¿En qué batallas de la Segunda Guerra Mundial influyó decisivamente el craqueo de Enigma?

¿En qué batallas de la Segunda Guerra Mundial influyó decisivamente el craqueo de Enigma?

Habiendo visto El juego de la imitación, Tengo curiosidad sobre la influencia del craqueo de Enigma en el resultado de la Segunda Guerra Mundial.

¿En qué batallas influyó la información decodificada por Enigma? ¿Qué batallas probablemente se habrían perdido sin descifrar el código?


Según las "Órdenes de Marcha", Enigma tuvo un impacto decisivo en la (Segunda) Batalla de El Alamein. Los primeros ataques de Montgomery fueron rechazados con grandes pérdidas. En diferentes circunstancias, él (u otro comandante) podría haber interrumpido el ataque (como hizo el general US Grant en Cold Harbor, en la Guerra Civil).

Pero Enigma alertó a Montgomery sobre el hecho de que las pérdidas de Rommel eran igual de pesadas en términos absolutos y dos veces más pesadas en términos proporcionales (Montgomery superaba en número a Rommel por al menos dos a uno), y que Rommel estaba en "una forma verdaderamente terrible". Entonces Montgomery continuó el asalto y destruyó al ejército de Rommel por desgaste.

Enigma participó en campañas posteriores, en Italia, Normandía, etc., pero nunca tan decisivamente como en El Alamein.


La batalla más obvia que fue influenciado por ENIGMA puede, irónicamente, ser las (primeras etapas del) Batalla de la protuberancia. La paranoia de Hitler finalmente había avanzado a tal estado en 1944 que estaba convencido de que los aliados estaban escuchando a escondidas su inteligencia; por lo que insistió en que todos los planes elaborados para ese ataque NO usaran la cifra descifrada. Es probable que los aliados se hayan acostumbrado a no volver nunca muy sorprendido, lo que llevó a un grado de exceso de confianza que costó vidas en diciembre de 1944.

Tenga en cuenta que a pesar de que la conclusión de Hitler fue correcta, esto sigue siendo solo la paranoia de Hitler que se muestra. El uso de la inteligencia ENIGMA por parte de los Aliados fue tan parco que no tenía una base lógica para esta conclusión. Aparte del Atlántico Norte, donde la batalla fue verdaderamente existencial para los británicos, se mantuvo como reserva para evitar exactamente el escenario que ocurrió el 16 de diciembre de 1944: un ataque sorpresa alemán masivo en un sector débilmente defendido.

A favor de los aliados, la batalla / campaña clave sería la de los convoyes de la marina mercante en el Atlántico Norte durante los días oscuros de 1941 y 1942. Los británicos nunca se dieron cuenta de que los alemanes habían roto los códigos de la marina mercante a mediados de la década de 1930, por lo que Fue solo con la ayuda de la inteligencia ENIGMA que pasaron suficientes convoyes para mantener a Gran Bretaña a flote como si fuera.


Criptoanálisis del Enigma

Criptoanálisis del Enigma El sistema de cifrado permitió a los Aliados occidentales en la Segunda Guerra Mundial leer cantidades sustanciales de comunicaciones de radio codificadas en Morse de las potencias del Eje que habían sido cifradas usando máquinas Enigma. Esto proporcionó inteligencia militar que, junto con la de otras transmisiones de radio y teletipo de Axis descifradas, recibió el nombre en clave Ultra. Esto fue considerado por el comandante supremo aliado occidental Dwight D. Eisenhower como "decisivo" para la victoria aliada. [1]

Las máquinas Enigma eran una familia de máquinas de cifrado portátiles con codificadores de rotor. [2] Unos buenos procedimientos operativos, debidamente aplicados, habrían hecho irrompible la máquina Enigma del tablero de conexiones. [3] [4] [5] Sin embargo, la mayoría de las fuerzas militares alemanas, los servicios secretos y las agencias civiles que utilizaron Enigma emplearon procedimientos operativos deficientes, y fueron estos procedimientos deficientes los que permitieron que las máquinas Enigma fueran sometidas a ingeniería inversa y cifrados para leer.

El Enigma, equipado con un tablero de conexiones alemán, se convirtió en el principal sistema de cifrado de la Alemania nazi. Fue roto por la Oficina de Cifrado del Estado Mayor polaco en diciembre de 1932, con la ayuda de material de inteligencia suministrado por Francia obtenido de un espía alemán. Un mes antes del estallido de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, en una conferencia celebrada cerca de Varsovia, el Cipher Bureau polaco compartió sus técnicas y tecnología para romper Enigmas con franceses y británicos. Durante la invasión alemana de Polonia, el personal central de la Oficina de cifrado polaco fue evacuado a través de Rumania a Francia, donde establecieron la estación de inteligencia de señales PC Bruno con el apoyo de las instalaciones francesas. La cooperación exitosa entre polacos, franceses y británicos en Bletchley Park continuó hasta junio de 1940, cuando Francia se rindió a los alemanes.

Desde este comienzo, la Escuela de Cifrado y Código del Gobierno Británico (GC & ampCS) en Bletchley Park acumuló una amplia capacidad criptoanalítica. Inicialmente, el descifrado fue principalmente de Luftwaffe (Fuerza aérea alemana) y algunos Heer (Ejército alemán) mensajes, como el Kriegsmarine (Marina alemana) empleó procedimientos mucho más seguros para usar Enigma. Alan Turing, un matemático y lógico de la Universidad de Cambridge, proporcionó gran parte del pensamiento original que condujo al diseño de las máquinas bombe criptoanalíticas que fueron fundamentales para finalmente romper el Enigma naval. sin embargo, el Kriegsmarine introdujo una versión Enigma con un cuarto rotor para sus submarinos, lo que resultó en un período prolongado en el que estos mensajes no se pudieron descifrar. Con la captura de claves de cifrado relevantes y el uso de bombas de la Marina de los EE. UU. Mucho más rápidas, se reanudó la lectura rápida y regular de los mensajes de los submarinos.


Bombas de Bletchley & # x27s

Turing enfrentó máquina contra máquina. El modelo prototipo de su & quotbombe & quot anti-Enigma, llamado simplemente Victory, se instaló en la primavera de 1940.

Sus bombas convirtieron Bletchley Park en una fábrica de descifrado de códigos. Ya en 1943, las máquinas de Turing & # x27 estaban descifrando un asombroso total de 84.000 mensajes Enigma cada mes, dos mensajes por minuto.

Turing rompió personalmente la forma de Enigma que usaban los submarinos que atacaban a los convoyes mercantes del Atlántico Norte.

Fue una contribución crucial. Los convoyes partieron de América del Norte cargados con grandes cargamentos de suministros esenciales para Gran Bretaña, pero los submarinos y los torpedos # x27 estaban hundiendo tantos barcos que los analistas de Churchill & # x27s dijeron que Gran Bretaña pronto pasaría hambre.

"Lo único que realmente me asustó durante la guerra fue el peligro de los submarinos", dijo Churchill más tarde.

Justo a tiempo, Turing y su grupo lograron descifrar las comunicaciones de los submarinos y # x27 con sus controladores en Europa. Con los submarinos revelando sus posiciones, los convoyes podrían esquivarlos en el vasto páramo atlántico.


Una historia revisionista de la inteligencia en la Segunda Guerra Mundial

Se han escrito estantes llenos de libros de historia sobre los triunfos de la inteligencia aliada en la Segunda Guerra Mundial. El ultrasecreto. El hombre que nunca fue. Operación Carne Picada. Agente Zigag. Tender una trampa. Un hombre llamado intrépido. He leído todos estos y muchos más. (Hay cientos.) Ahora llega el periodista e historiador británico Max Hastings con una visión revisionista en La guerra secreta. Con sus ojos enfocados en las duras realidades de ese conflicto que todo lo consume, Hastings desacredita los mitos que inspiraron estos libros y reduce sus exageraciones con un sentido de perspectiva que desde hace mucho tiempo carecía. El efecto es aleccionador. Esta es la mejor historia revisionista. Cualquiera que busque entender cómo se libró realmente la Segunda Guerra Mundial debería leer este libro sin demora.

