Garganta profunda revelada

Garganta profunda revelada

Después de más de 30 años de secreto, la identidad de Garganta Profunda, el informante de Watergate que filtró información al Washington Post que finalmente llevó a la renuncia del presidente Richard Nixon, se revela en un artículo de Vanity Fair escrito por John O'Connor. En una entrevista telefónica el 31 de mayo de 2005, O'Connor describe las razones detrás de la decisión del exdiputado del FBI Mark Felt de finalmente hacerse pública.


ROMPIENDO: Kamala Harris & # 8217 DARK Past REVELADO

La representante Tulsi Gabbard acusó a la también candidata presidencial demócrata Kamala Harris de ser una fiscal cruel, encarcelar a & # 8220 a más de 1.500 personas por violaciones de la marihuana & # 8221 y luego bromear sobre fumar marihuana.

Gabbard luego agregó: "Ella bloqueó las pruebas que hubieran liberado a un hombre inocente del corredor de la muerte hasta que los tribunales la obligaron a hacerlo".

Eso es en gran parte cierto, ya que el Sacramento Bee anotado (enlaces originales):

En febrero, el gobernador de California, Gavin Newsom, ordenó nuevas pruebas de ADN en el caso de asesinato de Kevin Cooper en 1983. Cooper llegó a las pocas horas de la ejecución en 2004 después de ser acusado de los asesinatos de una pareja adulta y dos niños. Harris se opuso a las pruebas cuando era fiscal general del estado.

Desde entonces, ha dicho que apoya las pruebas de ADN y alentó a Newsom a aprobar la solicitud de clemencia de Cooper. No ofreció detalles sobre por qué no aprobó las pruebas durante su mandato.

En respuesta a una solicitud de comentarios, la campaña de Harris señaló una declaración anterior en la que el senador llamó a un columnista del New York Times el año pasado y le dijo: "Me siento muy mal por esto".

los Crónica de San Francisco Observó en ese momento que Harris posteriormente cambió de postura y avaló la prueba de ADN.

El prisionero, Kevin Cooper, no ha sido liberado ya que continúan las pruebas de ADN y aún no se sabe si es inocente, aunque muchos piensan que es inocente.

los abeja También señaló que otro reclamo contra Harris - esta vez, por el ex vicepresidente Joe Biden - que un juez federal liberó a 1,000 presos después de que descubrió que un laboratorio criminalístico de San Francisco había usado indebidamente evidencia, y que el entonces fiscal de distrito Harris no había revelado que la evidencia posiblemente había sido corrompida.

los El Correo de Washington recordó a principios de este año: “En marzo de 2010 se reveló que Harris y su personal no habían informado a los abogados defensores de que las pruebas del laboratorio de criminalística administrado por la policía podrían haber sido contaminadas. Un juez dictaminó en mayo de 2010 que Harris no había informado a los acusados ​​como lo exige la ley. Harris dijo ... ella asumió la responsabilidad y 'no dio excusas' por el fracaso ".

Harris ahora se ejecuta en una plataforma que implica la reforma de la justicia penal y afirma que se opone a la pena de muerte.

21 comentarios

Harris es una mujer malvada e incompetente y no debería permitírsele ejercer la abogacía. Llegó a donde está o su práctica de usar la tarjeta de carrera.


Garganta profunda revelada (otra vez)

El robo de Watergate fue hoy hace 27 años. ¡Feliz día de Watergate! Este aniversario está marcado por la publicación de un nuevo libro de Bob Woodward sobre cómo Watergate (y, por implicación, el propio Woodward) cambió la presidencia para siempre, y por la publicación de una edición del 25 aniversario de Todos los hombres del presidente (haga clic aquí para enriquecer aún más a Woodward y al coautor Carl Bernstein). Con todos estos recuerdos de Watergate dando vueltas, es hora de volver a plantear la pregunta: ¿Quién fue Garganta profunda?

Chatterbox se refiere a la fuente anónima de Watergate (interpretada por Hal Holbrook en la película de Todos los hombres del presidente) que ayudó a Woodward a romper Watergate al recomendarle que "siguiera el dinero". Adivinación Garganta profundaLa identidad de Washington ha sido el juego de salón favorito de Washington durante casi tres décadas. Chatterbox no sabe quién Garganta profunda era. Sin embargo, está convencido de que gran parte del misterio se resolvió en mayo de 1992 cuando el Atlántico mensual publicó un artículo sobre esta cuestión de James Mann, un ex El Correo de Washington reportero que ahora trabaja para el Los Angeles Times. El artículo de Mann no resolvió la pregunta "quién", pero sí hizo responder de forma bastante persuasiva a la pregunta "qué". Es decir, Mann identificó dónde Garganta profunda trabajado: en el Oficina Federal de Investigaciones. Según Mann, Garganta profunda fue probablemente W. Mark Felt, luego el chico número 3 en el FBI, y más tarde famoso por aprobar robos ilegales para investigar el Weather Underground. (Sintió fue indultado por el presidente Reagan)., Garganta profunda era Charles Bates, subdirector de la División General de Investigaciones. O, Mann cree que esto es menos probable.Garganta profunda fue uno de los Agentes de campo del FBI en Washington que estaban trabajando en Watergate.

Chatterbox revisará la evidencia de Mann en un momento, pero se detiene primero para reflexionar sobre un misterio más profundo: por qué, cuando Mann es excelente atlántico se publicó el artículo, ¿no llamó la atención? Todo lo que Chatterbox apareció en una búsqueda de Nexis fue una columna de desacreditación de Richard Cohen en el Revista Washington Post (cuya propia teoría, de que eran los técnicos del Servicio Secreto quienes mantenían el aparato de escucha de la Casa Blanca, también había atraído poca atención cuando la había publicado algunos años antes en Nueva York revista). Pizarra El editor adjunto Jack Shafer le dio a la teoría de Mann un escrito comprensivo en Papel de la ciudad, un semanario alternativo en Washington, D.C., que Shafer editó en ese momento. De lo contrario, nadie parece haber notado el artículo de Mann. Ni siquiera se puede recuperar en el atlánticoPágina web, que tiene un archivo bastante extenso. Quizás el juego de adivinar Garganta profundaLa identidad es tan divertida que la gente no quiere considerar pruebas que corran el riesgo de acabar con ella.

Procedamos a esa evidencia. Mann enfatiza en el atlántico pieza que J. Edgar Hoover, que había dirigido el FBI desde la década de 1920, murió un mes antes del robo de Watergate. Para Mann, esto es tan importante como saber al comienzo de Un villancico que Jacob Marley estaba tan muerto como un clavo. Hoover se había resistido con bastante eficacia a los esfuerzos de la Casa Blanca de Nixon para politizar la FBI. (Los FBI Por supuesto, había participado en muchas de las mismas actividades ilegales que Nixon estaba tratando de que realizara (escuchas telefónicas, robos y cosas por el estilo), pero había sido Hoover, no Nixon, quien tomó las decisiones.) En los meses anteriores a la muerte de Hoover , Leales a Hoover en la oficina estaban preocupados porque Nixon estaba conspirando para nombrar a un forastero para suceder a Hoover: Jerry V. Wilson, entonces jefe de policía del Distrito de Columbia. He aquí, justo en ese momento, el El Correo de Washington comenzó a contar historias sobre un FBI investigación sobre corrupción en el departamento de policía de D.C. Si bien las historias no involucraron directamente a Wilson, provocaron que la Casa Blanca se opusiera públicamente FBI control de la investigación. Estas historias, presumiblemente basadas en Fugas del FBI, fueron escritas por Bob Woodward.

Luego, a mediados de mayo de 1972, le dispararon a George Wallace. Mann, citando al ex Correo El libro Watergate del editor de la ciudad, Barry Sussman, El gran encubrimiento, dice que Woodward le dijo a Sussman que había una buena fuente en el FBI que podría ayudar a obtener información sobre el posible asesino de Wallace. Woodward, dice Mann, “pudo aportar detalles sobre la vida y los viajes de Arthur Bremer ... prácticamente tan pronto como FBI los investigadores los descubrieron ".

