to the earth with a pitchfork. The murder remains unsolved, however the man was reputed, locally, to be a wizard.


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Australian Aborigine paintings, Part 2
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The Samotheans - First Inhabitants of Britain

Holinshed's Chronicle (1) is a large six-volume work, written during the Tudor period. It contains a comprehensive history of England, Scotland and Ireland, from the earliest times to shortly before the publication date (first edition 1578, second edition in 1587). Volume I describes a succession of Samothean kings, ruling over an empire until they were invaded by a giant called Albion. They were liberated by another powerful figure called Hercules, and then the succession of kings continued until the arrival of Brutus the Trojan.

The island of Britain was first called Samothea, until Albion came and re-named it after himself. When Albion was defeated, it did not revert to Samothea, but retained the name of Albion, until Brutus arrived and called it Britain. The succession of kings was as follows:

The Samothean kings ruled over more than just the island of Samothea. Their kingdom included a large part of Europe from the Rhine to the Pyrennes, an area known as Gallia. Samothes is said to be the founder of Celtica, as if the Celts and Gauls were in different parts of the same empire, although they are known to have spread out all over Europe and they are the same race.

Holinshed's Chronicle gives more than one possible date for the arrival of the first inhabitants of Samothea. In one place it says that they arrived 200 years after the Flood. In another place (in Volume VI, Ireland) it gives the date of the Flood as 1650 AM (Anno Mundi - Year of the World from Creation). Going back to Volume I we have the arrival of Samothes in 1910 AM which is 260 years after the Flood. Without getting bogged down with the detail, we get the impression that the dispersion was not a gradual process. People travelled large distances in a very short time (probably to get away from Nimrod who had become a tyrant).

There are other issues to be resolved, which I will return to later:

  • Josephus (2) says that the Gauls are descended from Gomer, the eldest son of Japheth. Davis (3), using a number of sources, says that they arrived in Britain about 300 years after the Flood. If the Celts and Gauls are the same people, as is commonly thought, this is at variance with the Samothean history which associates the Celts with Meshech.
  • Samothes (Meshech) is thought to have been so named because he was the "Saturn" or original founder of the kingdom, although this is a pagan practice of which he would disapprove.

Samothes to Bardus - The First Five Kings

The first five kings of Samothea maintained the true religion that they had learned from Noah and Japheth. They are each described as follows:

  • Samothes was a man of great learning, and he taught about astronomy, moral values and politics. He founded a sect of philosophers called the Samothei, who were skilful in the law of God and man. He delivered his knowledge in Phoenician letters, from which the Greek alphabet is derived.
  • Magus was a man of great learning, like his father Samothes, and the Magi of Persia derived their name after him.
  • Sarronius , otherwise known as Sarron, founded public places of learning, to encourage people to study and not to indulge in uncivilised behaviour. He was the founder of a group of philosophers called the Sarronides, who were able to offer sacrifices. Sarron believed that sacrifices should only be made by people who were skilled in divine mysteries.
  • Druiyus , otherwise called Druis, was the founder of the Druids. At first, this was the true religion taught by his predecessors, but after his death the Druids fell into pagan superstitions.
  • Bardus was a poet and musician, and from him we get the word "Bard". He established an order of poets or heralds called "Bardi", and they were held in such high esteem that if two armies were engaged in battle, and the Bardi walked among them, the battle would stop until they had gone.

After Bardus, the Celts departed from the strict ordinances of their former kings and fell into idleness and decadence, so that they were quickly subdued by the giant Albion.

The Egyptian Family Feud

Ham was the youngest of Noah's three sons, and he had four sons:

  • Cush , who had six sons, including the notorious Nimrod who was the founder of the worst features of idolatry and paganism, and instigated the rebellion at Babylon. After the dispersion, the descendants of Cush inhabited Ethiopia.
  • Mizraim , who succeeded his father Ham as king of Egypt.
  • Put , who inhabited the North African coastal region to the west of Egypt.
  • Caanan , whose descendants occupied the land on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean, until they were driven out by the Israelites. One of his sons, called Heth, founded the Hittite empire in Turkey and Carthage, but they were eventually defeated by the Romans and totally wiped out.