La guerra secreta: espías, cifrados y guerrillas, 1939-1945 por Max Hastings (2016) 645 páginas ★★★★★

Historia revisionista: mitos desmentidos

Hastings revisa algunos de los muchos informes fantasiosos que han aparecido a lo largo de los años sobre el espionaje británico y estadounidense en la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Por ejemplo, salvajemente el cuento de autoengrandecimiento de William Stevenson en Un hombre llamado intrépido, llamando al libro & # 8220 salvajemente fantasioso & # 8221. Entre las mentiras más obvias en el libro de Stevenson está el hecho de que nadie más que él mismo se llamó a sí mismo Intrepid. Y, como Hastings deja en claro, el trabajo de Stevenson en la coordinación de la inteligencia británica en los Estados Unidos prácticamente no tuvo impacto alguno en la guerra.

Es menos severo en sus referencias indirectas a otros libros, pero deja claro que los muchos títulos más vendidos exageran la importancia de los espías que hicieron famosos. Incluso el legendario Alan Turing está bajo el microscopio: Hastings afirma que otro joven genio matemático que también trabajó en Bletchley Park fue igualmente importante para descifrar el Código Enigma. Más significativamente, ese celebrado avance en sí mismo contribuyó menos a la victoria aliada que otros éxitos en el desciframiento de los códigos del Eje. (Cita en particular los códigos navales alemanes y japoneses). & # 8220Bletchley era un arma cada vez más importante, & # 8221 Hastings señala, & # 8220, pero no era una espada mágica. & # 8221

Señales versus inteligencia humana

El tema general en La guerra secreta es la primacía de las señales de inteligencia. Hastings sostiene que los avances en el desciframiento de códigos por parte de británicos, rusos y estadounidenses contribuyeron de manera mucho más decisiva al resultado exitoso de la guerra que cualquier misión emprendida por espías. Y, excepto en Rusia desde 1943 en adelante, los esfuerzos de los movimientos de Resistencia en Europa fueron aún menos significativos (aunque jugaron un papel importante en el fomento de la moral popular). Hay una posible excepción, el trabajo de los agentes increíblemente coloridos retratados en Ben McIntyre & # 8217s Double Cross: La verdadera historia de los espías del día D. Pero incluso esta innegable historia de éxito tiene que ser atemperada por la comprensión de que la inteligencia de señales jugó un papel importante en la configuración y el apoyo de la operación. Por todos lados, un gran número de personas se dedicaba a escuchar, decodificar, interpretar e informar sobre la inteligencia obtenida por radio.

Sin embargo, & # 8220 Uno de los temas de este libro es que las señales de la guerra de inteligencia, ciertamente en sus primeras etapas, fue menos desigual en el favor de los Aliados & # 8217 de lo que sugiere la mitología popular & # 8221.

¿Cuánto contribuyó realmente la inteligencia secreta al resultado de la guerra?

Viendo el panorama general, Hastings se muestra escéptico sobre la efectividad de la inteligencia de cualquier tipo. Como señala, & # 8220 quizás una milésima parte del 1 por ciento del material obtenido de fuentes secretas por todos los beligerantes en la Segunda Guerra Mundial contribuyó a cambiar los resultados del campo de batalla & # 8221. La guerra secreta, cita solo cuatro batallas estratégicamente significativas donde la inteligencia cambió el rumbo: la guerra del Atlántico Norte bajo el mar, la victoria estadounidense sobre los japoneses en Midway, la inesperada ofensiva rusa en Kursk y la mala dirección sobre el desembarco aliado en Normandía en lugar de la Pas de Calais.

Visto desde 30.000 pies y el paso de más de setenta años, & # 8220 en ninguna parte del mundo la inteligencia fue sabiamente manejada y accedida & # 8221. los británicos tampoco lograron hacer un uso genuinamente efectivo de la información obtenida por sus espías y descifradores de códigos.

Otras revelaciones

Quizás comprensiblemente, al escribir sobre la inteligencia aliada en la guerra, los autores estadounidenses y británicos se han centrado en el trabajo del MI6, el MI5, el OSS y el enorme equipo de académicos de Bletchley Park. Sin embargo, Hastings deja en claro que la Unión Soviética tuvo mucho más éxito en descubrir el espionaje procesable que cualquiera de sus principales aliados occidentales. & # 8220Algunos engaños rusos & # 8221 escribe, & # 8220 enanos a los de los británicos y estadounidenses. & # 8221 Hastings & # 8217, el relato de las operaciones de inteligencia de Stalin & # 8217 es particularmente revelador. También lo es su exploración escéptica de la inteligencia secreta tanto alemana como japonesa. El FBI también es criticado: & # 8220 Todos los servicios de inteligencia buscan promover intereses de facciones e inflar sus propios logros, pero el FBI en tiempos de guerra llevó esta práctica a extremos maníacos. . . La incompetencia del FBI & # 8217 fue asombrosa. & # 8221

Sobre el Autor

Max Hastings es un destacado periodista, editor, historiador y autor británico. Se ha desempeñado como editor en jefe de la Estándar diario y El Telégrafo diario y ha presentado documentales históricos en la BBC.

Para leer más

También he revisado Operation Chastise: La RAF y el ataque más brillante de la Segunda Guerra Mundial # 8217 por Max Hastings — El ataque más exitoso del Comando de Bombarderos contra la Alemania nazi no fue en sus ciudades.

Si está buscando una visión más amplia de la historia humana, consulte Nuevas perspectivas sobre la historia mundial.

Y siempre puede encontrar mis reseñas más populares y las más recientes, además de una guía de todo este sitio, en la página de inicio.


La historia de la icónica 'Casa Blanca' de la 1.a División de Infantería de Marina en Pendleton

Publicado el 29 de abril de 2020 15:46:53

El edificio ha resistido la prueba del tiempo. Ha visto a generaciones de infantes de marina entrar y salir de sus pasillos. Ha llevado a los marines a varias guerras desde las costas de las islas del Pacífico, las montañas de Corea del Norte, las selvas de Vietnam y los desiertos del Medio Oriente. Ha servido como el epicentro operativo y cultural de la 1.ª División de Infantería de Marina, la división con más historia y consecuencias del Cuerpo de Marines de los Estados Unidos. Ha visto su parte de la historia tanto para la división como para el Cuerpo.

El edificio incluso ha sido revisado como un sitio histórico, todavía conserva el estilo simple y la pintura blanca asociados con los edificios de la era de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, que originalmente estaban destinados a ser temporales. Pocos de este tipo siguen en pie en todo el país, sin embargo, sigue siendo audaz tanto en color como en diseño, mientras que sus pares han sido reemplazados a lo largo de las décadas. Si caminas por los pasillos mohosos que alguna vez fueron pisoteados por gente como Chesty Puller y James Mattis, puedes ver las obras de arte: pinturas de comandantes anteriores, escenas de batallas antiguas arrancadas de las páginas de la historia y fotos de marines de las guerras modernas.

& # 8220Es & # 8217 es un edificio único & # 8221, dijo el coronel Christopher S. Dowling, ex Jefe de Estado Mayor de la 1ª División de Infantería de Marina. & # 8220Cuando se construyó en 1942-1943 se suponía que solo duraría cinco años, cinco años, eso fue todo. & # 8221

El Coronel del Cuerpo de Marines de los Estados Unidos Christopher S. Dowling.

(Foto del Cuerpo de Marines de los EE. UU. Por Lance Cpl. Audrey M. C. Rampton)

La humanidad crea cosas que duran herramientas que pasan por docenas de manos antes de desgastarse más allá de su uso, estructuras que se mantienen fuertes durante décadas, siglos e incluso varios milenios. También hay ocasiones en las que hacemos cosas para un uso simple y fácil, donde solo están destinadas a durar breves períodos de tiempo. El edificio 1133 de Camp Pendleton, más conocido como & # 8220the white house & # 8221 fue una de esas estructuras. Actuando como sede y edificio administrativo para el creciente conflicto en el Pacífico, incluso se expandió para adaptarse a las necesidades de la 3ª, 4ª y 5ª Divisiones de Marines que también participaron en el Teatro Pacífico de la Segunda Guerra Mundial y # 8217.

& # 8220La oficina del sargento mayor & # 8217 es mi habitación favorita & # 8221, dijo el sargento del USMC. Mayor William T. Sowers, ex sargento mayor de la 1ª División de Infantería de Marina. & # 8220La cantidad de detalles en la madera y la chimenea le da esa sensación realmente antigua y emite el aire de un museo. & # 8221

En los primeros años no tenía el apodo & # 8220the white house & # 8221. Se encontraba entre muchos edificios que estaban pintados de la misma manera barata, blanquecina y no eran únicos más allá de su propósito. Diseñado como muchos de los edificios para garantizar la seguridad del comando, sirvió a muchos marines en todo el Pacífico durante el transcurso de la Segunda Guerra Mundial.