Luego, el 17 de junio, se produjo el robo de Watergate. En ese momento, Mann era un Correo reportero de metro que cubría el juzgado federal de DC, y a menudo trabajaba en estrecha colaboración con Woodward. "[D] urante el verano y principios del otoño", escribe Mann, "Woodward me habló repetidamente de"mi fuente en el FBI, "O, alternativamente, de"mi amigo en el FBI", Dejando en claro cada vez que se trataba de una fuente especial e inusualmente bien ubicada". Si bien Woodward no identificó específicamente el FBIamigo"Como la persona más tarde conocida como Garganta profunda, Mann señala que muchos Vueltas del FBI desconfiaba de L. Patrick Gray, el "forastero" que Nixon había nombrado para suceder a Hoover, y le preocupaba que la Casa Blanca de Nixon estuviera tratando de restringir su investigación de Watergate, al igual que había restringido la FBIInvestigación del departamento de policía de D.C. Sintió,Bates, y Robert Kunkel, agente especial a cargo de la oficina de campo de Washington, se reunió con Gray en julio de 1972 para quejarse de la interferencia de la Casa Blanca en la investigación de Watergate. ¿No es posible que una de estas personas también haya contraatacado filtrando a Woodward? A pesar de que Sintió escribió en 1979 que "nunca filtró información a Woodward y Bernstein ni a nadie más", escribe Mann en su atlántico pieza que Sintió "Era conocido en Washington como una persona dispuesta a hablar con la prensa". (Traducción para no periodistas: “La ética profesional me impide decirlo directamente, pero Sintió me goteó como un colador ".) Bates había supervisado el FBIInvestigaciones sobre la corrupción policial de D.C. y el tiroteo de Wallace, además de supervisar su investigación de Watergate.

Lo que clava el FBI La conexión para Mann es que el día después de que los ladrones de Watergate fueran acusados ​​en septiembre de 1972, llamó a Woodward para despedirse (Mann acababa de dejar el Correo y se dirigía a Italia durante un año). Mann le preguntó a Woodward sobre las acusaciones y Woodward dijo: "Acabo de hablar con mi amigo en el FBI. Creo que estamos en un nivel completamente nuevo en esto ". Mann empareja este intercambio con un pasaje en Todos los hombres del presidente en el que Woodward y Bernstein informan que "el día después de que se dictaron las acusaciones", es decir, el mismo día en que Woodward y Mann hablaron, Woodward telefoneó Garganta profunda y se le dijo que "fuera mucho más fuerte" en la historia. Dos días después, el Correo publicó su primera historia vinculando el robo de Watergate con los principales funcionarios de campaña de Nixon.

[Actualización, 4/8/99: Después de muchas molestias en línea y por teléfono, Chatterbox finalmente consiguió El Atlántico para publicar en su sitio web el artículo sobre Garganta profunda de Jim Mann. Haga clic aquí y no se pregunte más sobre el lugar de trabajo de Garganta Profunda.]


Descubra lo que está sucediendo en la Casa Blanca con actualizaciones gratuitas en tiempo real de Patch.

Reagan y Gorbachov: La Cumbre de Moscú

Dos días después del comienzo de la Cumbre de Moscú en 1988, las cosas empezaron con dificultades entre el presidente Ronald Reagan y Mikhail Gorbachev, entonces secretario general del Partido Comunista de la Unión Soviética.

La cumbre había sido promocionada como un seguimiento de la celebración de la cumbre de octubre de 1987, donde Reagan y Gorbachov firmaron el innovador Tratado de Fuerzas Nucleares de Alcance Intermedio (INF), que eliminó una clase completa de misiles nucleares de Europa.

La reunión del 31 de mayo consistió en "conferencias" de Reagan a Gorbachov sobre la mejora del historial de derechos humanos de la Unión Soviética para la marcada frustración de Gorbachov cuando dijo que podría ser "un momento para golpear la mesa con los puños" para lograr un acuerdo de armas. . En otras ocasiones, Reagan hablaba ante un grupo de estudiantes e intelectuales rusos o hablaba de un recorrido a pie por iglesias antiguas. La reunión cumbre se consideró una victoria del estilo sobre la sustancia.

Se revela la identidad de la figura de "Garganta profunda" de Watergate

Después de 30 años de especulaciones, la identidad de "Deep Throat", la fuente no identificada previamente que filtró detalles clave del encubrimiento de Watergate de Nixon a los reporteros del Washington Post, reveló que él mismo tiene a Mark Felt, de 91 años, descrito como "el número dos en el FBI a principios de los 70 ".

En cierto contexto, el escándalo de Watergate surgió cuando el público se enteró de que cinco hombres habían sido arrestados por irrumpir y realizar escuchas telefónicas ilegalmente en la sede del Comité Nacional Demócrata en el complejo de Watergate en Washington, DC Uno de los sospechosos, James W. McCord Jr. , se reveló como el coordinador de seguridad asalariado del presidente Richard Nixon.

Para obtener más historia estadounidense, Patch lo tiene cubierto.


Garganta profunda

Garganta profunda / Bob Woodward: Primero, Feria de la vanidad recogió el El Correo de Washington con el artículo exponiendo la identidad de Garganta Profunda. Luego USA Today's Mark Memmott recogió el Correo con su resumen del libro de Bob Woodward. Entonces Woodward le dio a Tom Brokaw, no el Correo - la dirección del garaje donde se reunió con Mark Felt. A Woodward no parece importarle que sus colegas hayan tenido que ponerse al día. Le dice a Erik Wemple: "¿Cuál fue el problema? ¿Algunas personas llegaron tarde a la cena?"

Garganta profunda: entrevista de Tom Brokaw con Bob Woodward para el especial de NBC sobre Garganta profunda.

Garganta profunda / William Gaines: William Gaines, el profesor de periodismo cuya clase tocó erróneamente Garganta profunda (primero, Patrick Buchanan, luego Fred Fielding), dice que hubo discrepancias en los relatos de Woodstein que los engañaron: 1. Se decía que Mark Felt había fumado un cigarrillo en presencia de Woodward, a pesar de que dejó de fumar décadas antes. 2. Deep Throat proporcionó información fidedigna obtenida al escuchar las grabaciones secretas de Nixon durante una reunión en noviembre de 1973. Eso fue varios meses después de que Felt dejara el FBI. Y para complicar aún más las cosas, nadie del FBI había estado en la reunión donde se proyectaron las grabaciones. Según Gaines, eso significa que Felt solo podría haber aprendido sobre el contenido de las grabaciones de tercera mano, en el mejor de los casos. Felt estaba, como lo expresó Gaines en una nota por correo electrónico, "" tan lejano que sus comentarios a Woodward tendrían que ser considerados rumores, y no el tipo de cosas que un periodista podría escribir como un hecho citando una fuente anónima ".

Bob Woodward: El El Correo de Washingtonusa las memorias de Bob Woodward sobre su relación con Garganta Profunda para describir al propio Woodward y explicar lo que dice el libro sobre este más reticente de los reporteros: "Leer El hombre secreto, -- junto con Todos los hombres del presidente, El fascinante libro de 1974 de Woodward y Bernstein sobre sus informes de Watergate, es notar que Woodward no tuvo miedo de desafiar las reglas de Felt. Llamó a Felt cuando realmente lo necesitaba. Y durante su primera visita al garaje subterráneo, en un punto en el que su fuente de repente dejó de hablar, el periodista `` lo agarró del brazo y dijo que estábamos jugando un juego de mierda degradante, pretendiendo que no me estaba pasando información nueva y original ''. '"

Deep Throat / Woodward Book: Lo que Woodward revela sobre Deep Throat en Hombre secreto: Un bocado. Mark Felt fumaba durante sus reuniones clandestinas, posiblemente por nerviosismo. Bob Woodward El secreto ma no saldrá hasta el próximo miércoles, pero un EE.UU. Hoy en día un periodista lo compró el jueves en una tienda en el condado de Fairfax, VA., que había puesto a la venta copias por error. Mark Memmott escribe: "Woodward sospechaba en el momento de su informe sobre Watergate que alguien del Correo estaba filtrando información sobre sus fuentes a la Casa Blanca. Nunca se descubrió quién pudo haber sido el filtrador, pero la información llevó a la Casa Blanca a identificar a Felt como una de las fuentes de Woodward ".

Garganta profunda / Secreto casi olvidado en 1976: La identidad de Garganta profunda, el Del Washington Post fuente clave de Watergate, fue revelada casi hace casi tres décadas, según el nuevo libro de Bob Woodward sobre su relación con W. Mark Felt. En El hombre secreto, que será publicado la próxima semana por Simon & amp Schuster, Woodward - ahora un Correo editor gerente asistente: escribe que se enteró en 1976 por el entonces asistente del fiscal general Stanley Pottinger que Felt, quien había sido el hombre número dos en el FBI, se había delatado mientras testificaba ante un gran jurado. Preguntado, "¿Eras Garganta Profunda?" Felt inicialmente dijo, "No", pero su mirada atónita alertó a Pottinger de la probabilidad de que estuviera mintiendo. En ese procedimiento del gran jurado, escribe Woodward, Pottinger le recordó en voz baja a Felt que estaba bajo juramento. Luego se ofreció a retirar la pregunta por ser irrelevante para el tema de la investigación, que eran allanamientos ilegales realizados por el FBI en busca de radicales pacifistas del Weather Underground. Felt aceptó rápidamente la oferta. Pottinger le dijo a Woodward, quien no confirmó su conclusión, que se guardaría sus conocimientos para sí mismo. "Para su eterno crédito", escribe Woodward, hizo precisamente eso.