Mizraim had seven sons, known as Ludim, Anamim, Lehabim, Naphtuhim, Pathruhim, Casluhim and Caphtorim. Two of these are of interest in this study:

  • Naphtuhim was considered to be Neptune and was given the surname Marioticus because his dominions were among the islands of the Mediterranean sea.
  • Lehabim was considered to be Hercules and was given the surname Lybicus.

The Egyptians adopted the practice of deifying their kings, just as the Babylonians had deified Nimrod. The same practice was passed on to the Greeks and Romans and to all the pagan world, until it was subdued by Christianity. There were no unique characters called Neptune or Hercules, instead there could be any number of them, depending on how the pagans deified their kings. In the case of these two sons of Mizraim, they were called Neptune Marioticus and Hercules Lybicus. Their father Mizraim was also deified, and was called Osiris.

Neptune, the son of Osiris, sailed the seas with his 33 giant sons, leaving each of them in a different place to overthrow the kingdoms that already existed and bring the world under their own tyrannical rule. The sons that feature in this story are:

  • Albion , who invaded the island of Samothea with an army descended from Cush.
  • Bergion , who invaded the island to the west of Samothea. It became known as Hibernia and is now called Ireland.
  • Lestrigo , who invaded Italy.
  • The king(s) from whom the Lomnimi or Geriones of Spain derived their name.

Osiris was opposed to their ambitions, so the giants held a judicial council, with the support of their father Neptune, and put him to death. This event was a cause of great lamentation that was regularly observed in the religion of ancient Egypt, and the practice was passed on to the Greeks and Romans who lamented the death of Bacchus. It is also thought that Nimrod met a violent death. He may have been torn to pieces by wild beasts, but nobody seems to know for sure.

Hercules Lybicus was infuriated by the murder of his father Osiris and set out to kill the giant sons of Neptune wherever they could be found. He went to Spain and defeated the Lomnimi or Geriones, then he passed through Gallia on his way to Italy, to do battle with Lestrigo. When Albion and Bergion heard that he was on his way to Italy, they set off to defend their brother Lestrigo, and fought against Hercules on the banks of the Rhine (it seems that Hercules must have gone further north to meet Albion and Bergion).

The battle was going badly for Hercules, and his army had used up all their weapons, but Hercules called on them to pick up stones which were available in abundance and throw them at the enemy. This way they killed both Albion and Bergion, and most of their army, so that the remainder were put to flight and the battle was won. After that, Hercules went throughout Gallia, overthrowing tyrants in every place.

It is thought that Hercules came to the island of Albion, arriving at a headland which Ptolomie calls Promontorium Herculis, now known as Hartland Point in north Devon.

Holinshed gives a succession of Celtic kings who reigned after the defeat of Albion, beginning with the reinstatement of Celtes, although very little is said about these kings and there is doubt about what sort of rule they had. There are accounts of complete disorder as the other giants continued in a state of lawlessness. Tysilio's Chronicle (4) says that when Brutus arrived, the island was empty except for a few giants. Whatever may be the case, we can be sure that the island retained the name of Albion until Brutus arrived and called it Britain.

The Samotheans gained a hollow liberation at the hand of Hercules. He did not fight his battles out of love for the Celts or other oppressed people. He simply wanted to avenge the death of his father Osiris. The Samotheans had been invaded by an Egyptian giant, from a family that was divided against itself, and they were liberated by a member of the same family.

As already mentioned, the Samotheans had fallen because they had departed from the true religion of Noah and turned to paganism. When Albion came in 1721 BC (according to a rough calculation), the paganism got worse and continued after his death. It got no better when Brutus came, because Brutus himself was a pagan, and was not subdued until the arrival of Christianity in the first century AD. No wonder the Britons embraced Christianity with enthusiasm, after the long dark night of paganism that had oppressed them for 18 centuries.