El edificio de la Sede de la Primera División de Infantería de Marina en Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California.

(Foto del Cuerpo de Marines de los EE. UU. Por el cabo Joseph Prado)

La estructura creció sobre los Marines que la llamaron hogar y en 1946 se ordenó oficialmente el edificio de la Sede de la Primera División de Infantería de Marina. Esto llevaría a que se modificara décadas más tarde, no una, sino dos veces, para garantizar que el edificio pudiera seguir funcionando y apoyando a los numerosos marines que pasaban por sus pasillos. Aunque las renovaciones han asegurado que el edificio se ha mantenido con los tiempos y la tecnología de la era, desde el cableado telefónico hasta Internet dentro de sus paredes, su estructura y diseño general siguen siendo los mismos que cuando se construyó por primera vez.

& # 8220No fue tan icónico para nosotros durante nuestro tiempo & # 8221, dijo el general retirado del Cuerpo de Marines de EE. UU. Matthew P. Caulfield. & # 8220 Nunca lo supimos como & # 8216 la casa blanca & # 8217. Nunca pensamos en el hecho de que fue el puesto de mando de la división durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Simplemente lo conocíamos como el lugar donde trabajamos, aunque a veces nos referíamos a él como & # 8216 the head shed & # 8217. & # 8221

Debido a la época en la que se hizo & # 8216the casa blanca & # 8217, se requirieron muchas necesidades de desarrollo durante ese tiempo. Uno de los más importantes fue la necesidad de resistir un posible ataque. Una invasión japonesa de los EE. UU. Fue una amenaza realista en los años 40. Para garantizar la seguridad del personal de mando, el edificio debía ser indistinguible del resto. Para los nacidos en los últimos 40 años, el concepto mismo de un ataque militar a los EE. UU. Es simplemente algo que no sucedería ni podría suceder. Pero en 1940, cuando se inauguró oficialmente Camp Pendleton, miles de marines marcharon desde San Diego para realizar ejercicios de combate contra un enemigo falso. Causó pánico entre la población civil. La gente inicialmente pensó que había ocurrido una invasión japonesa. La presencia de la base & # 8217 incluso llevó a una caída en el mercado de la vivienda, un hecho que es inconcebible para la mayoría de los propietarios de viviendas del sur de California en la actualidad.

La puerta principal de Camp Pendleton.

La amenaza de un ataque desde los cielos influyó en gran parte de lo que se convertiría en Camp Pendleton tal como lo conocemos hoy. Los campamentos en la base se extienden por todo el campamento y tienen más de 195 millas cuadradas, originalmente diseñados para proteger la base de quedar paralizada en un ataque aéreo decisivo, según Dowling. En los áticos de la Casa Blanca y otros edificios de la época, todavía hay evidencia del techo de madera contrachapada original utilizado. La madera prensada se usaba en ese momento por dos razones: las tablas de madera reales eran una necesidad inmediata para construir y reemplazar las cubiertas de los barcos de la Armada, y era menos probable que la madera prensada creara escombros de madera mortales si los edificios estaban atrapados por un bombardero japonés.

& # 8220La casa blanca & # 8221 fue diseñada por Myron B. Hunt, Harold C. Chambers y E. L. Ellingwood. Sus empresas se encargaron del desarrollo de varios edificios en Camp Pendleton durante la década de 1940. Basado en el cuartel B-1 de la Marina de los EE. UU., Que era un diseño común para hacer que el edificio fuera indistinguible de otros edificios en la base en ese momento, lo que lo hacía menos objetivo para los bombarderos japoneses después de Pearl Harbor. Pocos de estos cuarteles permanecen en pie después de más de 70 años desde su desarrollo. El B-1, al igual que su estructura hermana, & # 8220 la casa blanca & # 8221 era solo un diseño temporal destinado a durar mientras durara la guerra. En 1983, el congreso aprobaría el Proyecto de Ley de Autorización de Construcción Militar de 1983, que demolió muchas de las estructuras temporales más antiguas de la Segunda Guerra Mundial en favor de nuevos diseños. Algunas estructuras fueron renovadas debido a su importancia histórica. & # 8220La casa blanca & # 8221 interior se incluyó en estas renovaciones. El edificio experimentó cambios en su exterior, pero mantuvo su forma actual con solo algunos cambios menores.

Desde su construcción, muchas personas han entrado en & # 8220the White House & # 8221 y muchas más han pasado por ella. Es un símbolo icónico de la 1.a División de Infantería de Marina con docenas de monumentos a su alrededor, capturando el sacrificio de cada infante de marina que luchó con la División durante sus muchas batallas a lo largo de nuestra historia. Desde oficiales que llegan a sus puertas en autos Ford de 1940, hasta Volkswagen Beatles de 1968, e incluso más recientemente, un 2018 con el nombre de su marca y modelo. Cuando uno sale de su vehículo, mira el edificio blanco marcado por el icónico diamante azul y las serpentinas de batalla que la división se ha ganado.

El edificio de la Sede de la Primera División de Infantería de Marina en Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California, 17 de mayo de 2018.

(Foto del Cuerpo de Marines de los EE. UU. Por el cabo Joseph Prado)

En los viejos tiempos, apoyaría a todo el personal de mando, pero ahora gran parte del mando se extiende por Camp Pendleton. Muchos exalumnos de Blue Diamond incluso han pensado en convertirlo en un museo, dadas las muchas piezas históricas que ya se encuentran en sus salas. Emite esa sensación de haber entrado en un lugar arraigado en la historia.

& # 8220El edificio icónico del & # 8216Blue Diamond, & # 8217 es la división & # 8221, dijo Sowers. & # 8220 Mucha gente asume que este es el puesto de mando principal de la Fuerza Expedicionaria de la Marina o incluso de las Instalaciones del Cuerpo de Marines del Oeste. & # 8221

Muchos de los veteranos mayores no estaban acostumbrados a lidiar con los comandos de la 1ª Fuerza Expedicionaria de la Marina, dijo Sowers. Cuando pensaban en & # 8220la casa blanca & # 8221, pensaban en el comandante general que presidía todo lo que sabían de los marines en la costa oeste en ese momento.

Generales, mayores, sargentos y cabos de lanza han recorrido sus pasillos durante los últimos 70 años. Algunos todavía viven entre nosotros, mientras que otros han dado el máximo sacrificio. Sus recuerdos y acciones viven tanto en la 1.ª División de Infantería de Marina como en & # 8220la casa blanca & # 8221 misma, que ha sido un monumento inmutable para los infantes de marina de la 1.ª División de Infantería de Marina. No importa la edad en la que uno sirvió en la División, todos han conocido ese edificio de una forma u otra. Es un testimonio tanto de la División como de los Marines que han servido. Nuestros ideales se han arraigado en su misma estructura y se ha convertido en un miembro permanente tanto en el corazón como en la mente de los Marines de la 1ª División de Infantería de Marina.

Este artículo apareció originalmente en el Cuerpo de Marines de los Estados Unidos. Siga a @USMC en Twitter.


Kursk

La batalla de Kursk para los alemanes fue su última oportunidad en un ataque final para empujar a los ejércitos soviéticos al punto de ruptura y # 8211, por lo tanto, realmente fue "hacer o deshacer". La operación (cuyo nombre en código es "Ciudadela") tenía que prevalecer y, de lo contrario, los alemanes sin duda serían derrotados y tendrían que retirarse en masa. Los soviéticos en paralelo lanzaron dos operaciones (Operación Polkovodets Rumyantsev y Operación Kutuzov). La batalla fue una de las más grandes de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, conocida como la gran batalla de tanques que involucró a más de 8,000 tanques y dos millones de hombres. Sin embargo, los soviéticos superaban en gran medida a los alemanes.

Después de un mes y 18 días de algunos de los combates más brutales y horribles que se han visto en la guerra hasta ahora, los ejércitos soviéticos prevalecieron, y cuando la victoria se volvió concluyente, se sentó el precedente para el resto de la guerra. Ahora era evidente que los ejércitos soviéticos demostraron ser superiores a los alemanes. La comprensión de la derrota para los alemanes fue tan grande que muchos solo vieron la derrota en el futuro. Ideológica y físicamente, los ejércitos alemanes fueron destruidos.

Antes de esta batalla, podría decirse que la guerra estaba en equilibrio, con un ejército atacando y el otro contraatacando y así sucesivamente. El más mínimo cambio táctico podría haber lanzado la guerra para cualquiera de los bandos. Después de Kursk, la guerra solo iba en una dirección y hacia un resultado: la victoria soviética.