Memos del FBI detallan la participación de Mark Felt en los esfuerzos para identificar la fuente secreta de Watergate: el alto funcionario del FBI ahora se revela como "Garganta profunda", la fuente de Watergate para El Correo de Washington El reportero Bob Woodward ordenó a sus subordinados que "recuerden por la fuerza a todos los agentes la necesidad de ser más circunspectos al hablar de este caso con cualquier persona ajena a la Oficina", según documentos desclasificados del FBI publicados hoy por el Archivo de Seguridad Nacional de la Universidad George Washington. Muchos de estos documentos, que fueron desclasificados en 1980, han sido citados en artículos recientes en La Nación y el El Correo de Washington.

Deep Throat / The Complicated Mr.Felt: una revisión de decenas de miles de páginas de documentos desclasificados de la Casa Blanca y del FBI, y entrevistas con más de dos docenas de personas que tuvieron tratos con Mark W. Felt, revelan una personalidad excepcionalmente complicada, según un nuevo análisis de la El Correo de Washington. Es imposible desenredar el sentimiento de indignación de Felt por lo que le estaba sucediendo al país de su propio deseo de trepar a la cima de "la pirámide del FBI", una frase que luego usó como título de una autobiografía poco notada.

The Deep Throat Collective: Rex Smith, editor de la Albany Times-Union, afirma que su periódico informó la semana pasada que Garganta Profunda era más de una persona, que fue un grupo de funcionarios del FBI los que hicieron la filtración: "El día después de que el funcionario retirado del FBI, W. Mark Felt, reveló que él había sido la fuente secreta que inclinó el El Correo de Washington Ante la intriga de la Casa Blanca durante Watergate, Harry Rosenfeld entró en mi oficina y, inusualmente, cerró la puerta. Rosenfeld, como la mayoría de ustedes saben, fue editor de la Times-Union durante muchos años, y antes de eso dirigió el personal de noticias locales de la El Correo de Washington, donde sus reporteros produjeron la innovadora cobertura de Watergate. Rosenfeld relató que un funcionario retirado del FBI lo había llamado para decirle que había más en la historia de Garganta profunda: Felt, según el ex agente, no había sido un filtrador deshonesto, sino parte de un grupo de altos funcionarios del FBI que eligió cuidadosamente qué transmitir a la prensa. Luchaban para evitar que la Casa Blanca aplastara la investigación Watergate del FBI, creyendo que si los ciudadanos se enteraran de los hechos, el guardia interno de Nixon no podría encubrir la verdad ".

How Felt Fooled FBI: Las recientes revelaciones sobre la identidad de W. Mark Felt como el informante de Garganta Profunda de la fama de Watgergate han sido dramáticas y ampliamente difundidas. Pero el papel de Felt como la fuente anónima más famosa en la historia de Estados Unidos fue incluso más complejo de lo que sugiere la versión pública recientemente revisada. De acuerdo con documentos originalmente confidenciales del FBI, algunos escritos por Felt, que fueron obtenidos por La Nación De los archivos del FBI, Felt estuvo en un momento a cargo de encontrar la fuente de las primicias de Watergate de Woodward y Bernstein. En un giro digno de le Carré, a Garganta Profunda se le asignó la misión de desenterrar, y detener, Garganta Profunda.

Garganta profunda / Watergate: En una columna en el Observador, el escritor Ron Rosenbaum dice que los periodistas deberían haber invertido su tiempo en averiguar quién ordenó el robo en lugar de quién era Garganta Profunda. Elogia al historiador Stanley Kutler por proporcionar transcripciones en cinta que apuntan a que Nixon ordenó el robo. "En esta cinta, Nixon comienza diciendo cuál será su línea pública, la mentira a la que se apegará de que se sorprendió de que los ladrones eligieran irrumpir en la sede del Comité Nacional Demócrata, porque los sofisticados políticos saben que la sede del partido no está donde lo jugoso se encuentra. 'Dios mío, en mi opinión no vale la pena molestar al comité', le dice a Haldeman. Pero no le di la cita completa de Nixon a Haldeman: 'Dios mío, el comité no es' No vale la pena molestarlo, en mi opinión. Y luego dice (y esta es la frase que destaqué en mi columna de 1999): 'Esa es mi línea pública'. ¡Esa es mi línea pública! Tuvo que mentir para encubrir el hecho de que sabía exactamente por qué algunos ladrones irrumpieron donde lo hicieron. Como dijo el Sr. [David] Greenberg en su Veces artículo de opinión del 29 de julio de 2003: '[Como ha señalado el periodista Ron Rosenbaum, la redacción ["línea pública"] implica que tenía alguna sospecha privada de lo contrario'. (Por decir lo menos.) "

Garganta profunda / George McGovern: "Necesitamos a alguien así que esté en una posición privilegiada para decirnos lo que realmente está sucediendo. Sabemos que nos engañaron sobre Irak", dijo McGovern a Fox News Radio. "Esta guerra en Irak, en mi opinión, es peor que cualquier cosa que haya hecho Nixon. Creo que Nixon merecía ser expulsado de su cargo en vista del encubrimiento que llevó a cabo y las leyes que violó".

Garganta profunda / Woodward y Bernstein de nuevo juntos: el escritor Murray Kempton una vez los llamó los Tom y Huck del periodismo estadounidense, y sus apellidos se convirtieron en un solo sustantivo compuesto de capa y espada: Woodstein. Ahora Bob Woodward y Carl Bernstein están juntos de nuevo, unidos en un abrazo visiblemente afectuoso, a veces incómodo, por la revelación de la identidad de Garganta Profunda. "Uno era colorido y extravagante, y el otro pensó que estaba absolutamente bien", dijo Robert Redford, quien ayudó a producir la película de Todos los hombres del presidente, en el que interpretó al Sr. Woodward ". Bob se sentía bastante cómodo con que Carl fuera el más colorido, porque eso lo ayudó a hacer lo que mejor sabía, que era tener un instinto asesino enmascarado por una presencia presbiteriana muy fría. dígale: 'Tengo problemas para controlarlo, usted es un poco aburrido'. Y él dijo: 'No, realmente lo soy' ".

Garganta profunda / ¿El hijo de Bernstein le dijo a un amigo ?: El hijo de Carl Bernstein le dijo a un amigo en el campamento de verano que su madre le dijo que Mark Felt era Garganta profunda. Su madre era Nora Ephron. Tanto ella como Bernstein dicen que nunca tuvo la primicia: "Sabía que Garganta Profunda era Mark Felt porque lo descubrí. Carl Bernstein, con quien estuve casado por un breve tiempo, ciertamente nunca me habría dicho que estaba demasiado lejos". inteligente para contarme un secreto como ese. Se negó a contárselo a sus hijos también, que también son mis hijos, así se lo dije, y ellos se lo contaron a otros, y aun así, pasaron los años y nadie nos escuchó realmente ".

Watergate / Nietos de Nixon y Felt son amigos: Nicholas T. Jones y Jarett A. Nixon, compañeros de la facultad de derecho aquí, han intercambiado historias sobre Costa Rica, donde nació el Sr. Nixon y el Sr. Jones disfrutó viajar. Han practicado hablar español juntos, y en un momento el año pasado, el Sr. Nixon, de 28 años, trató de reclutar al Sr. Jones, de 23, para trabajar en una revista de derecho en la escuela, el Hastings College of the Law. "Es un buen tipo", dijo Nixon sobre Jones. "Hemos tenido una relación amistosa". Lo que ninguno de los dos sabía hasta que se reveló la identidad de Garganta Profunda esta semana, sin embargo, era que provienen de lados opuestos de una de las divisiones más profundas en la historia política estadounidense moderna. El tío abuelo de Nixon, a quien recuerda con cariño como tío Dick, era el presidente Richard M. Nixon, una relación que nunca había compartido con Jones. Su abuelo, Donald Nixon, era hermano del presidente.