Note: Holinshed gives some contradictory accounts of the Egyptian genealogy, in which Hercules is sometimes the uncle of the giants and sometimes their cousin. I don't know how this has occurred, but we should reflect on the fact that in our own language, the terms "uncle" and "nephew" only exist in the line that includes first cousins. Otherwise we talk about "second cousins once removed" etc. It's possible that an uncle or nephew might have been considered a type of cousin, but that's a matter for people who are skilled in ancient languages and is beyond my competence.

What Is A Giant?

There used to be some big people in ancient times, and Holinshed gives some examples of medieval archeology where the bones of giants were found, but none of them remain today because they are so ancient and have all disintegrated. Perhaps if some of them had become fossilised, there might be some evidence for us to see, but they have avoided the rapid flood conditions required for fossilisation. The early patriarchs were thought to have been big, including Noah himself, but they are not generally referred to as a giants. The term "Gigantes" does not just describe someone's physical size. It means "sons of the earth", and from this word we get "Aborigenes" or "indigenous", meaning born and bred out of the earth that they inhabited. This creates a problem for the so-called giant sons of Neptune, who went around inhabiting the lands that belonged to other people, although if they were born at sea they might have been considered indigenous to the place where they landed. But that's just speculation. The real answer is that nothing is simple in ancient history and mythology.

It's unlikely that Holinshed would have known much of the creation science that is being discussed today. In the pre-Flood climate, there were different physical conditions including higher air pressure and possibly even a higher speed of light. This meant that biological processes were more efficient, making it possible for very large animals such as dinosaurs to walk around with ease, and large birds could fly in the heavens. The post-flood climate favoured smaller creatures, and the very large ones became extinct through natural selection, although they were fearsome beasts while they still existed.

The same thing could have happened to the human population. The early patriarchs were big, because they inherited their genes from their pre-flood ancestors. Then in the process of time, as the conditions favoured people of smaller stature, the number of small people began to increase. However, there were still some big people around, and if they were of evil intent they could inflict terror on the rest of the population.

Ancestor Worship

The practice of ancestor worship began with the Babylonians and Egyptians, and spread to the Greeks and Romans. Nimrod was the first person to make himself a king and rule over other people, and he was also worshipped as a god.

Many nations of the ancient world adopted the practice of deifying their kings, acording to a simple genealogy. The first king to establish his rule in any part of the world was called "Saturn". His son and successor would be called "Jupiter" and his grandsons or nephews who reigned in the third place would be called "Hercules". Thus Nimrod was the Saturn of Babylon, and Ham was the Saturn of Egypt. Mizraim was the Jupiter of Egypt, although he was called Osiris. Their wives were also deified, so that the wife of Saturn was Rhea, and the wife of Jupiter was Juno, Isis or Io.

Even Noah and his wife were deified, so that Noah was called Heaven, Oxygus, Sun, or Pater Deorum, and his wife was called Terra (the Earth), Vesta, Aretia, Moone, or Mater Deorum. Holinshed refers to a belief that the real name of Noah's wife was Tydia, and hence we get Terra.

The practice of deifying kings, and even the early patriarchs, explains the whole Greek mythology:

  • Uranus (Sky or Heaven) married Gaia (Earth) and they had a number of children, but for some reason Uranos hated them and tried to kill them, but Gaia tried to save them. Possibly this could be an allusion to the Flood, as if Noah was getting blamed for it because he had preached about it for many years. The ark was made from trees that grew from the earth, so Gaia is credited with saving a few people.
  • Cronos (Saturn) is a surviving son of Uranus and Gaia. He rebelled against his father and overthrew him, cutting off his genitals and throwing them into the sea. This is very likely to be an allusion to Ham, who looked at Noah when he was drunk and naked in his tent, and told his brothers about it. There is a Jewish tradition, recorded in the Midrash Rabbah (5), that Ham didn't just look at Noah, he castrated him to prevent him from having a fourth son. In response, Noah cursed Caanan, the fourth son of Ham, who is thought to have seen him naked in the first place. Clearly, the castration of Noah is just a fable that doesn't match up with the Biblical account. It's inconcievable that such an event could have been missed out of the Bible if it actually happened. However, the very existence of such a fable is sufficient to match up Cronos with Ham, and Uranus with Noah.
  • Rhea, the wife of Cronos, was the goddess of fortresses. This is clearly associated with Semiramis, the wife of Nimrod who built the tower of Babel, and it suggests that she played a major role in the construction of the tower and the city.
  • The three sons of Cronos and Rhea were:
    - Zeus (Jupiter), god of the sky, with a thunderbolt in his hand.
    - Poseidon (Neptune), god of the sea.
    - Hades (Pluto, Orcus, Dis), god of the underworld.
  • The sons of Zeus were Hephastus (Vulcan) and Heracles (Hercules).
  • Poseidon (Neptune) had many offspring.
  • Hades was married to Persephone, and he had a concubine called Minthe who turned into a plant, but he doesn't appear to have any offspring.