Sobre el Autor

Mi nombre es David J. Armstrong (BA Hons) y soy un historiador militar británico de Buckinghamshire. Me gradué de la universidad con un título en Guerra y conflictos en 2014. Desde entonces, he estado escribiendo mi primer libro de no ficción sobre el "Día D" junto con otras piezas cortas que se encuentran en mi blog. Asistiré a la universidad nuevamente en 2016 y estudiando hacia mi Maestría en Historia Militar con la esperanza de continuar con mi Doctor en el mismo tema a partir de entonces.

Me encanta investigar, aprender y escribir sobre historia. Mis temas especializados y mis verdaderas pasiones son las guerras del siglo XX, incluidas la Primera Guerra Mundial y la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Puedes encontrarme como parte de varias asociaciones históricas como la Asociación de Escritores Históricos y también puedes encontrarme en twitter como @djahistory.

En mi blog encontrarás una colección de trabajos: cosas en las que estoy trabajando (como artículos y reseñas, trabajo voluntario histórico y artículos para sitios y revistas en línea), cosas que he hecho en el pasado y cosas que generalmente me interesan. dentro de la historia (incluidos los sitios históricos y los museos que visito, los libros que leo y los artículos que me intrigan).


Secuelas

La máquina Enigma fue, a la vez, la mayor fortaleza y la mayor debilidad de los nazis. Durante mucho tiempo durante la guerra, pudieron ocultar completamente sus comunicaciones a los Aliados. Una vez que los aliados descifraron el código, sin embargo, la máquina se convirtió en un lastre, ya que debido a su arrogancia, los nazis no estaban dispuestos a enfrentar el hecho de que su código era falible. Esto tal vez se pueda ver en este intercambio entre dos prisioneros de guerra alemanes, registrado por interrogadores británicos:


Operador de radio: A menudo hemos descifrado el código británico, durante la campaña noruega, por ejemplo, pero nunca descifrarán el código que teníamos en la Marina. Es absolutamente imposible de romper.

Comando Abwehr: Todo el mundo dice eso con su propio código.

Operador de radio: ¡Qué! No pueden descifrarlo.

Comando Abwehr: solo hay un método que no se puede descifrar e incluso eso puede ser descifrado por matemáticos expertos. Creo que pueden descifrar un código en el transcurso de dos años ...

Operador de radio: No, no pueden descifrarlo.

Comando Abwehr: Oh, esa es solo una de esas ideas tontas que tiene la gente.

Después de que se rompió el código, los nazis no estaban dispuestos a ver la evidencia como una ruptura del código, más bien asumieron que los británicos simplemente tenían espías excepcionales que estaban filtrando información. Por lo tanto, concentraron sus esfuerzos en encontrar a estos espías, en lugar de adaptar más su código (Hofstadter 2).


Debido a la gran cantidad de combinaciones de códigos posibles del Enigma, la ruptura del código requirió la colaboración entre los aliados. La mayoría de los esfuerzos fueron realizados por matemáticos británicos y polacos en Bletchley Park en Inglaterra, bajo el nombre en clave Proyecto ULTRA. Estos matemáticos utilizaron tanto tecnología de máquinas de alta velocidad como pruebas manuales para descifrar el código. A principios de la década de 1940, estos matemáticos ya podían descifrar el código, sin embargo, al principio se necesitarían semanas para descifrar un solo mensaje, demasiado tarde para ser de alguna ayuda estratégicamente. Para 1943, podrían decodificar un mensaje en minutos y finalmente podrían usar la información que contiene. Este es esencialmente el momento en que se terminó la efectividad de la máquina Enigma. Y al final, la insistencia de los nazis en mantener su uso de Enigma puede haber sido lo que les costó la guerra.


Como afirma Ratcliff, "Enigma ... demuestra cómo una nueva tecnología puede pasar rápidamente de sorprendentemente revolucionaria a tan familiar que sus operadores caen en la complacencia" (12).


ARTÍCULOS RELACIONADOS

"Tenemos el deber de recordarle a la gente lo que hicieron los criptólogos polacos", dijo al Daily Telegraph.

El funcionario del gobierno dijo que en reconocimiento a los esfuerzos del trío, la cámara alta del parlamento de Polonia aprobó una resolución en su honor para "restaurar la justicia".

El parlamento de Polonia ha lanzado una campaña para que se acredite a los criptógrafos polacos por ayudar a descifrar el código Enigma de los nazis. Arriba, Bletchley Park, Buckinghamshire, donde se dice que el avance acortó la guerra en dos años.

La resolución dice: "Tanto en la literatura popular como en la información oficial, se le dijo al público que la ruptura de los códigos Enigma se debió al trabajo de los servicios de inteligencia británicos a la omisión completa del trabajo de los científicos polacos".

Los alemanes, que habían estado usando la tecnología desde finales de la década de 1920, creían que los códigos eran imposibles de descifrar.

Utilizando un complicado sistema de rotores, la máquina codificaba los mensajes antes de enviarlos mediante código Morse a otra máquina.

Si la máquina receptora se hubiera programado con la misma configuración, una de 158 millones de millones de combinaciones, el mensaje se descifraría.

Sin embargo, el equipo de criptólogos, lingüistas, científicos y analistas de datos de Bletchley, en Buckinghamshire, dirigido por el londinense Turing, pudo romperlo.

Pasado por alto: Kate Winslet protagonizó la película británica de 2001, Enigma, que apenas menciona la contribución de los polacos.

En su apogeo, el equipo estaba descifrando 6.000 mensajes Enigma alemanes cifrados todos los días, basándose en los principios establecidos por Rejewski, Rozycki y Zygalski.

Jan Rulewski, un senador del partido gobernante Plataforma Cívica, dijo: 'Esta resolución restaura la justicia. Los aliados occidentales no solo marginaron los logros de los criptógrafos polacos, sino que los soviéticos hicieron lo mismo.

"Guardaron silencio sobre la contribución polaca para salvar las vidas de cientos de miles de soldados que luchan en todos los frentes".

La película Enigma (realizada en 2001), protagonizada por Kate Winslet y ambientada en Bletchley, también ha molestado a los polacos: no solo resta importancia a su contribución, sino que también, el único polaco en la película es un traidor.

El resentimiento se suma al sentimiento generalizado en el país de que su contribución a la victoria de los aliados ha sido subestimada.

Las tropas polacas lucharon en el norte de África, Italia y Normandía, y participaron en la Batalla de Berlín.

En la Batalla de Gran Bretaña, los pilotos polacos tuvieron las tasas de muerte más altas.

Sin embargo, a las tropas polacas, todavía bajo el mando del gobierno independiente de Polonia en el exilio, se les prohibió participar en las celebraciones oficiales del Día VE debido al deseo de Gran Bretaña de apaciguar a Stalin.

Trabajando: Wrens en Bletchley Park utilizaron principios desarrollados por los polacos para continuar descifrando el Enigma


Seminario del grupo de seguridad

Ross Anderson: Es un gran placer presentar al orador de hoy, Sir Harry Hinsley, que trabajó en Bletchley de 1939 a 1946 y luego regresó a Cambridge y se convirtió en profesor de Historia de las Relaciones Internacionales y maestro del St John's College. También es el historiador oficial de la inteligencia británica en la Segunda Guerra Mundial, y hoy nos hablará de Ultra.

Sir Harry: Como habrás escuchado, me han pedido que hable sobre Ultra y diré algo sobre ambos lados, es decir, sobre el criptoanálisis y luego, por otro lado, sobre el uso del producto; por supuesto, Ultra fue el nombre que se le dio al producto.

Y debo comenzar advirtiéndoles, por lo tanto, que yo mismo no soy un experto matemático o técnico. Tuve el privilegio de ser asistente de los matemáticos dirigidos por Max Newman y Alan Turing, pero nunca aprendí a dominar o incluso a acercarme a dominar su arte.

Ultra, por supuesto, fue producto de cifrados. Se usó solo para el producto de la medición de los cifrados más importantes, y desde la primavera de 1941 en Bletchley rompimos la mayoría de los cifrados en un grado sin precedentes y con una falta de retraso sin precedentes. Y hubo dos razones para ese éxito.

En primer lugar, solo entre los gobiernos de esos años, el gobierno británico ya en la década de 1920 concentró todo su esfuerzo criptoanalítico en un lugar al que llamó el Código de Gobierno y la Escuela de Cifrado. Y en Bletchley, en segundo lugar, el personal aumentó de aproximadamente 120 en 1939 a aproximadamente 7,000 a principios de 1944.