Watergate / Unsolved Mysteries: CON el desenmascaramiento de Garganta Profunda, se ha resuelto uno de los mayores misterios políticos del siglo XX. Pero persisten otros acertijos sobre Watergate. ¿Nixon ordenó el robo de Watergate? ¿Cuál fue el propósito del robo? ¿Qué se perdió en la brecha de 18 minutos y media en las cintas de la Casa Blanca? ¿Quién borró la cinta? ¿Por qué Nixon no destruyó las cintas?

Garganta profunda / El pasado de Mark Felt en el espionaje de la Segunda Guerra Mundial: W.Mark Felt, cuyos métodos de capa y espada contribuyeron a su mística como Garganta profunda, aprendió las artes negras del espionaje durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial cuando, como joven agente del FBI, dirigió un caso, cuyo nombre en código era Peasant, en el que utilizó a un agente alemán comprometido para alimentar al Tercer Reich con información falsa. Felt se basó en su experiencia de espionaje en 1972 cuando insistió en que el El Correo de Washington el reportero Bob Woodward toma rutas tortuosas a sus reuniones clandestinas en un estacionamiento subterráneo y usa señales de comunicación elaboradas que fueron contadas por el Sr. Woodward y Carl Bernstein en su libro Todos los hombres del presidente.

Garganta profunda / ¿Héroe o traidor ?: La revelación de W. Mark Felt de que era Garganta profunda ha provocado un debate sobre si debería ser elogiado como héroe por filtrar información a la El Correo de Washington o condenado como traidor por salir del sistema legal. Su familia ha tratado de retratarlo como un héroe, y al presionarlo para que revele su identidad como fuente secreta del Correo en el escándalo de Watergate, ha tomado medidas para dar forma a su legado de manera positiva. Pero el papel de Felt como informador de un periódico plantea interrogantes sobre las obligaciones de los funcionarios en instituciones como el FBI. ¿Deberían definirse esas obligaciones como adherirse a las regulaciones de la oficina y las leyes sobre la divulgación de información secreta? ¿O hay un llamado más alto cuando los funcionarios encargados de hacer cumplir la ley piensan que están siendo obstruidos en los niveles más altos del gobierno?

Garganta profunda / Importancia histórica: la importancia de Garganta profunda seguramente ha sido exagerada por los periodistas, que han quedado fascinados por una historia que les importa más a ellos que a la historia. Bob Woodward y Carl Bernstein tenían decenas de fuentes para sus informes de Watergate, y aunque Deep Throat, o, como deberíamos decir ahora, W. Mark Felt, el ex subdirector asociado del FBI, era importante, lo hizo. no exponer sin ayuda los "horrores de la Casa Blanca" de Richard Nixon. Sin embargo, el papel mítico de Garganta Profunda en la imaginación pública sigue siendo fuerte.

Garganta profunda / Papel del FBI: La revelación de que un alto funcionario del FBI era la fuente secreta de Watergate conocida como Garganta Profunda ha reavivado una controversia sobre el papel de la burocracia gubernamental en la caída del presidente Richard M. Nixon. La mayoría de los relatos sobre el desmoronamiento de la conspiración de Watergate se han centrado en los esfuerzos públicos de los periodistas, el fiscal especial y el Congreso para documentar los abusos de poder que llevaron a la renuncia de Nixon el 8 de agosto de 1974. Las batallas burocráticas dentro de la administración entre los leales a Nixon y los oponentes han llamado mucho menos la atención de los historiadores, por la sencilla razón de que tuvieron lugar en secreto, lejos de la mirada del público. A medida que el registro histórico se vuelve más completo, algunos expertos de Watergate se preparan para una nueva ola de historias revisionistas que examinan la relación compleja y mutuamente beneficiosa entre los reporteros que persiguen la historia política más importante de la historia moderna de Estados Unidos y sus fuentes frecuentemente anónimas.

Garganta profunda / Alabanza de Nixon por el fieltro: En una extraña nota al pie de la historia, Richard M. Nixon testificó sin saberlo en nombre de Garganta profunda en un juicio en un tribunal federal en octubre de 1980, seis años después de que Nixon se viera obligado a dimitir como presidente debido a su participación. en el escándalo de Watergate. Seis años después de que Nixon fuera expulsado de su cargo, Felt y Edward S. Miller, ex jefe de la división de inteligencia nacional del FBI, fueron acusados ​​de autorizar ilegalmente a agentes del gobierno en 1972 y 1973 a irrumpir en hogares sin orden judicial en busca de un atentado contra la guerra de Vietnam. sospechosos de la organización radical Weather Underground. Nixon, entonces ciudadano privado, testificó que creía que en ese momento el director del FBI y sus ayudantes tenían autorización directa del presidente para ordenar robos en interés de la seguridad nacional. Felt fue posteriormente condenado y multado con $ 5,000. Pero cinco meses después, el presidente Ronald Reagan indultó a Felt con el argumento de que había "actuado de acuerdo con altos principios" para poner fin al terrorismo que amenaza a la nación.

Garganta profunda / Comercialización de la historia: Las principales editoriales, entre ellas HarperCollins, Random House y Little, Brown, recibieron llamadas de David Kuhn, un agente de medios que representa a la familia de Mark Felt y su abogado, ayer en Nueva York. Es posible que hayan escuchado con escepticismo, entusiasmo o una mezcla de ambos, pero muchos se inscribieron para las reuniones a finales de esta semana. Según los informes, la familia también está interesada en proyectos de cine y televisión. "Si me preguntaras hace dos días cuánto pagarías por las memorias de Garganta profunda, diría que el cielo es el límite", dijo David Hirshey, vicepresidente senior de HarperCollins. . "Ahora que se ha resuelto el gran misterio, estoy seguro de que el cielo está un poco más bajo. Pero Garganta Profunda sigue siendo uno de los mayores" problemas "de todos los tiempos y espero que los principales editores lo persigan como lo hizo Ahab. ballena. Y yo seré uno de los que saque el arpón ".

Garganta profunda / Explicación de Woodward: Bob Woodward explica en el El Correo de Washington dónde conoció a Mark Felt y cómo se desarrolló su amistad. Se conocieron en la Casa Blanca un día cuando Woodward, entonces en la Marina, estaba entregando algunos documentos del almirante Thomas H. Moorer, jefe de operaciones navales. Woodward se mantuvo en contacto, confesando que lo hizo en un movimiento calculado para hacerse amigo de personas de altos cargos. Felt pronto se convirtió en el funcionario número dos del FBI. Una de las primeras filtraciones de Felt a Woodward fue decirle que el vicepresidente Spiro Agnew había sido sorprendido aceptando sobornos. Woodward trató de buscar posibles pistas, pero no llegó a ninguna parte. Más tarde, Felt proporcionó a Woodward pistas sobre el intento de asesinato de George Wallace en 1972. Felt ayudó a Wopodward con el informe de Watergate desde el principio, ayudando a la El Correo de Washington establecer que E. Howard Hunt era el principal sospechoso del robo de Watergate. Cuando Woodward no pudo comunicarse con Felt por teléfono en una llamada de seguimiento, se presentó en la casa de Felt en Virginia. Fue entonces cuando Felt, que había trabajado en el espionaje durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial, dijo que a partir de entonces solo se comunicarían cara a cara y en secreto. No más llamadas telefónicas. "Dije que tenía una bandera de tela roja, de menos de un pie cuadrado, del tipo que se usa como advertencia en los camiones largos, que una novia había encontrado en la calle. La había metido en una maceta vacía en el balcón de mi apartamento. . Felt y yo acordamos que movería la maceta con la bandera, que generalmente estaba en el frente cerca de la barandilla, a la parte trasera del balcón si necesitaba una reunión con urgencia. Esto tendría que ser importante y raro, dijo con severidad. . Felt dijo que si había algo importante, podía llegar a mi New York Times - cómo, nunca lo supe. La página 20 estaría encerrada en un círculo y las manecillas de un reloj en la parte inferior de la página se dibujarían para indicar la hora de la reunión esa noche, probablemente a las 2 am, en el mismo estacionamiento de Rosslyn ". Woodward dice que no Sé cómo Felt mantuvo un ojo en su balcón. ¿Por qué Felt habló? "Felt creía que estaba protegiendo la oficina al encontrar una manera, clandestina como era, de hacer pública parte de la información de las entrevistas y archivos del FBI, para ayudar a generar presión pública y política para que Nixon y su gente rindan cuentas ".