Clearly, you could make almost anything out of Greek mythology because it's so complex, but it seems to be based on the deification of ancestors and kings, starting with Noah and his wife. Different names were used by different nations, so that the Osiris of Egypt became the Zeus of Greece and the Jupiter of Rome, but in every nation there was Saturn, Jupiter and Hercules in some form or other.

The name Jupiter probably suited the Romans (Latins) as a way of remembering and possibly deifying their ancestor Japheth. If this is what happened, it would be the ideal type of cultural transformation that would be needed to transport the idolatry of Egypt to all the nations that descended from Japheth.

The deification of kings has sown much confusion in the study of ancient history. We find that Saturn, Jupiter and Hercules are everywhere, but we cannot always find the names of the kings that they represent. For example, we find Hercules all over Europe, and Holinshed gives us the surname Lybicus, but we cannot be sure if all his exploits are done by one person, or by many people who have been deified as Hercules.

Fighting for Heaven

The custom arose in Egypt, that whenever a worthy or famous king died, a star would be assigned to his name, so that he would always be remembered. In ancient Egypt they built pyramids, arranged according to the constellations, for example the three pyramids of Giza represent Orion's belt. The king would be buried in his pyramid so that he would be transported to his chosen star.

The custom was exported to other countries, including the island of Albion. It is thought that Albion the giant, together with his other giants, erected some of the megaliths and standing stones, and the practice was continued after Brutus arrived.

In the process of time, it wasn't possible to find enough stars for all the kings (although they certainly could have done if they had today's modern telescopes). Instead, they thought of other places where their kings and fighting men could go, and the Greeks and Romans called it Elysium. It was a place of paradise, full of green fields.

A place of honour in the afterlife was not automatically given to a king. He had to earn it by doing something valiant. Consequently, kings and princes were always trying to outdo each other, invading and conquering other countries to try and prove their valour. Honours were awarded, not just to the king himself, but to all his fighting men, so that a commander would encourage his troops by telling them that if they do not see the end of the battle, they will wake up in Elysium.

Many unnecessary wars have been fought, and much blood has been spilt, because people have thought that if they fight and kill, they will go to some kind of heaven, but the whole abominable practice has its roots in paganism. It becomes even more lamentable when we consider that in ancient times there were just a few people spreading out over the whole earth, and there was nothing to fight for other than heaven.

Albion was only the fourth generation after Noah. The genealogy was Noah, Ham, Mizraim, Naphtuhim, Albion. The so-called Samothean "kingdom", descended from Noah, Japheth and Meshech wasn't anything like a kingdom as we know it today. It was just a few families on an almost deserted island. Albion could have enjoyed the good life in his native Egypt, with plenty of space to do whatever he wanted, but no, he had to sail all the way to Samothea and overthrow a peaceful kingdom. His motivation was his grudge against Shem and Japheth, because of Noah's curse against Caanan the son of Ham. He thought that by going to war against the sons of Japheth, he could invalidate the curse and become a star in heaven.

Gallic Gomer or Samothean Meshech?

Earlier in this article, I asked two questions, about why Meshech was called Samathos, and were the original inhabitants of Britain descended from Gomer or Meshech? The two questions have to be answered together, because the descendants of Gomer and Meshech appear to have co-existed alongside each other in different places.