Por supuesto que el personal no era del todo criptoanalítico, también consistía en una inmensa cantidad de personal utilizado, por ejemplo, para señalizar los productos a los comandos en el resto de Inglaterra o en el extranjero. And so it wasn't entirely cryptanalytical staff - it was a very mixed staff compared with pre-war.

In addition, those men and women, recruited mainly from universities, developed methods and machinery of a sophistication hitherto undreamt of, including as you all know the first operational electronic computer which was called Colossus.

Without those advances, at least the most difficult of the ciphers, which were (although I will make some qualifying remark about this in a minute) those based on the German Enigma and those still more complex systems which Germany introduced for ciphering non-morse transmissions, would have been for all practical purposes invulnerable.

Now the value of the resulting Ultra was all the greater because the enemy states - Germany, Italy and Japan - remained unaware of the British successes.

The main reason for that was that they didn't allow for that sophistication of method and machinery which the British brought to the attack on their ciphers. They didn't allow for that when they constructed their ciphers.

Nothing very surprising in that. As I have said, the methods and machinery developed were of a sophistication hitherto unthought of.

But it still remains necessary to say that, despite that sophistication, the German belief that the ciphers would remain invulnerable was almost right, almost correct.

The ciphers nearly escaped effective exploitation.

In the case of the Enigma (which was an electro-mechanical machine) the first solutions were made by hand by mathematicians relying on German operators' errors. The German airforce was always more untidy in its signalling than the other users of the Enigma.

And for that purpose (although you will understand it better than I do) they used perforated sheets and exploited these mistakes made by German operators.

For other keys than the airforce, especially those of the army and the navy, and especially for the regular and speedy solution of those keys, it was necessary to develop an effective answering cryptanalytical machine.

That was the key in the end to the prompt decrypting of the machine cyphers.

It was a machine called The Bombe - a name originally given to it by the Poles who invented an early prototype in the 1930's. The Bombe developed in Bletchley by Turing and Welshman and Babbage - all luminaries of the Cambridge scene - was helped a little by the Polish machine, but it was infinitely more powerful, about fifteen times more powerful than the Polish machine. And it was because of the greater difficulties of dealing with the Enigma that it had to be that powerful.

But it wasn't enough to have that machinery developed. Except in the case of the airforce keys, we had to capture them before the machinery - even this Bombe machinery - could break into them.

And that is where people like myself who were non-mathematical came into the story. It was because I was in close touch with Turing, for example, that I was fully aware of what he had to have before the machine which he had developed could exercise its powers.

And I was able to arrange - with other people of course, including the navy - how to capture that. I stress that because, both in the case of the navy and of the army, and at dates which are later than we realise (I will give you the dates later), we needed in addition to this superb mathematics, which was assisted of course by superb Post Office engineering, we needed also these side assets - essentially captured material.

That was the Enigma. Now with the non-morse machine which we called Fish, the first successes were again obtained by hand methods. And those hand methods by mathematicians again exploited German operators' errors. In fact, the actual understanding of the machine theoretically (in other words as opposed to breaking it every day), the actual understanding of how it worked was obtained because the Germans went through a long series of experiments with it on the air before they brought it into operational use.

And it was these experimental transmissions which primarily were the errors which gave the entree.

But it was obvious that any regular or at all reasonably speedy decryption would be impossible if again machine methods were not developed. In particular that they would be impossible without machines because the different Fish ciphers proliferated, just like the different Enigma keys proliferated, and you were dealing with a lot of ciphers concurrently.

And so in this case, as you know, the machine was developed which came to be called Colossus.

It was of course a much more complex - it wasn't a mere electronic electro-mechanical thing - it was the first computer. It had to be like that in proportion to the fact that the Fish was far more complex than the Enigma.

Now it will be clear from what I have said that the problem wasn't merely to master the machines. The Germans recognised when they were constructing (in their view) an invulnerable set of machines, that of course in wartime they would be open to capture and therefore locally and temporarily they will be read.

But they also felt that the mere local (by which I mean reading one key instead of another key) and temporary reading (in other words that would complete your fundamental knowledge of the machine) wouldn't help you to read it regularly and daily. And they were right, without this machinery that would have been impossible.

And in particular it would be impossible because each of the Enigma and the Fish were used by the Germans as the basis not merely for one cipher each, not merely one Enigma and one Fish, but as the basis for a wide range of different ciphers, each cipher having its different key.

At one time the Germans were operating concurrently about fifty Enigmas, some in the army, some in the airforce, some in the navy, some in the railways, some in the secret service. And so you were faced not merely with understanding the machine and with breaking a key regularly, but with breaking fifty sometimes regularly at once, or as many of them as you could without delay.

And Fish similarly rose from just one link, one cipher, one key to about 22 cipher links, all quite separate except they were using the same machine. And remember that each of them - the Enigma daily and the Fish at varying interludes, usually every few days - changed the keys.

So you are on constant alert - every day you had to start again at midnight, and you had to start on perhaps 30 Enigmas or 5 Fishes and so you could see the mere load put it beyond any manual solution.

That was one reason, that in spite of their confidence which was not far from being fully justified, that was one reason why the German confidence was proved to be unfounded. The other was (perhaps it is no less important) the fact that steps were taken to avoid arousing enemy suspicion.

The British imposed strict secrecy of course on the Ultra production process. Strict regulations about its distribution - who should be indoctrinated - strict regulations against carelessness by users when using it.

Those regulations were pretty effective. There were from time to time cases in the war where the Germans did sufficiently suspect to have an enquiry. There were cases when the Italians suspected and advised the Germans to have an enquiry.

I ought to say that everything I have been saying about the complex nature of the attack on the ciphers hardly applied to the Italian ciphers - and this is where I am going to bring my ironical remark in about ciphers which will interest you people as machinery experts.

The Italians only ran one machine and it was a baby really compared with the Enigma. It was a machine built by a firm called Hagelin (we called it C-38). The American armed forces used it occasionally, but it was easily broken. We broke it. It didn't come into use until the beginning of '41 and we broke it by June '41.

It was a very valuable cipher for shipping in relation to North African operations but it wasn't a cryptanalytical problem of the kind I have been describing in the case of the German ciphers.

Ironically the Italians, except for that one cipher and also for one they used for their diplomats, didn't use machines. They used book ciphers, and ironically we couldn't read the Italian book ciphers for the army, the navy and the airforce after they brought new ones in between June and November 1940 preparatory to or as a consequence of their own entry into the war.

Book ciphers proved to be invulnerable when the machinery proved not to be invulnerable!

And as I say the Italians occasionally, who rather looked down on machine ciphers, warned the Germans that they thought that there was evidence that the way the allies behaved suggested that maybe they were reading the German ciphers. And the Germans said 'Pooh, pooh, we are alright!' Apart from occasional suspicions, those precautions I described, as used by the Allies, worked.

They were wholly justifiable ones. Any confirmation reaching the Germans that this whiff of suspicion that this system that they had constructed wasn't safe, would have led to not easy but not impossible steps to render it safe.

But of course the precautions complicated the task of establishing the value that Ultra had in the war.

Contemporary reports and the memoirs and histories that have been published before the records about Ultra became available, of course allow for, incorporate, the contribution Ultra made to decisions and the course of events, but they don't acknowledge it. Because either the writers of the reports and the memoirs didn't know about it, or they were not able to mention it.

So that historians now have to identify that contribution from the written records about the war and it is a straightforward job to do that now that Ultra is available. You can see - we know what Ultra went to what commands, we know what time it arrived, we know what other intelligence they had at the time the Ultra arrived, we know what decisions and orders followed from its arrival, and frequently we have discussions on record about what they thought about what they ought to do about it before they reached their decisions.

It is not enough to establish accurately the availability of the Ultra and to reach reasonable conclusions about its influence on British and American assessments and decisions. You have also got to consider the consequences of those assessments and decisions on the war.

Let me give an example of the distinction. Once you have identified the Ultra (which you now can from the decrypts in the Public Record Office) you can see pretty clearly (if you have also got the record of the war) that Ultra was the main reason why the British were able to reduce the depredations of the U- Boats in the Atlantic in the second half of 1941.

But what was the value of that effect in the North Atlantic in that second half of 1941 on the course of the war? What was the consequence of that use of Ultra on the course of the war? And those effects too are already incorporated into the record, which shows that the U-Boats were defeated in the North Atlantic in the second half of 1941.