Garganta profunda: El El Correo de Washington confirmó hoy que W. Mark Felt, un exfuncionario número dos del FBI, era "Garganta Profunda", la fuente secreta que proporcionó información que ayudó a desentrañar el escándalo de Watergate a principios de la década de 1970 y contribuyó a la renuncia del presidente Richard M. Nixon. La confirmación vino de Bob Woodward y Carl Bernstein, los dos El Correo de Washington reporteros que dieron a conocer la historia de Watergate, y su ex editor principal, Benjamin C. Bradlee. Los tres hablaron después de la familia de Felt y Feria de la vanidad La revista identificó a Felt, de 91 años, ahora un jubilado en California, como la fuente anónima durante mucho tiempo que brindó una guía crucial para algunas de las historias innovadoras de Watergate del periódico. Felt fue condenado en la década de 1970 por autorizar allanamientos ilegales en casas de personas asociadas con el radical Weather Underground. He was pardoned by President Reagan in 1981.

Deep Throat: W. Mark Felt, the No. 2 official at the FBI during the Nixon era, made the admission to Feria de la vanidad revista. Now, an ailing and aging former FBI agent in California, Felt told Feria de la vanidad magazine that he was the one who leaked certain secrets about Mr. Nixon's Watergate coverup to the El Correo de Washington reporters."I'm the guy they used to call Deep Throat," Mr. Felt told John D. O'Connor, a lawyer and the author of the Feria de la vanidad article, the magazine said today in a press release. Mr. Felt, who is 91 and living in Santa Rosa, Calif., was the second-in-command at the Federal Bureau Investigation in the early 1970's.

Deep Throat/Who Guessed Right: Esquire had it wrong The Atlantic Monthly had it right. Leonard Garment's book missed the mark Ronald Kessler's was on the money. William Gaines's college journalism class flunked the test Chase Culeman-Beckman's high school paper, though he didn't get an "A" when he turned it in in the late 1990s, should have put him at the head of the class. A three-decade national guessing game is over.

Deep Throat/El Correo de Washington Caught by Surprise: For 30 years, the El Correo de Washington kept secret the identity of Deep Throat, waiting for the right moment to disclose the name of the person who helped the paper develop the biggest story in its history. Yesterday, the paper was scooped on Deep Throat's identity by a monthly magazine. The revelation by the magazine, Feria de la vanidad, caught the Correo by surprise and threw the paper into turmoil. los Feria de la vanidad article said Mr. Felt's family wanted to collaborate with Mr. Woodward on an article, wondering at one point why Mr. Woodward should "get all the glory" for what they saw as their father's courage. Feria de la vanidad said Mr. Woodward scheduled two visits with the family to talk about a collaborative effort but he canceled them and never rescheduled. Mr. Woodward has declined to comment. But it was known in New York publishing circles that Mr. Woodward, a prolific author, was planning to write his own book about Deep Throat.

Deep Throat/Woodward's Small Lies: Slate's Tim Noah, who long pointed to Felt before he started to doubt himself, notices that Woodward engaged in some small-bore misdirection or, shall we say, lying. Quoting Noah: "One [lie] is that, in All the President's Men, Deep Throat is described as a heavy smoker. But Felt quit smoking in 1943. I suppose Woodstein would call this necessary misdirection. I call it conscious fabrication, however trivial. Also, a November 1973 Woodward and Bernstein Post story sourced anonymously to 'White House sources' is described in All the President's Men as being sourced to Deep Throat. Yet Felt was not a 'White House source.' It's conceivable that Deep Throat was an additional, unacknowledged source on the story, but it's also possible that Woodward and Bernstein were misleading readers about where they got their information. Which was it, gentlemen? Finally, why did Woodward, in a 1979 Playboy interview with J. Anthony Lukas, flatly deny that Deep Throat was anyone inside the 'intelligence community'? The FBI, where Felt worked, is most definitely part of the intelligence community.

Deep Throat/Woodward's Own Book About Felt: Woodward had prepared for Felt's eventual death by writing a short book about a relationship he describes as intense and sometimes troubling. His longtime publisher, Simon & Schuster, is rushing the volume to press -- but the careful unveiling of the information did not proceed as Woodward or the Correo had envisioned. In an article being prepared for tomorrow's El Correo de Washington, Woodward will detail the "accident of history" that connected a young reporter fresh from the suburbs to a man whom many FBI agents considered the best choice to succeed the legendary J. Edgar Hoover as director of the bureau. Woodward and Felt met by chance, he said, but their friendship quickly became a source of information for the reporter. On May 15, 1972, presidential candidate George Wallace was shot and severely wounded by Arthur H. Bremer, in a parking lot in Laurel. Eager to break news on a local story of major national importance, Woodward contacted Felt for information on the FBI's investigation. Ben Bradlee knew only Felt's status as a top FBI official. The editor did not learn Felt's name until after the Correo had won the Pulitzer Prize for its Watergate coverage and Nixon had resigned.

Deep Throat/How Feria de la vanidad Got the Story: Vanity Fair's big scoop almost didn't happen. The problem for Vanity Justa was that lawyer John D. O'Connor wanted the magazine to pay Felt and Felt's family for the story -- a condition the magazine would not agree to. O'Connor tried then to sell the story to a book publisher, but after a year returned to Feria de la vanidad when he couln't.

Deep Throat/His Motivation: Six days after the Watergate break-in, President Richard M. Nixon had a secretly recorded conversation about W. Mark Felt, the number two man at the FBI. Nixon was hatching a plan to stop the FBI from investigating the burglary at Democratic National Committee Headquarters, and the president figured that friends at the CIA could persuade the FBI to drop the investigation. The White House figured their appointee, FBI acting director L. Patrick Gray, would go along. But what about Felt, a 30-year, dyed-in-the-wool Bureau man who ran its day-to-day operations? "Mark Felt wants to cooperate because . " Nixon chief of staff H.R. Haldeman told the president. "Yeah," Nixon responded. ". because he's ambitious," Haldeman said.

Deep Throat/Reaction: Prominent figures from the Watergate era expressed a mixture of reactions yesterday, from shock to admiration, upon learning that the number two official at the FBI had guided El Correo de Washington reporters investigating illegal activities by the Nixon administration. Richard Ben-Veniste, a top lawyer in the Watergate Special Prosecution Force, said W. Mark Felt's acknowledgement of his role showed that "the importance of whistle-blowers shouldn't be underestimated, particularly when there are excesses by the executive branch of government -- which in this case went all the way to the executive office. But Charles W. Colson, a senior Nixon adviser who served seven months in prison for obstruction of justice in connection with Watergate abuses, declared that he was"personally shocked."

Deep Throat/Why He Talked to Correo Reporters: Felt believed that the White House was trying to frustrate the FBI's Watergate investigation and that Nixon was determined to bring the FBI to heel after Hoover's death in May 1972, six weeks before the break-in at the Democratic National Committee's Watergate offices occurred. "From the very beginning, it was obvious to the bureau that a cover-up was in progress," Felt wrote in his 1979 memoir, The FBI Pyramid. Felt may have had a personal motivation as well to begin talking to Correo reporter Bob Woodward. At the time of Hoover's death, he was a likely successor to take over as FBI director. Instead the White House named a bureau outsider, L. Patrick Gray, then an assistant attorney general, as acting director and then leaned on Gray to become a conduit to keep the White House informed of what the FBI was learning.


Deep Throat Revealed - HISTORY

The Post's Watergate team of Bob Woodward, Carl Bernstein and Ben Bradlee hasn't worked together for a while, but they were definitely out and about and on air today.

Woodward and Bernstein started off their day on MSNBC and Don Imus, according to Tina Gulland, the Post's Director of Television and Radio Projects. Next, they appeared on the Today Show. Then, Good Morning America and at 9 pm, they'll sit down with Larry King Live.

Bradlee took questions on washingtonpost.com is scheduled to appear tonight onHardball with Chris Matthews.

The weekend is still up in the air, Gulland said, although Woodward has said he's through being interviewed for a while.

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Posted at 12:02 PM ET, 06/ 2/2005

'All the President's' Amazon.com Sales

Jennifer Frey writes in this morning's Post about the money that stands to be made from new book and movie projects related to Deep Throat. But what about the money generated by the relevant-all-over-again "All the President's Men"?

As of this morning, Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein's book on Watergate ranked No. 5 on Amazon.com's list of top-selling nonfiction books and as the No. 27 seller in books overall. The DVD of the 1976 movie starring Robert Redford and Dustin Hoffman has also shot up on Amazon's list it now ranks No. 15 overall, one notch above "The Incredibles." Not bad for a DVD that was released in 1997.

In case you're wondering, Warner Bros. already had a special 30th anniversary edition of the DVD slated for release in 2006. A date has not been set, but Ronnee Sass, executive director of publicity and communications for Warner Home Video, confirmed in an e-mail that the revelation of Deep Throat will likely play a role in the disc's extra features. May I suggest a commentary track recorded jointly by the Felt family and Hal Holbrook?