Josephus (2) the first-century Jewish historian, describes the nations and tribes that are descended from Noah, both in his own time and in previous ages. He says the descendants of Gomer used to be called Gomerites, but in his own time they were called Galatians or Galls. The descendants of Meshech used to be called Mosocheni or Mazaca, but in his own time they were called Cappadocians. He also refers to a city called Mazaca, which undoubtedly means Moscow.

Looking at the historic maps in Thompson's Chain Reference Bible (6), we find that in the apostolic age, the Galatians and Cappadocians used to live in two separate provinces directly alongside each other in Asia Minor, south of what is now known as the Black Sea. They had been there for a long time, and on the map of the ancient world they are simply called "Gomer" and "Meshech". There was also the nation of Gallia which occupied the area now known as France and Belgium as far as the Rhine, also in existence since ancient times. It is not at all inconcievable that the descendants of Meshech lived alongside Gallia in neighbouring "Britannia".

However, the most surprising aspect of this study is that a large area including White Russia, Ukraine, and the western part of Russia as far as the Urals, was called Sarmatia, both in ancient times and in the apostolic age. This is precisely the area with Moscow at its centre, so we have the historic association between Meshech and Sarmatia. In ancient times we also find Gomer to the north of the Black Sea, occupying the area south of Sarmatia, so again we have the descendants of Gomer and Meshech alongside each other.

It seems very likely that Gomer and Meshech were two friendly tribes that travelled together and occupied neighbouring areas, and for a considerable time thay retained their distinct identity and avoided intermarriage. The descendants of Meshech were called Celts, and the descendants of Gomer were called Gauls, but eventually they became indistinguishable and were known as Celtic Gauls. Somehow, in the history of the Britons (now known as the Welsh), Gomer has been remembered but Meshech has been forgotten.

To answer the question about why Meshech was called Samathos, we have to find what the word means, rather than simply calling him Saturn according to the pagan mythology that he would have rejected. Really, we have to get a linguist to work on it, but to make a start, I have found the word "Summarius", in Archeologica Britannica (7), which means the "chief" or "principal", and would be an appropriate title for the first king and spiritual leader of a new nation.

Authenticity of Berosus

After discussing the Samothean history at great length, Holinshed casts doubt on it with the following words (which I quote in the original Tudor English):

When Holinshed refers to "Berosus" in this way, he actually means "pseudo-Berosus", as described in the Lost Works of Berosus.

Referencias

1. Holinshed's Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland, 6 volumes, Raphael Holinshed and others, 1587 edition. Reprinted 1807 for J. Johnson and others, London. Facsimile reprint 1965 by AMS Press Inc, New York, NY 10003.

2. Josephus Antiquities, I,VI,1

3. The History of the Welsh Baptists, from the Year Sixty-Three to the Year One Thousand Seven Hundred and Seventy, by Jonathan Davis (c.1786-1846), Pittsburgh: D.M. Hogan, 1835, 204p.
Re-published in 1976 by The Baptist, Rt. 1, Aberdeen, Miss. 39730.
Re-published again in 1982 by Church History Research & Archives, 220 Graystone Drive, Gallatin, Tennessee 37066. Tel: (615) 452-0341 or 452-7027.
Note: The term "Baptist", used by Davis and his contemporaries, is taken to mean anyone who practices the baptism of believers by immersion, and is not restricted to the Baptist denomination.

4. Chronicle of the Kings of Britain. Translated by Peter Roberts in 1811 from the Welsh copy attributed to Tysilio. Facsimile reprint by Llanerch Publishers. ISBN 1-86143-111-2.

5. Midrash Rabbah - Genesis XXXVI:7. Soncino Classics Collection, Judaic Classics Library CD-ROM, 1995, Davka Corporation, Chicago, USA.

6. The New Chain Reference Bible, compiled and edited by Frank Charles Thompson, 1964, B.B. Kirkbride, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.

7. Archeologica Britannica, Volume 1, Glossography, Edward Lhuyd, Irish University Press, Shannon, 1971, SBN 7165-0031-0.
Tit. II, A Comparative Vocabulary of the Original Languages of Britain and Ireland.


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