Of course in order to assess the true significance of Ultra we have got to assume that it didn't exist in the North Atlantic at that time. We have got to strip it out of the record in order to get its true significance into focus.

This is what historians call counter-factual history. To calculate something assuming that some factors in it didn't exist. And I am sure it is a process well known to mathematicians and other people like yourselves.

But it is still the case that there is a great deal of danger in using counter-factual history unless you use it very carefully. For example it is very common among historians to use counter-factual history either from a desire to shock or because the user in question hasn't got any judgement. And you have therefore got to use it in relation to the possibilities that were practically available in the circumstances that you are considering.

There is no danger whatever in reconstructing the course of the war on the assumption that Ultra hadn't existed.

As I have said the story of its acquisition is of near legendary, even science fiction proportions, because it might so easily not have taken place. You are not making a huge assumption when you start playing with the record of the war on the basis that it hadn't been solved, it hadn't been obtained.

It was by no means fortuitous or miraculous. It was the consequence of forces deliberately brought together to solve it. But it was far from being inevitable that the forces would succeed. The proposition that we might have had to fight the war without Ultra is a reasonable and necessary element in the assessment of its true significance.

On the other hand if you apply counter-factual history and use this proposition that Ultra might not have existed, you are undertaking a pretty bold enterprise in hypothesis and speculation and you must control that exercise by a constant reference to the straightforward facts about what Ultra actually did do.

If you apply that check, then I think we can draw two pretty sound conclusions. First of all, though we did obtain it in such amounts, amounts rising to 2,000 of those Italian Hagelin decrypts a day at the peak of the Mediterranean War and to 30,000 a month rising to 90,000 a month of Enigma and Fish decrypts combined - that is a very big number of decrypts. It is still the case that those volumes and the speed with which they were got out were not fully established until the second half of 1941.

Up 'till June '41 the successes were confined to decrypts of the German airforce Enigma and some of the Italian book ciphers which were quite readable before Italy came into the war and for a month or two afterwards.

Those helped to produce isolated allied successes like the Battle of Matapan when we defeated the Italian fleet, and wouldn't have done so but for a few Enigma and Italian signals which gave enough warning to the British Alexandria fleet.

The distances in the Mediterranean are such that unless you have got some notice you can't cover the thousand miles or the seven hundred and fifty miles.

So Matapan was one success. The sinking of the Bismark was another. Again I am speaking of the period before June '41. She was sunk in May '41 just before the turn. The defeat of the Italians in East Africa and in North Africa. Those were Allied successes, but they were slightly isolated successes.

Again in the same period Ultra did something to mitigate British disasters. It greatly assisted the British forces that were sent to Greece, to retreat without serious loss when it become obvious that they couldn't hold a line against the scale of the German invasion.

It gave us - here was another disaster - all the information required to destroy the German attack on Crete. We didn't destroy the attack but we made it an extremely damaging exercise for the Germans, which was done because the Ultra signals were so complete.

Some people think we should have prevented or destroyed the invasion - an air landing invasion. In fact Bletchley Park felt very strongly for the first time in the war that its product had not been used properly in the case of the Crete invasion. I think possibly that we were wrong now that we can see the evidence in more detail, but at least it helped to make it a disastrous operation for the Germans even though they actually got Crete as a consequence.

And so in all that story you can see that the British survived the war with little benefit from Intelligence until the Germans invaded Soviet Russia. And since Soviet Russia survived the German invasion, and that invasion was followed by the entry of the United States in December '41, we can safely conclude that Germany was going to be defeated in the long run, even if the enormous expansion of Ultra from the summer of 1941 had not from that date given the Allies this massive superiority in Intelligence which they retained until the end of the war.

They were hardly ever rivalled by Axis success in reading our ciphers. There were two major exceptions to the lack of success by the Axis against Allied ciphers. One was that they did have some success in reading a British naval cipher which was for a longish time also shared with the American navy in relation to convoy escorting.

They were successful in reading that for a long period from 1940 to the end of '42. And the other was that they didn't exactly capture but they managed to extract of copy of the cipher that was being used by the American Military Attache in Cairo for a period when Rommel was at his most dangerous. And from that too the Germans obtained some great advantage.

But generally speaking, except possibly in relation to the convoy cipher, there was never any great cryptanalytical rivalry. The Germans were completely outclassed in terms of Ultra. The Italians also made very little progress against any important allied cipher.

In June 1941 however, (we survived 'till then with very little value from the Ultra), the end of the war still four years away. And that is such a length of time that we might be tempted to jump to the other conclusion and say that far from producing by itself on its own the defeat of the Axis, it made only a marginal contribution to it.

Here we are, we start getting this Ultra coming onto stream in June '41 as opposed to the slight trickle before that date, and yet you have still got four years of war. How can it have made much difference?

But that second conclusion can I think be as firmly dismissed as the one I have been discussing about how Ultra didn't really win the war.

The second real conclusion that stands out is that Ultra was decisive in shortening the war from the time, beginning in the summer of 1941, the cryptanalytical successes were extended from the German airforce Enigma keys to the Enigmas used by the navy and the army and the secret service, to the non-morse ciphers of the German High Command which came on stream in mid 1941, and to a new Italian machine cipher, the one I have mentioned which also was brought into force beginning of '41 and broken in the summer of '41. And to the ciphers of the Italian and German and especially Japanese Embassies.

The Japanese Embassies in Europe were in the second half of the war to prove of immense Intelligence value because they were repeating back to Tokyo their versions of German assessments and their knowledge of German intentions. They were almost as valuable on some subjects (like for example the Normandy Landings) as were the direct Ultra from the German horse's mouth.

From the moment we began that expansion you can see that the influence is continuous. I have spoken of the amount of Ultra there was. The lack of delay, the fact that they were obtained with very little delay was equally important. After all, one of the crucial characteristics of Intelligence is that to be useful it must be quick.

In the case of the Enigmas we didn't exactly reach a position in which the new keys, having come into force at midnight, were broken by breakfast, but of, shall we say, twenty, twenty five Enigmas running concurrently (the number varied according to different stages of the war), we would be reading twenty to twenty five at most times. Of that twenty to twenty five the ones to which highest priority was given on the limited number of Bombes available would be out by breakfast. Which meant that the whole of the rest of that 24 hours' signals from the moment you broke the key for the day, the setting for the day, would be read instantaneously, as soon as the message was intercepted it would be decrypted.

Fish was a bit slower. It didn't change daily like the Enigma. It varied, on different links it changed with different frequency. The average was that it changed about once every five or six days - the setting of the keys changed every five or six days.

Again the number we read varied from time to time but from the end of '42 when Fish on the German side got going strongly, we were generally reading four or five Fish links at any one time.

Generally we were reading them about seven, six, five days late - after their transmission. That didn't matter with Fish (at least it didn't matter so much as it would have done with Enigma) because, whereas the Enigma like that Italian machine was used for what you might call operational purposes below army level for something that was happening tomorrow or happening today, Fish was reserved for communications between the highest commands of the German Armed Forces. Between Berlin and the army groups or the armies. And then never lower than armies. It was a system that increasingly replaced the landline transmissions between Berlin and Kesselring in Rome and Von Rundstedt who was commander in the west in Paris by 1943.

They were on landlines normally but gradually with Fish being perfected as they thought and with landlines being damaged by bombing they put more onto the air.

So Fish was carrying Intelligence of a character that didn't really depend for its value on immediacy. It would carry long term estimates, or it would carry prolonged discussions between German Headquarters on the Russian Front or in Italy and Berlin about what was the best thing to do next. So you didn't have the immediacy requirement there as you did with the Enigma.

Speaking on the whole then we can see the fact that we were getting Ultra in the amounts I spoke of and with the speed that I emphasised as being a very important characteristic of valuable Intelligence. It was no use having Enigma a week late, and it wouldn't be much use having Fish more than a month late.

If you had that amount of decrypts with that small amount of delay, it would, I think, on the face of it, be surprising if Ultra hadn't contributed to the very considerable shortening of the war, given the fact that on the other side the enemy is blind and his Intelligence is increasingly deteriorating because of the Allied possession of the superiority in Intelligence.

I will give you an example of that. We read all the Enigma signals of the German Abwehr which meant that we captured every spy that arrived in the United Kingdom by having advance knowledge of his arrival. Which meant that we could turn such as we needed and use them to send messages we wanted the Abwehr to receive, and monitor the reception and the reaction of the Abwehr. All that signal Intelligence underlay the effective use of what was called the Doublecross Operation for the purposes both of stopping German reception of Intelligence (other than false Intelligence) and also of creating deception by sending them false Intelligence.