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Posted at 2:39 PM ET, 06/ 1/2005

Traitor or Nobel Prize Winner?

The talk show regulars and assorted big names from the Watergate era have lined up to praise or condemn Mark Felt for his role in the scandal, and there are few surprises so far.

Pat Buchanan, the former presidential candidate and Nixon speechwriter, labeled Felt "sneaky" and "dishonorable" on MSNBC's "Hardball." Daniel Ellsberg, who leaked the Pentagon Papers to the press, suggested to Salon that Felt deserved "an honorary Nobel Prize."

Online observers of the Deep Throat story are also divided. Here are some sample judgments pulled from the washingtonpost.com Message Boards:

-- Lindsay Howerton and Hal Straus

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Posted at 1:30 PM ET, 06/ 1/2005

Deep Throat Abroad

The news has gone worldwide, mostly with straightforward coverage of "The Man Behind the Mystery," as The Independent Online in South Africa calls Felt.

In Beijing, the government-controlled China Daily plays up the testimony of former Nixon White House aides who say Felt betrayed them and the law.

The Guardian of London writes that Vanity Fair "outscooped" the Post with "a two-year negotiation process involving 15 editors, a San Francisco lawyer, and a dummy issue of the glossy magazine."

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Posted at 9:39 AM ET, 06/ 1/2005

Follow the Money

Perhaps the most famous piece of advice Deep Throat gave Post reporter Bob Woodward during the Watergate investigation was to "follow the money" to find out who was behind the Watergate break-in.

So, it's not entirely surprising that pundits are asking what role money may have played in the identification of Mark Felt -- and in the financial consequences of yesterday's disclosure for Woodward.

Boston Globe columnist Eileen McNamara questions the motives of the Felt family in confirming to Vanity Fair's John D. O'Conner that Felt was Deep Throat. She also criticizes Felt's role in approving illegal break-ins as part of the FBI's investigation of the Weather Underground. "Felt's commitment to the Bill of Rights in 1973 was as selective as his family's motives in 2005 are self-serving," writes McNamara.

In O'Conner's Vanity Fair piece, Felt's daughter Joan recalls discussing money with her father. "Bob Woodward's gonna get all the glory for this, but we could make at least enough money to pay some bills, like the debt I've run up for the kids' education," Joan recalls saying. "Let's do it for the family."

Newsday columnist Ellis Henican notes somewhat gleefully that Bob Woodward's income will probably suffer because of his decision not to reveal his source's name. ". a big pile of money just went flying from the legendary reporter's bank account," Henican writes. "No one wants to buy a book from the second guys to tell you who Deep Throat is."

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Posted at 8:26 AM ET, 06/ 1/2005

Redford Weighs In

So, it turns out Robert Redford isn't Bob Woodward after all. He had no idea who Deep Throat was.

Well, some idea. Redford, who played Woodward in the Watergate movie "All the President's Men," told Editor & Publisher's Greg Mitchell that he suspected Deep Throat was in the FBI. But the actor guessed that Woodward's source was agency director L. Patrick Gray, not Mark Felt.

There's a lot of "revisionism" today from people who say "I always knew it was Felt," Redford added, but said he would not join in.

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Posted at 7:15 AM ET, 06/ 1/2005

More Firsts

Before moving on to today's reactions to the naming of Deep Throat, we offer two more nominations for the coveted "Who Guessed First" award.

The first, submitted by Adam, goes to James Mann for his May, 1992 article in The Atlantic.

Writing 20 years after the Watergate scandal, Mann emphasized that he didn't know who Deep Throat was, but correctly identified the FBI as the place where DT worked. Mann also concluded that Deep Throat "could well have been Mark Felt" and did a fine job delving into the motivations of many key Watergate figures.

Washingtonian Magazine's Jack Limpert also gets a nomination for two 1979 pieces suggesting that Felt had motive and opportunity, and was the most likely suspect. The second article includes a denial by Felt, who Limpert described as "the handsome, engaging, distinguished former associate director of the FBI."

Please feel free to vote or enter your own "Who Guessed First" nominee as a Comment, or simply enlighten us with other bits of Watergate trivia.

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Posted at 8:50 PM ET, 05/31/2005

Haldeman Had It Right

Mark Felt kept most of the country guessing for more than 30 years -- but it's worth noting that former White House chief of staff and Watergate figure H.R. "Bob" Haldeman thought Felt was leaking information to Post reporter Bob Woodward during the height of the Watergate scandal.

What's more, Haldeman told his boss, former president Richard M. Nixon.

Tim Noah at Slate reported in 1999 on the taped conversation that took place in 1972 between Haldeman and Nixon. Noah published this excerpt:

Noah answered questions online earlier today about the confirmation of Deep Throat's identity.

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Posted at 8:36 PM ET, 05/31/2005

Bad Guess

If the Hartford Courant and others got Deep Throat right, many others apparently did not -- among them Adrian Havill.

In his 1993 book "Deep Truth," Havill claimed Deep Throat was a composite of several sources, including Alexander Haig. More recently, in a Feb. 4 letter to Romenesko, Havill changed his mind and wrote that Deep Throat was George H.W. Arbusto.

"George Herbert Walker Bush, the president's father, is Deep Throat," Havill explained. "Did Bush have motivation? You bet. It was Richard Nixon who urged Bush to leave a safe seat in Congress, hinting there would be a position as assistant Secretary of the Treasury waiting for him if he failed to win a Senate seat held by Ralph Yarborough. When Bush lost, Nixon reneged and asked him to take the U.N. slot instead but teased him by hinting he would be the replacement for Spiro Agnew in 1972. Instead, he was given the thankless task of heading the Republican National Committee in 1973."

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Posted at 8:19 PM ET, 05/31/2005

Motives Abound

After several hours of simply repeating that W. Mark Felt is the source formerly known as Deep Throat, Internet bloggers are beginning to switch into pundit mode -- offering theories as to why Felt confirmed important pieces of the Watergate investigation.

"It was an act of revenge, pure and simple. Felt had a vendetta against the president, and he got back at him by spoon feeding information to Woodward, knowing it would fatally damage Nixon," said Punditguy.

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Posted at 7:15 PM ET, 05/31/2005

John Dean's Guess

Deep Throat's identity was a well-kept secret until today, but there have been hints in recent months that the most famous un-named source in American political history was about to be named.

Former White House counsel and Watergate pioneer John Dean wrote in a Feb. 6 commentary that, "We'll all know one day very soon" who Deep Throat is.

But Dean was less accurate in predicting Deep Throat's identity, writing that the Watergate source would turn out to be "one of my former Nixon White House colleagues." Former FBI official W. Mark Felt never worked in the Nixon White House.


Reviews & Commentary

User Reviews

I have list of movies that are must-see movies. There can only be 2 per year.

The "must-see" notion is a combination of best (whatever that means at the time), and most influential. Perhaps if there is a singular advance or adventure, it may qualify.

This surely is one of the most influential movies ever made. It spawned an industry that is larger than movies. That industry literally drove the market for recorded movies and then became the backbone of the web.

It also plays a role — a significant one — in changing attitudes about sex acts, and became a focus for the religious nuts and feminist movement. And there's a side note about the name being used in the greatest political scandal until recent times.

So, surely this has to be on any list of influential movies. But the funny thing is that there is no value in actually watching it. The interaction with it as a movie has no relationship to its importance as a movie.

Rather than recommend watching this, I'd recommend "Inside Deep Throat," except that does a less than stellar job itself.

An amazing thing this: an important film not worth watching.

Ted's Evaluation -- 1 of 3: You can find something better to do with this part of your life.


'Deep Throat' Revealed as Ex-FBI Official Felt

Woodward had a source in the Executive Branch who had access to information at [the Committee to Reelect the President] as well as at the White House. His identity was unknown to anyone else. He could be contacted only on very important occasions. Woodward had promised he would never identify him or his position to anyone. Further, he had agreed never to quote the man, even as an anonymous source. Their discussions would be only to confirm information that had been obtained elsewhere and to add some perspective.

In newspaper terminology, this meant the discussions were on "deep background." Woodward explained the arrangement to managing editor Howard Simons one day. He had taken to calling the source "my friend," but Simons dubbed him "Deep Throat," the title of a celebrated pornographic movie. El nombre se quedó.

At first Woodward and Deep Throat had talked by telephone, but as the tensions of Watergate increased, Deep Throat's nervousness grew. He didn't want to talk on the telephone, but had said they could meet somewhere on occasion.

Deep Throat didn't want to use the phone even to set up the meetings. He suggested that Woodward open the drapes in his apartment as a signal. Deep Throat could check each day if the drapes were open, the two would meet that night. But Woodward liked to let the sun in at times, and suggested another signal.

When Woodward had an urgent inquiry to make, he would move [a flower pot with a red flag to the rear of his balcony.] During the day, Deep Throat would check to see if the pot had been moved. If it had, he and Woodward would meet at about 2:00 A.M. in a predesignated underground parking garage.

From 'All the President's Men' by Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward (Simon & Schuster)

The Washington Post has confirmed that the infamous secret source known as Deep Throat is a former FBI agent. W. Mark Felt, the No. 2 man at the bureau during the contentious Watergate investigations, was revealed as the source in an article in Vanity Fair released Tuesday.

Post reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein had long vowed to keep the source's name a secret until his death. The revelations from Felt fueled the pair's reporting during a tumultuous time that resulted in the resignation of President Richard Nixon in August 1974.

The Post 's executive editor at the time, Ben Bradlee, said tonight that Felt's senior position at the FBI meant, "I knew the paper was on the right track."

In an article on the Post Web site, Woodward acknowledged the central role Felt had played. He aided the disclosure of crimes orchestrated by President Nixon's inner circle -- from the break-in at Democratic headquarters to electoral fraud and a conspiracy to cover up their crimes.

California lawyer John D. O'Connor befriended Felt, now 91, and wrote an article for the July issue of Vanity Fair . Felt had previously denied that he had been Woodward's source.

But O'Connor wrote that on several occasions, Felt told him, "I'm the guy they used to call Deep Throat."


"Deep Throat" finally revealed

Ending one of Washington's favorite parlor games and eliciting a huge sigh of relief from the many wrongly suspected "Deep Throats," the Washington Post said Tuesday that a former FBI official, W. Mark Felt, was the confidential source who provided the newspaper information that led to President Nixon's impeachment investigation and eventual resignation.

The announcement comes after a Tuesday article in Vanity Fair magazine by Felt's attorney revealed his infamous identity as Deep Throat.

"I'm the guy they used to call Deep Throat," he was quoted as telling lawyer John D. O'Connor, author of the magazine article.

After getting confirmation from the two reporters, Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein as well as the paper's then-managing editor, the Post made its announcement on its Web site. Earlier, Felt, 91 and living in California, talked to a lawyer who wrote the magazine article for Vanity Fair.

But until Tuesday, Felt had publicly denied being the Post's infamous secret source, the man Woodward and Bernstein would meet in the parking garage for tidbits of information, reports CBS News Correspondent Wyatt Andrews.

"No, no, I am not Deep Throat and the only thing I can say is that I wouldn't be ashamed to be," Felt said in 1979.

Noticias de actualidad

However, taped conversations between Nixon and his chief of staff, H.R. Haldeman, indicate the White House may have known that Felt was the informant.

Felt, the second-in-command at the FBI in the early 1970s, kept his secret even from his family for almost three decades before confiding he was the Post reporters' source on the Watergate scandal, according to a Vanity Fair article published Tuesday.

"The No. 2 guy from the FBI, that was a pretty good source," said Ben Bradlee, who had been the key editor at the Post in the Watergate era.

"I knew the paper was on the right track" in its investigative stories, Bradlee said, citing the "quality of the source."

Felt, who lives in Santa Rosa, is said to be in poor mental and physical health because of a stroke. His family did not immediately make him available for comment, asking the news media to respect his privacy "in view of his age and health."

Now, he wants "his honor back," O'Connor told CBS Chief White House Correspondent John Roberts.

Woodward, fellow reporter Bernstein, and Bradlee, their former boss at the Post, had long maintained they would never go public with the identity of Deep Throat until after his death. But with the family's confirmation, they decided collectively to go public.

"The family believes that my grandfather, Mark Felt Sr., is a great American hero who went well above and beyond the call of duty at much risk to himself to save his country from a horrible injustice," a family statement read by grandson Nick Jones said. "We all sincerely hope the country will see him this way as well."

But, as Andrews reports, Felt actually spent years feeling ashamed, Vanity Fair's report says. He was old school FBI, and hated when agents leaked to the press. That's why, the family says, he needed convincing.

According to the article, Felt once told his son, Mark Jr., that he did not believe being Deep Throat "was anything to be proud of. . You (should) not leak information to anyone."

His family members thought otherwise, and persuaded him to talk about his role in the Watergate scandal, saying he deserves to receive accolades before his death. His daughter, Joan, argued that he could "make enough money to pay some bills, like the debt I've run up for the children's education."

As the decades-old secret was released, CBS News Correspondent Jim Axelrod reports that some other Watergate-era officials breathed sighs of relief.

"I'm relieved that I'm no longer on this list of 'most wanted' for Deep Throat," David Gergen, a Nixon speechwriter, said.

The existence of Deep Throat, nicknamed for an X-rated movie of the early 1970s, was revealed in Woodward and Bernstein's best-selling book "All the President's Men."

CBS' Dan Rather says Felt had a huge hand in exposing the Watergate scandal and, hence, bringing down the Nixon White House.

A hit movie starring Robert Redford as Woodward, Dustin Hoffman as Bernstein and Hal Holbrook as Deep Throat was made in 1976. In the film, Holbrook's shadowy, cigarette-smoking character would meet Redford in dark parking garages and provide clues about the scandal.

The movie portrayed the cloak-and-dagger methods that Woodward and Deep Throat were said to have employed. When Woodward wanted a meeting, he would position an empty flowerpot containing a red flag on his apartment balcony. When Deep Throat wanted to meet, the hands of a clock would appear written inside Woodward's New York Times.

The identity of the source has sparked endless speculation over the last three decades. Nixon chief of staff Alexander Haig, White House press aide Diane Sawyer, White House counsel John Dean and speechwriter Pat Buchanan were among those mentioned as possibilities.

Felt himself was mentioned several times over the years as a candidate for Deep Throat, but he regularly denied that he was the source.

"I would have done better," Felt told The Hartford Courant in 1999. "I would have been more effective. Deep Throat didn't exactly bring the White House crashing down, did he?"

Woodward, who had visited with Felt as recently as 1999, refused to confirm or deny, even to the man's family, that Felt was his source, and wondered whether Felt was mentally competent to decide whether to go public after all these years, the magazine reported.

Woodward and Bernstein were the first reporters to link the Nixon White House to the June 1972 break-in at the Democratic National Headquarters in Washington's Watergate complex.

Nixon, facing almost-certain impeachment for helping to cover up the break-in, resigned in August 1974. Forty government officials and members of Nixon's re-election committee were convicted on felony charges.

One of them was White House counsel John Dean, who served a sentence of only four months after becoming the chief informant for Watergate investigators.

Dean says the claim that Felt was Deep Throat raises many questions, as he does not believe Felt had access to either the White House or the Committee to Re-elect the President. Dean also says he doubts that Felt, who was in charge of day-to-day operations at the FBI, could have all by himself come up with the information that wound up in Woodward and Bernstein's stories.

In 2003, Woodward and Bernstein reached an agreement to keep their Watergate papers at the University of Texas at Austin. At the time, the pair said documents naming Deep Throat would be kept secure at an undisclosed location in Washington until the source's death.

Felt was convicted in the 1980 of authorizing illegal break-ins at homes of people associated with the radical group The Weather Underground. He was pardoned by President Reagan in 1981.

First published on May 31, 2005 / 12:03 PM

© 2005 CBS Interactive Inc. All Rights Reserved. Este material no puede ser publicado, difundido, reescrito o redistribuido. Associated Press contribuyó a este informe.


Who Was Deep Throat?

After 36 years as a full-time reporter at the Chicago Tribune, I retired in 1999 to teach journalism at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. During that first semester, as the students searched for an investigative project to tackle, I showed them Todo el presidente y los hombres # 8217. This 1976 movie is based on the book by Washington Post reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein, who won a Pulitzer Prize for the Correo in 1973 for their stories about the political scandal known as Watergate. The film, starring Robert Redford as Woodward and Dustin Hoffman as Bernstein, accurately portrays how investigative reporters comport themselves, ask questions, conduct interviews, even the unobtrusive way they hold a notebook. What most intrigued the students, however, were the secret meetings between the Woodward character and a high-level government official, played by Hal Holbrook, that the book referred to only as Deep Throat. The name echoes a 1972 pornographic movie and plays off the term “deep background,” or information provided to a reporter on the condition that the source be neither identified nor quoted directly.