So given that they were so blind and we were getting this increasing amount with less and less delay, it would be surprising if it hadn't, from the middle of '41, contributed pretty appreciably to the difficulties of the enemy and to the accurate appreciations of the Allies.

Now the question remains how much did it shorten the war, leaving aside the contribution made to the campaigns in the Far East on which the necessary work hasn't been done yet. My own conclusion is that it shortened the war by not less that two years and probably by four years - that is the war in the Atlantic, the Mediterranean and Europe.

The detailed answer for those theatres begins in the Mediterranean. There, in the autumn of 1941 against Rommel it turned almost certain defeat into a stalemate. If not then, then certainly in the summer of 1941 after Rommel had returned to the Egyptian frontier, it made a decisive contribution to keeping him out of Egypt between his victory at the Battle of Gazala in 1942 and the British getting ready for their own victory at El Alamein.

It did this chiefly by killing off his seaborne supplies. Both the Italian machine cipher and the airforce Enigma and a bit of naval Enigma contributed decisively to starving Rommel of fuel and replacement hardware and ammunition.

Without that, the commander of our own forces at the time, General Auchinleck, concluded that Rommel would have got through to Egypt.

As you know at that time the Allies themselves were landing in North West Africa. If they had lost Egypt they might have abandoned the operation against North West Africa, especially as they would also have lost Malta if Egypt went, and decided to alter their strategy (we have to allow for this possibility) and go back and concentrate on the North Sea and the direct Second Front.

Now if they had stayed in the Mediterranean it would have taken them a least a year longer than it actually took them from Tunis and from the Western Desert to complete the conquest of North Africa and open the Mediterranean. That was successfully achieved in May '43.

It wouldn't have been achieved in less than a year beyond that, if we had gone on in spite of the loss of Egypt trying to do it. It wouldn't have been achieved in time to do the Normandy landings in 1944.

If they had abandoned the idea of re-conquering North Africa, the most probable course would have been in fact what the Americans had always wanted to do, to do the cross Channel invasion more quickly than in fact occurred. It in fact occurred in June '44. They would have turned back and done that straight away, that was their obvious alternative.

What would have been the prospect for that undertaking if Ultra hadn't become available against the U-Boats in June 1941 and radically reduced their successes against the convoys.

We know that in that second half of 1941 their shipping successes were cut back to 120,000 tons a month average. That has to be compared not with the monthly average of 280,000 tons a months in the four months before June '41 but with the sinkings they would have achieved with their greater number of U-Boats.

It has been calculated that the Ultra saved about one and half million tons in September, October, November and December '41.

And even if Britain's essential imports had not without that reduction been reduced to a dangerously low level, the intermission that provided was invaluable in enabling the British to build up reserves in merchant shipping and develop anti-submarine defences.

So that when the U-Boats returned to the Atlantic after their first defeat (they did that in the autumn of 1942), they had been delayed in making a decisive thrust for more than a year. Now when they returned they had been supplied with an advanced Enigma, one that instead of using three wheels concurrently used four wheels, which as you can see noticeably increased the mathematical difficulties of solving the key.

In fact Bletchley couldn't solve it from February to December 1942. Mercifully for us (though not for the Americans) most of the U-Boats were on the Atlantic American coast at that time, but as they came back to the North Atlantic convoys they were still using this cipher and they brought about another crisis in the Atlantic.

It again was the Ultra which brought them under control. The figures of sinkings of Allied shipping reached the highest in the war in March '43. They had been brought down by May '43 to lower proportions than ever before in the war as a result of this return of Ultra to the scene.

And so you can see that the problem of undertaking the Normandy landings if those two defeats and controls of the U-Boats hadn't occurred would have been very pronounced.

Then there was the contribution of Enigma to the Normandy Landings themselves (I can't go into detail and will answer questions if you need). I think it is no exaggeration to say that even if the U-Boats had prevented it from being attempted only until '45, we would have found it an infinitely more difficult operation to do than in 1944. The Germans would have completed the Atlantic defences, they would be bombarding Britain with 'V' weapons on a massive scale, all of which was in the event cut off by the '44 Landings. And they would have had a much bigger Panzer Army to deal with the problems.

My own calculation is we wouldn't in fact have been able to do the Normandy Landings, even if we had left the Mediterranean aside, until at the earliest 1946, probably a bit later. It would have then taken much longer to break through in France and Germany than it did in fact take, which was a year from '44. And altogether therefore the war would have been something like two years longer, perhaps three years longer, possibly four years longer than it was.

I am sorry I have exceeded my length of time but I hope you will forgive me, and I will do what I can to answer questions.

Q. Would we have won the war without Ultra?

My own view is that given that the Soviets survived the German attack and the Americans came in as they did, the combined forces of Russia, America and the British would eventually have won the war. The long term relative strengths of Germany and those three counties were such that Germany was bound to loose in the end. But how lengthily and with what damage and destruction we should have succeeded I don't know. I think we would have won but it would have been a long and much more brutal and destructive war.

Q. Was Bletchley involved at all in cryptanalysis of the Russian theatre?

We read a large amount of German signals from the Russian front, but no work was done against Soviet signals after Germany invaded Russia, on account of the high priority given to Axis signals. On the other hand, co-operation with the Soviets was never as close as it was with the USA.

Of course when the Americans came into the war in December '41 we had already begun some development of a cryptanalytical partnership with them, and when they came into the war that partnership became almost so complete as to constitute a single joint cryptanalytical effort. Of course that effort involved division of labour and the division of labour is much directed by the interception facilities. For example, except for the Atlantic traffic the American coast couldn't intercept European, German and Italian signals. That was all being intercepted in the UK. Obvious solution - UK concentrates on decrypting, on cryptanalysis against German and Italian. America which can intercept the Pacific from the Pacific and also has headquarters in Brisbane and various places in the Pacific - America concentrates of working on the Japanese.

But there are overlaps. For example we have a cryptanalytical annexe at Bletchley, we have it in Singapore, it moved to Hong Kong, it moved to Ceylon, and from there it pitches in its bit by serving the decrypts direct to the American Headquarters. Similarly because the U-Boat traffic can be heard both in America and in Britain, the two sides - Bletchley and the American Navy - swopped keys. They have got a direct line. They say 'we will take 4th June, you take tomorrow 5th June,' and so they split the keys and swopped solutions. So there was an almost total amalgamation of resources and a logical division of labour.

Q. Is it not the case that the arrival of the atom bomb in 1945 would have bought a quicker solution?

This is a problem because strict, sensible, proper counter-factual history can't really take into account something like that. It is speculation. But of course if my scenario is right and the war was still struggling on and we had the bomb which presumably we would still have had, the problem of whether to drop it on Germany would have arisen. And in some respects the dropping of it on Germany would be more justified than the dropping of it on Japan because Japan was visibly on her knees when we dropped it on her, but in my scenario Germany would have been far from on her knees. So yes the prospects of it being dropped as the solution are quite high. I would mention it in a speculative scenario.

Q. How closely did Bletchley work with the Russians on decryption?

It couldn't be as close as the collaboration I have described with the Americans for a variety of reasons. One is of course that there just hadn't been the close relationship between the two countries that existed historically between the British and the Americans. The other was that when we actually broke the ciphers - Enigma in the first instance, but Fish later - that were relevant to the Eastern Front, they were coming in to us at a time when it was uncertain whether Russia would survive. And then later on when Russia had survived and we were reading more ciphers both Fish and Enigma from the Eastern Front, there was the problem that we knew from the Enigma that the Germans were reading Russian ciphers, so that if they had too much Enigma intelligence in their ciphers you see the security risk was extremely high. Then fourthly the Russians were not collaborative. They wanted any intelligence we supplied but they wouldn't give any in return. Not that they had much Sigint, but they had a lot of other Intelligence.

The answer to your question is with all those difficulties we couldn't have so close a collaboration with the Russians as we had with Washington, but we started sending them a summary of signal intelligence a week after they were attacked by the Germans in '41. We sent it via the British Military Mission in Moscow where there were people to hand it over to the Russian General Staff.

We had to have a cover for it, had to explain to them that this is the horse's mouth but it is coming to us (this is the kind of cover we used) it is coming to us from very high ranking German officers who are slipping the news to us through Berne or somewhere like that, and we are getting it quickly because we have got pretty direct connections with Switzerland.