Deep Throat met with Woodward seven times between September 1972 and May 1973 to help the two reporters break several stories about the involvement of Nixon administration officials in the June 17, 1972, burglary of the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate office-apartment-hotel complex in Northwest Washington. (The burglars, who were seeking information that could be used against Democrats in the upcoming elections, were indicted later for conspiracy, burglary, wiretapping and planting secret listening devices.)

los Correo’s stories, along with those of other newspapers and several rulings by Judge John Sirica, the chief judge for the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia and the Watergate trials, led to televised hearings in the U.S. Senate about the break-in. From these, a riveted nation learned about an administration coverup of the break-in and a covert White House operation that engaged in burglary and political spying. The hearings were followed by impeachment proceedings by the Judiciary Committee of the House of Representatives. But before the full House could vote on whether the president should be impeached, Nixon resigned on August 9, 1974, and Vice President Gerald Ford was sworn in as president. At least 19 high-level officials and other conspirators would plead guilty to or be convicted of various crimes related to Watergate.

Besides adding the suffix "-gate" to our lexicon as an indicator of scandal, and evoking campaign finance reform bills, Watergate resulted in a lasting public distrust of government. It also left one of the century’s most intriguing political mysteries unsolved.

For the past 30 years, guessing the identity of Deep Throat has become something of a parlor game among journalists, pundits and conspiracy theorists. At least three books and scores of articles have delved into the identity of Deep Throat. The list of likely suspects has included former White House aide and current network anchor Diane Sawyer Nixon’s chief of staff, Alexander Haig acting FBI director Patrick Gray and John Sears, one of Nixon’s deputy counsels. At the same time, some have argued that Deep Throat wasn’t one person but a composite of several sources, while others have posited that he was merely a literary invention.

Woodward and Bernstein have both said they will not reveal their secret source’s name until the individual dies, although Woodward did disclose that Deep Throat was a living male. Likewise, Ben Bradlee, executive editor of the El Correo de Washington during the Watergate era, has said he knows Deep Throat’s identity but won’t divulge it. About 75 archival boxes, containing more than 250 notebooks, assorted files, galleys for the book Todo el presidente y los hombres # 8217, and photographs, which the University of Texas bought for $5 million this past April, will be available to the public in the fall of 2004. But documents referring to Deep Throat and other confidential sources will be kept sealed in an undisclosed location until the sources’ deaths.

Why, my students asked, was Deep Throat’s identity still not known after so many years? It was not an easy question to answer. Walt Harrington, a fellow journalism professor at the University of Illinois, once told me he had heard Bradlee say that anyone wanting to learn Deep Throat’s identity should search a computer database for Watergate figures who were actually in Washington at the time of those meetings. To my knowledge, no one had ever done so. Though few organizations would have the resources or motivation to unmask Deep Throat, it seemed a challenging pursuit for my students.

The students read autobiographies of potential suspects and filled a computer spreadsheet with dates, meetings, events and other information. During eight semesters, about 60 undergraduate and graduate students pored over more than 16,000 pages of FBI reports on microfilm in our university library, as well as all the newspaper stories Woodward and Bernstein had written in the first two years of the scandal. From those documents, they concluded that only a member of the FBI or the White House would have had access to the information Deep Throat evidently leaked to Woodward. Later, we concluded that Deep Throat could not be in the FBI after we found a quote in a 1973 Woodward and Bernstein Correo story attributed to a "White House" source that was similar in wording to one attributed to Deep Throat in Todo el presidente y los hombres # 8217. In an unpublished early draft of that book, we also read that neither reporter had FBI sources. The admission was later excised, in our view, to protect Deep Throat’s identity.

We obtained the 1972 and 󈨍 White House staff directories, which listed 72 people in high-level jobs of those, 39 were living males. The students then ruled out anyone not working at the White House between September 1972 and May 1973, the period when Deep Throat met with Woodward. Newspaper reports showed that some promising Deep Throat candidates, including Chief of Staff Alexander Haig, were out of the country during the time of those meetings. Because the reporters had written that Deep Throat drank Scotch whisky and smoked, the students also eliminated confirmed teetotalers and nonsmokers.

That left just seven candidates: Patrick Buchanan, speechwriter and special assistant to Nixon and later a newspaper columnist and presidential candidate Stephen Bull, a personal aide to Nixon David Gergen and Raymond Price, both speechwriters Jonathan Rose, attorney for regulatory affairs Gerald Warren, deputy press secretary and Fred Fielding, an attorney and assistant to White House chief legal counsel John Dean.

In June 2002, "Dateline NBC" interviewed the students about our project. The students said the leading candidate was Buchanan. But a month later, one of them, Jessica Heckinger, got a note from him: "Please thank the class for me—for the unanimous vote. It is one of the few primaries I have won, outside of the Reform Party where I won them all. However, you made some mistakes. Buchanan gave up smoking on the China trip (February 󈨌) and Buchanan has no motive." It was not a flat-out denial, but most of the students and I found Buchanan’s remarks persuasive. We struck him from the list.

A few weeks later, we got a break. We were trying to determine who on our shortlist would have had knowledge of the secret slush fund controlled by members of Nixon’s reelection campaign committee. This money bank-rolled the Watergate burglars.

Judith Hoback, a bookkeeper for Nixon’s reelection campaign committee, was the general accountant for the fund. En Todo el presidente y los hombres # 8217, Hoback says that soon after the break-in, she deduced that the money she was disbursing might have something to do with the burglary, so she approached the FBI. She told them that cash disbursements of more than $50,000 apiece were given to committee officials Herbert Porter and Jeb Magruder. In their book, Woodward and Bernstein recalled that Hoback had revealed her suspicions about a slush fund to Woodward in an interview. Before the pair published a story about the secret fund in the Correo, they confirmed the information, including the amounts, with Deep Throat.

The breadth of Deep Throat’s information surprised my students. How could he have knowledge of the reelection committee’s secret finances?

The students learned that the FBI had shared some of its findings with the White House counsel, John Dean. We did not consider Dean himself to be a candidate because he had left the White House in April 1973. This led us to Dean’s assistant, Fred Fielding, who was already on our shortlist.

In the fall of 2002, student Thomas Rybarczyk dug up a June 1973 letter from Fielding that noted that Dean had given him a summary of a July 1972 FBI report detailing Hoback’s account of the cash transactions. However, Hoback’s recollections of the disbursements were mistaken she had initially provided the FBI as well as Woodward and Bernstein with incorrect figures. In fact, Magruder had received $20,000, not the $50,000 she remembered. Curiously, though, Deep Throat had confirmed the incorrecto figures, which suggests that he gleaned the information from the FBI report given to Dean.

Other clues started pointing us toward Fielding. For instance, Woodward and Bernstein omitted Fielding’s name from stories about the White House counsel’s office. Leaving a key source’s name out of a story is a journalistic commonplace it not only protects sources but prevents rival reporters from learning the identity of a valuable informant.

As far as we could determine, Fielding shared Deep Throat’s taste for cigarettes and whisky. He had access to information that Deep Throat corroborated for Woodward and Bernstein. And as student Robert Breslin found in 2002, Fielding even fit a characterization of the mysterious source that Woodward and Bernstein deleted from that early, unpublished draft of their book. The reporters wrote that Deep Throat was "perhaps the only person in government in a position to possibly understand the whole scheme and not be a potential conspirator himself."

Fielding, who helped Dean run the White House’s law office during the growing Watergate crisis, left the White House before Nixon resigned and returned to private law practice. In 1981, he became chief counsel to President Reagan and served in the White House for another five years before again returning to private practice. Fielding became a member of the Bush-Cheney transition team in 2000. In 2002, he became a member of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. Today, at age 64, he is a senior partner in the law firm Wiley Rein & Fielding LLP in Washington, D.C.

In 1978, Bob Haldeman, Nixon’s first chief of staff, wrote in his book Los fines del poder about his belief that Fielding was Deep Throat and that "only Dean, or his associate, had access from the White House to the CRP [Committee to Re-elect the President], the FBI and the Justice Department during Watergate." Fielding denied the charge at the time. But Woodward has said, as recently as October of this year at a lecture, that "Deep Throat is a source who lied to his family, to his friends and colleagues denying that he had helped us." (Fielding did not respond to Smithsonian magazine’s request for comment.)

When my students contacted Woodward during the first semester of the investigation and asked him if he would talk to us about our investigations of Deep Throat, he declined. When we approached Carl Bernstein to ask him about our final seven suspects, he denounced our project, saying it undermined journalistic principles to reveal the identity of a confidential source.

On April 22 of this year, at a press conference in the Watergate Hotel, I announced that my students and I had deduced that Fred Fielding was indeed Deep Throat. The next day, I got an e-mail from John Dean: "I’ll bet you a hundred dollars that you’re wrong about Fielding."


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