A steady stream of information about German intentions and dispositions - Airforce and Army on the Eastern Front - were sent to them. They were interrupted from time to time when the Russians were being particularly beastly. For example at the top of Russia, Murmansk at the Kola Inlet where all the convoys taking arms to Russia and supplies were going, we had to keep seamen, sailors, both to man the Allied facilities, unloading facilities - of course the Russians were there too but we had to keep some British sailors there. And then we persuaded the Russians to let us have an Intercept station there because half of the traffic around the top of the North Cape was difficult to intercept even in Northern Scotland.

And of course we covered the risk that they would suspect that we were reading Enigma or that they would do more than suspect that, by saying that the value of the traffic to us was that it enabled us, by traffic analysis, to judge the German reactions to the movements of the convoys. So we had this little intercept station and then the Russians locked them all up because they thought we were spying on them, so you had all sorts of little rows with them like that. From time to time when it wasn't vital we did say if you don't behave better than this we wont send you your daily summary. And we stopped it for a short time, then we started again. But it had to be of that character - the collaboration.

Q. Is there scope for counter-factual historians studying the siege of Leningrad - if they had had access to the Ultra information that you could have given them.

Again you have to bear in mind that there were problems. For example, one of the areas in which we found it extremely difficult to intercept German signals because of radio conditions or atmosphere conditions or whatever it is, was the North Cape and the other was the Leningrad area. It was very difficult to intercept from the Leningrad area because whatever frequency they were using relative to the distances and the ionosphere we never could cover the Leningrad area properly. Caucaucus on the other hand, Central Front, we could hear then as clear as a bell.

Q. If the collaboration had been as close as with the Americans . . .

It would have been an advantage if it had been as close as with the Americans, it is quite true. But on the other hand the risks which I briefly portrayed were quite considerable. And we did our best to make sure that they knew about all the important forthcoming development. Don't forget they had very good intelligence of their own, not primarily Sigint but they had very good air reconnaissance and air superiority after a certain time, and they had an enormous espionage system behind the German lines. So they weren't without information. But we did do our best to make sure that they got crucial early notice whenever we got it ourselves.

It was a big dilemma and one that was fought about. Churchill wanted to risk it and let them have more. Naturally the Ultra authorities didn't want to risk it because everything hangs on it you see, so there was a tussle all the time about how much to send.

Q. The was a programme recently on Kursk - one might say that a Russian counter-factual historian would say that if we didn't have the Ultra which we got in various ways, then we wouldn't have been able to win the battle of Kursk and Hitler would have been able to carve up Russia. This is perhaps another case . . .

Another case. Stalingrad of course is another one. Those two battles were crucial, especially Stalingrad. Again it wasn't only through us they were getting . . . we did give them the central facts in advance of Kursk. But as we now know, we didn't know at the time, the one single Russian agent in Bletchley was at that time (just that short period of time before and after Kursk in '43) actually giving them decrypts through the Russian Embassy in London. So all sorts of complications about the story. He didn't know that they were getting the supply from London officially, and we didn't know that he was sending the decrypts unofficially. Quite a complex problem!

Q. Did they never figure out that this was coming from decrypts?

We are never quite clear. Certainly when this man at Bletchley who only surfaced after the war - the secret about him only surfaced after the war - they knew that what they were getting from him was decrypts. They must then have known that our summaries were decrypts. But that didn't alter our practice because we didn't know that he was sending them the decrypts.

Q. How was the Ultra Information disguised so that the Germans couldn't work out that you were decrypting them?

How did we disguise what we had got you mean?

Q. How did you disguise, for example, that a particular submarine was going through a particular area? How could you disguise it so that it wasn't obvious that you'd intercepted it?

Let me give you an example of how we took the precautions, using it without on the other hand giving grounds for suspicion to the other side. The most dramatic example comes from the Mediterranean where we sank at two or three stages in the war something from 40% to 60% of every ship that left the north shore of the Mediterranean for North Africa. 60% of the shipping was sunk, for example, just before the Battle of Alamein and again just before Gazala when Rommel was stopped.

Every one of those ships before it was attacked and sunk had to be sighted by a British aeroplane or submarine which had been put in a position in which it would sight it without it knowing that it had been put in that position, and had made a sighting signal which the Germans and the Italians had intercepted. That was the standard procedure. As a consequence of that the Germans and the Italians assumed that we had 400 submarines whereas we had 25. And they assumed that we had a huge reconnaissance airforce on Malta, whereas we had three aeroplanes!

But solemnly that procedure had to be followed by the commanders. When they in their little centre in Cairo or, as it was later on Algiers, said we can't sink all those seventeen ships today, which five are we going to take first and which five will we take second, when they were doing this they had to arrange that procedure before they hit a single ship.

Similar precautions were taken in the Atlantic, but there the problem was different. That is why the Germans got most suspicious about the Atlantic. The great feature there was that the Enigma was used in the first instance not to fight the U- Boats but to evade them. And the problem was how could you evade them without their noticing. You have a situation on the graph in which the number of U-Boats at sea in the Atlantic is going up, and the number of convoys they see is going down!

How do you cover that? We did cover it but it was done by a different system from what I have just described in the Mediterranean. We let captured Germans, people we had captured from U-Boats write home from prison camp and we instructed our people when interrogated by Germans - our pilots for example - to propagate the view that we had absolutely miraculous radar which could detect a U-Boat even if it was submerged from hundreds of miles. And the Germans believed it.

They had an enquiry saying 'surely it must be possible that it is the Enigma that isn't safe.' And the cipher men come back and say 'it can't be the Enigma.' So somebody gets up and says 'well, it must be this bloody radar that we have heard about.' And so they decided. But you see different solutions had to be adopted for each particular situation. But these were the kind of precautions that were taken I think with great success. I mean they never really did tumble to the idea that it was unsafe, which is pretty marvellous really.

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Sunday, February 16, 2014

A Failure of Coalition Leadership: The Falaise-Argentan Gap

This report describes the roles, missions, and command relationships of four significant personalities (Generals Eisenhower and Montgomery and Lieutenant Generals Bradley and Patton) of the Allied military coalition prior to and during the Allied breakout from the Normandy peninsula. Specific personalities and personal characteristics that affected coalition relationships are described. The report discusses the strategic and operational advantages of both sides as of August 1, 1944 and gives a brief overview of the actual battle. Specific leadership failures and analysis of those failures and the strategic consequences are described in detail.

The Influence of Ultra on World War II

In the last half decade, intelligence, once a stepchild in World War II history, has assured itself a place among more fully covered aspects of the conflict. A flood of new information and insights was set off by revelations on the ULTRA secret initiated by Gustave Bertrand and F. W. Winterbotham.' The cloud of mystery once dispelled, the door was open to further disclosures on ULTRA itself and the unique role claimed for it in influencing the course of the war and, conceivably, its final outcome. With so much brought to the light of day, the remaining aspects of the clandestine sides of the conflict scarcely seemed worth the trouble of keeping them in obscurity. British Secret Service files, which remained closed in the late 60's when the reduction of the traditional waiting period on the release of public records to 30 years offered so many windfalls to World War II scholars, have become increasingly accessible.

This essay will assume a broad familiarity with the epic tale of how Polish, French, and British scientists and cryptologists unraveled the mysteries of the German Enigma machine and, eventually, of most of the codes in which its messages were transmitted. A similar acquaintance is assumed for how ULTRA came to be the central element in first British and then Anglo-American intelligence gathering and appraisal and for innumerable operational decisions. What will be attempted here is a rather far-reaching and risk-taking assessment of the part ULTRA played in the war's Western theaters. Factors which underlined or detracted from its impact on events, estimates of its influence on strategy, and evaluation of its contribution to the outcome of the war will be reviewed.

Aside from blanket claims which usually had little dialectical or evidential underpinning, this goes somewhat beyond what has been essayed in previous studies and may appear to some, at this stage of investigation and analysis, as a daring undertaking. Justification for such a course lies in the plea that debate on this complex of problems will be advanced constructively by sharpening the focus on fundamental and longer-range issues as well as offering targets for critical discussion.

The more attention is demanded by problems derived from disclosures about ULTRA, the greater must be awareness of their complexity, especially in any effort to reach clear-cut answers. Having to start somewhere, the tendency has been to simplify by concentrating on ULTRA's place in welldefined phases or during closely associated operations in order to stake out the part it may be presumed to have played.


Ver el vídeo: Secretos de la II Guerra Mundial 11 Mision secreta en el norte de africa